Total knee replacement: should it be cemented or hybrid?
OBJECTIVE: To compare the complication rates associated with total knee arthroplasty against the types of fixation (hybrid or cemented), using a single total knee design (the anatomic modular knee [AMK] prosthesis). DESIGN: A prospective, nonrandomized, controlled trial. SETTING: University Hospital in London, Ont., a tertiary care teaching centre. PATIENTS: Two groups made up of 484 knees in 395 patients (89 bilateral). INTERVENTIONS: In 260 knees a hybrid configuration (cemented tibia and noncemented femur) was used (group 1). In 224 knees the femoral and tibial components were cemented (group 2). All patellae were cemented in both groups. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical results were assessed by The Knee Society Clinical Rating Scores at 3 months, 6 months and yearly intervals. Radiographic results were determined by 3-foot standing radiographs and at each follow-up visit standing knee radiographs, lateral and skyline views. Radiographs were analysed for alignment, presence or absence of radiolucent lines or changes in the position of the implant. All reoperations and nonoperative complications were recorded. RESULTS: At an average follow-up of 4.8 years, 8 knees (1.6%) required reoperation. An analysis of the complications leading to reoperation demonstrated no difference between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: There was no difference in outcome whether the femoral component was cemented or not. Medium-term results of the AMK are excellent with a very low reoperation rate. (+info)
Simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty in a single procedure.
Eighty-eight consecutive patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) were reviewed retrospectively and divided into two groups. Group I (64 patients) had both knees replaced simultaneously by one team in a single procedure while Group II (24 patients) had 2 operations staged about 7 days apart. The blood loss, operative time, knee functional score, period of hospitalisation and complications were documented in order to compare the 2 groups. Performing simultaneous bilateral TKA (Group I) did not increase the incidence of operative or post-operative complications. Equally, the functional score and mean intra- and post-operative blood loss were not influenced. The operative time and duration of hospitalisation were significantly shorter in Group I than in Group II. On the basis of the results of this study, it appears that simultaneous bilateral TKA is beneficial. (+info)
Ogilvie's syndrome after lower extremity arthroplasty.
OBJECTIVE: To alert surgeons who perform arthroplasty to the possibility of acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (Ogilvie's syndrome) after elective orthopedic procedures. To identify possible risk factors and emphasize the need for prompt recognition, careful monitoring and appropriate management so as to reduce morbidity and mortality. DESIGN: A case series. SETTING: A university-affiliated hospital that is a major referral centre for orthopedic surgery. PATIENTS: Four patients who had Ogilvie's syndrome after lower extremity arthroplasty. Of this group, 2 had primary hip arthroplasty, 1 had primary knee arthroplasty and 1 had revision hip arthroplasty. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: In all 4 patients Ogilvie's syndrome was recognized late and required surgical intervention. Two patients died as a result of postoperative complications. CONCLUSIONS: Our case series identified increasing age, immobility and patient-controlled narcotic analgesia as potential risk factors for Ogilvie's syndrome in the postoperative orthopedic patient. Prompt recognition and early consultation with frequent clinical and radiographic monitoring are necessary to avoid colonic perforation and its significant associated death rate. (+info)
Health benefits of joint replacement surgery for patients with osteoarthritis: prospective evaluation using independent assessments in Scotland.
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine extent of change in psychological, functional, and social health after knee and hip joint replacement surgery using independent assessments. DESIGN: Patients were recruited before surgery and interviewed preoperatively, three months after surgery, and nine months after surgery. Interviews were conducted in the patients' own homes. SETTING: Two orthopaedic surgery units in Scotland. PARTICIPANTS: A consecutive sample of 107 patients with osteoarthritis having primary replacement of the knee or hip. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Assessments of depression, anxiety, pain, functional activity, informal care, and formal service utilisation were made at three time points. MAIN RESULTS: Anxiety and pain were significantly reduced and functional activity levels significantly increased after surgery. While gains in anxiety and pain reduction occurred between the preoperative and three month assessments, gains in activity were made between the three month and nine month assessments. Although pain was reduced and activity increased, levels of depression were unchanged after surgery. Patients reported need for assistance with fewer activities after surgery, but increases in the use of formal services and increases in the number of hours per week of informal support received were observed at both three month and nine month follow up. CONCLUSIONS: The main benefit of joint replacement surgery is pain relief. Gains in functional activity, particularly mobility and leisure activities are made by many patients. Paradoxically, surgery for osteoarthritis seems to act as a "gateway" to increases in formal and informal community support, which are maintained into the longer term. (+info)
Survivorship analysis of the "Performance" total knee replacement--7-year follow-up.
We present the results of a prospective study in which 32 "Performance" total knee replacements were implanted with a mean follow-up period of 6.5 years. Survival analysis showed 89% survival at 7 years. Of those knees that survived to follow-up 80% were pain free or had mild pain when climbing stairs and only 1 knee was unable to flex beyond 100 degrees. Eighty-six percent of patients were able to walk unlimited distances and all knees had a statistically significant improvement in the knee evaluation scores at follow-up. There was no evidence of loosening or migration in the surviving knees. (+info)
Effects of perioperative analgesic technique on the surgical outcome and duration of rehabilitation after major knee surgery.
