Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament: comparison of outside-in and all-inside techniques.
The aim of this prospective study was to compare two arthroscopic techniques for reconstructing the anterior cruciate ligament, the "outside-in" (two incisions) and the "all-inside" (one incision) techniques. The results obtained for 30 patients operated on using the "outside-in" technique (group I) were compared with those for 29 patients operated on using the "all-inside" technique (group II). Before surgery, there were no significant differences between the groups in terms of Lysholm score, Tegner activity level, patellofemoral pain score, or knee laxity. Both groups displayed significant improvements in Lysholm score after 24 months, from 69 (16) to 91 (9) in group I and from 70 (17) to 90 (15) in group II (means (SD)). There were also significant improvements in patellofemoral pain scores in both groups, from 13 (6) to 18 (5) in group I and from 14 (6) to 18 (4) in group II after 24 months. No difference was found between the groups in knee stability at the 24 month follow up. The IKDC score was identical in both groups at follow up. The operation took significantly longer for patients in group I (mean 94 (15)) than for those in group II (mean 86 (20)) (p = 0.03). The mean sick leave was 7.7 (6.2) weeks in group I and 12.3 (9.7) weeks in group II (p = 0.026), indicating that there may be a higher morbidity associated with the "all-inside" technique. It can be concluded that there were no significant differences between the two different techniques in terms of functional results, knee laxity, or postoperative complications. The results were satisfactory and the outcome was similar in both treatment groups. (+info)
Anterior instability of the glenohumeral joint with humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament. A review of 41 cases.
We studied retrospectively a consecutive series of 547 shoulders in 529 patients undergoing operation for instability. In 41, the cause of instability was considered to be lateral avulsion of the capsule, including the inferior glenohumeral ligament, from the neck of the humerus, the HAGL lesion. In 35, the lesion was found at first exploration, whereas in six it was noted at revision of a previous failed procedure. In both groups, the patients were older on average than those with instability from other causes. Of the primary cases, in 33 (94.3%) the cause of the first dislocation was a violent injury; six (17.4%) had evidence of damage to the rotator cuff and/or the subscapularis. Only four (11.4%) had a Bankart lesion. In patients undergoing a primary operation in whom the cause of the first dislocation was a violent injury, who did not have a Bankart lesion and had no suggestion of multidirectional laxity, the incidence of HAGL was 39%. (+info)
Diacerhein treatment reduces the severity of osteoarthritis in the canine cruciate-deficiency model of osteoarthritis.
OBJECTIVE: To determine if diacerhein protects against the early stages of joint damage in a canine model of osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: OA was induced in 20 adult mongrel dogs by transection of the anterior cruciate ligament of the left knee. Beginning the day after surgery, dogs in the active treatment group were dosed twice a day with capsules of diacerhein, providing a total daily dose of 40 mg/kg, for 32 weeks. Dogs in the control group received placebo capsules on the same schedule. Pathology in the unstable knee was assessed arthroscopically 16 weeks after surgery and by direct observation when the dogs were killed 32 weeks after surgery. The severity of gross joint pathology was recorded, and samples of the medial femoral condyle cartilage and the synovial tissue adjacent to the central portion of the medial meniscus were collected for histologic evaluation. Water content and uronic acid concentration of the articular cartilage from the femoral condyle were determined, and collagenolytic activity in extracts of cartilage pooled from the medial and lateral tibial plateaus was assayed against 14C-labeled collagen fibers. RESULTS: Diacerhein treatment slowed the progression of OA, as measured by grading of gross changes in the unstable knee at arthroscopy 16 weeks after cruciate ligament transection (P = 0.04) and at the time the animals were killed, 32 weeks after surgery (P = 0.05). However, 32 weeks after ACL transection, the mean proteoglycan concentration and water content of the OA cartilage and the level of collagenolytic activity in extracts of the cartilage were not significantly different in the diacerhein treatment group than in the placebo treatment group. CONCLUSION: Diacerhein treatment significantly reduced the severity of morphologic changes of OA compared with placebo. These findings support the view that diacerhein may be a disease-modifying drug for OA. (+info)
Ganglion cysts of the cruciate ligaments detected by MRI.
Eight patients with ganglion cysts arising from the cruciate ligaments of the knee joint underwent arthroscopic excision after the MR examination. The MR findings, clinical features and arthroscopic findings were evaluated comparatively. (+info)
Arthroscopy of the first metatarsophalangeal joint.