BACKGROUND: Continuous passive motion after major knee surgery optimizes the functional prognosis but causes severe pain. The authors tested the hypothesis that postoperative analgesic techniques influence surgical outcome and the duration of convalescence. METHODS: Before standardized general anesthesia, 56 adult scheduled for major knee surgery were randomly assigned to one of three groups, each to receive a different postoperative analgesic technique for 72 h: continuous epidural infusion, continuous femoral block, or intravenous patient-controlled morphine (dose, 1 mg; lockout interval, 7 min; maximum dose, 30 mg/4 h). The first two techniques were performed using a solution of 1% lidocaine, 0.03 mg/ml morphine, and 2 microg/ml clonidine administered at 0.1 ml x kg(-1) x h(-1). Pain was assessed at rest and during continuous passive motion using a visual analog scale. The early postoperative maximal amplitude of knee flexion was measured during continuous passive motion at 24 h and 48 h and compared with the target levels prescribed by the surgeon. To evaluate functional outcome, the maximal amplitudes were measured again on postoperative day 5, at hospital discharge (day 7), and at 1- and 3-month follow-up examinations. When the patients left the surgical ward, they were admitted to a rehabilitation center, where their length of stay depended on prospectively determined discharge criteria RESULTS: The continuous epidural infusion and continuous femoral block groups showed significantly lower visual analog scale scores at rest and during continuous passive motion compared with the patient-controlled morphine group. The early postoperative knee mobilization levels in both continuous epidural infusion and continuous femoral block groups were significantly closer to the target levels prescribed by the surgeon than in the patient-controlled morphine group. On postoperative day 7, these values were 90 degrees (60-100 degrees)(median and 25th-75th percentiles) in the continuous epidural infusion group, 90 degrees (60-100 degrees) in the continuous femoral block group, and 80 degrees (60-100 degrees) in the patient-controlled morphine group (P < 0.05). The durations of stay in the rehabilitation center were significantly shorter: 37 days (range, 30-45 days) in the continuous epidural infusion group, 40 days (range, 31-60 days) in the continuous femoral block group, and 50 days (range, 30-80 days) in the patient-controlled morphine group (P < 0.05). Side effects were encountered more frequently in the continuous epidural infusion group. CONCLUSION: Regional analgesic techniques improve early rehabilitation after major knee surgery by effectively controlling pain during continuous passive motion, thereby hastening convalescence. (+info)
Outcomes of total hip and knee replacement: preoperative functional status predicts outcomes at six months after surgery.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether patients with knee or hip osteoarthritis (OA) who have worse physical function preoperatively achieve a postoperative status that is similar to that of patients with better preoperative function. METHODS: This study surveyed an observational cohort of 379 consecutive patients with definite OA who were without other inflammatory joint diseases and were undergoing either total hip or knee replacement in a US (Boston) and a Canadian (Montreal) referral center. Questionnaires on health status (the Short Form 36 and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index) were administered preoperatively and at 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Physical function and pain due to OA were deemed the most significant outcomes to study. RESULTS: Two hundred twenty-two patients returned their questionnaires. Patients in the 2 centers were comparable in age, sex, time to surgery, and proportion of hip/knee surgery. The Boston group had more education, lower comorbidity, and more cemented knee prostheses. Patients undergoing hip or knee replacement in Montreal had lower preoperative physical function and more pain than their Boston counterparts. In patients with lower preoperative physical function, function and pain were not improved postoperatively to the level achieved by those with higher preoperative function. This was most striking in patients undergoing total knee replacement. CONCLUSION: Surgery performed later in the natural history of functional decline due to OA of the knee, and possibly of the hip, results in worse postoperative functional status. (+info)
The results at ten years of the Insall-Burstein II total knee replacement. Clinical, radiological and survivorship studies.
We reviewed the outcome of 146 Insall-Burstein II total knee replacements carried out in 121 patients over a period of nearly four years in a general orthopaedic unit. At a mean follow-up of ten years, 94 knees in 78 patients were available for review. Six patients (7 knees) were lost to follow-up and 37 (45 knees) had died. The clinical outcome using the scoring system of the Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) was excellent or good in 79% of patients, fair in 14% and poor in 7%. The mean preoperative HSS score was 31, improving to 79 at the latest review. Using the newer rating system of the Knee Society, the mean score at ten years was 87 and the mean functional score 56. The arc of flexion improved from a mean preoperative value of 88 degrees to 100 degrees. The 18 patients who had had a previous high tibial osteotomy were analysed separately and were found to have benefited equally from the operation. Nine prostheses were revised, giving a cumulative survival rate of 92.3% at ten years. Radiological evaluation of 104 radiographs showed radiolucent lines around ten tibial components, none of which required revision. Anterior knee pain was a significant problem. (+info)