We carried out 12 arthroscopies of the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint in 11 patients over a five-year period. Their mean age was 30 years (15 to 58) and the mean duration of symptoms before surgery was eight months (1 to 24). Six patients had an injury to the joint; all had swelling and tenderness with a reduced range of movement. In six patients, radiographs revealed no abnormality. Under general anaesthesia with a tourniquet the hallux is suspended by a large Chinese finger trap to distract the joint. Using a 1.9 mm 30 degree oblique arthroscope the MTP joint is inspected through dorsomedial and dorsolateral portals with a medial portal if necessary. All patients were found to have intra-articular pathology, which was treated using small instruments. The mean follow-up was 19.3 months (6 to 62) and all patients had no or minimal pain, decreased swelling and an increased range of movement of the affected joint. (+info)
Mucoid cystic degeneration of the cruciate ligament.
A 35-year-old man was seen with pain in the back of the knee. MRI showed a mass in the anterior cruciate ligament. Biopsy indicated mucoid degeneration. Arthroscopic resection of the ligament was carried out, with relief of symptoms. (+info)
Intra-articular primatised anti-CD4: efficacy in resistant rheumatoid knees. A study of combined arthroscopy, magnetic resonance imaging, and histology.
OBJECTIVES: CD4+ T cells sustain the chronic synovial inflammatory response in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). SB-210396/CE 9.1 is an anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody that has documented efficacy in RA when given intravenously. This study aimed to establish the safety and efficacy of the intra-articular administration of SB-210396/CE 9.1 compared with placebo, examining its mode of action using a combined imaging approach of arthroscopy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and histology. METHODS: Thirteen RA patients with active, resistant knee synovitis, were randomised to intra-articular injection of placebo (n=3), 0.4 mg (n=3) or 40 mg (n=7) of anti-CD4 after sequential dynamic gadolinium enhanced MRI, followed by same day arthroscopy and synovial membrane biopsy. Imaging and arthroscopic synovial membrane sampling were repeated at six weeks. This study used a unique region of interest (ROI) analysis mapping the MRI area analysed to the specific biopsy site identified arthroscopically, thus providing data for all three modalities at the same synovial membrane site. RESULTS: 12 patients completed the study (one placebo treated patient refused further MRI). Arthroscopic improvement was observed in 0 of 2 placebo patients but in 10 of 10 patients receiving active drug (>20% in 6 of 10). Improvement in MRI was consistently observed in all patients of the 40 mg group but not in the other two groups. A reduction in SM CD4+ score was noted in the 40 mg group and in the 0.4 mg group. Strong correlations both before and after treatment, were identified between the three imaging modalities. Intra-articular delivery of SB-210396/CE 9.1 was well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: SB-210396/CE 9.1 is safe when administered by intra-articular injection. A trend toward efficacy was found by coordinated MRI, arthroscopic, and histological imaging, not seen in the placebo group. The value of ROI analysis was demonstrated. (+info)
Peripheral effects of the kappa-opioid agonist EMD 61753 on pain and inflammation in rats and humans.
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of EMD 61753 (asimadoline), a kappa-opioid receptor agonist with restricted access to the central nervous system, on postoperative pain in patients who underwent knee surgery and on nociceptive thresholds and inflammation in rats treated with Freund's complete adjuvant. Patients treated with EMD 61753 (10 mg p.o.) tended to report an increase in pain, as evaluated by a visual analog scale and by the time to the first request for and the total amount of supplemental analgesic medication. The global tolerability of EMD 61753 was assessed as significantly inferior to that of a placebo by the investigator. In rats, the bilateral intraplantar (i.pl.) injection of EMD 61753 (0.1-3.2 mg) resulted in dose-dependent antinociception in both inflamed and noninflamed paws, with a peak at 5 min after injection, as evaluated by the paw pressure method. However, at later time points (1 h-4 days), a significant decrease in the paw pressure threshold was observed, confirming its tendency toward a hyperalgesic action in humans. This was accompanied by an increase in paw volume and paw temperature, with a peak at 6 h after injection. EMD 61753 (1.6 mg)-induced analgesia was blocked by the peripheral opioid receptor antagonist naloxone methiodide (2.5-10 mg/kg s.c.) and by the kappa receptor antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (0.1 mg; i.pl.). In contrast, EMD 61753 (1.6 mg)-induced hyperalgesia and increases in paw volume and paw temperature were blocked neither by naloxone methiodide (10-40 mg/kg s.c.) nor by dizocilpine maleate (0.003-0.009 mg i.pl.), a N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor antagonist. These data show differentially mediated peripheral actions of EMD 61753: kappa-opioid receptor-induced analgesia and nonopioid, non-N-methyl-D-aspartic acid hyperalgesic and proinflammatory effects. (+info)