Survivorship and radiological analysis of the standard Souter-Strathclyde total elbow arthroplasty.
We undertook a radiological analysis of 186 standard Souter implants to determine survivorship and to analyse the pattern of failure in those needing revision. The implants had been inserted as a primary procedure in patients with rheumatoid arthritis of the elbow at our hospital over the last 12 years. Taking revision as an endpoint, the survivorship after 12 years was 87%. If, however, revision and loosening, defined as the Hindex value equivalent to demarcation of 1 mm around the whole implant, are also included, the survivorship falls to 80%. Of the 24 implants revised, 18 (75%) were for problems with the humeral component, three (12.5%) with the ulnar component and three (12.5%) for instability. Loosening of the humeral component occurred when the implant extended into the humerus, with the tip moving anteriorly on to the anterior humeral cortex. Our study indicates that loosening can be predicted by the rate of change in this angle of extension of the prosthesis. (+info)
Phenotypic and genomic variation among Staphylococcus epidermidis strains infecting joint prostheses.
We studied the SmaI and SstII macrorestriction patterns of 54 Staphylococcus epidermidis strains isolated from 14 patients infected following the implantation of joint prostheses. Multiple strains from pus and infected tissue specimens of each patient were selected on the basis of different colony morphologies and drug resistance patterns. The same criteria were used to select 23 S. epidermidis strains from hand swabs of eight healthy individuals. For 10 of the 14 patients, all the intrapatient strains appeared to be closely or possibly related, whereas related strains were detected in the skin flora of only one of the eight healthy individuals. This observation suggests that, in most cases, the patients were infected by a single S. epidermidis clone which subsequently underwent rearrangements that yielded derivatives with divergent phenotypes and, occasionally, divergent macrorestriction patterns. The four patients whose specimens contained unrelated S. epidermidis strains were probably infected with several polyclonal strains. (+info)
Total knee arthroplasty in bony ankylosis in gross flexion.
Between June 1993 and December 1994, we performed total knee arthroplasty (TKA) on 27 knees in 24 patients with spontaneous bony ankylosis in severe flexion. The mean age at operation was 43.5 years (30 to 60). No patient had preoperative pain. Three were unable to walk and 21 could manage less than five blocks. The mean duration of the ankylosis was 18.7 years (13 to 25) and its mean position was 105 degree flexion (75 to 135). The preoperative Hospital for Special Surgery Knee Score of 60 points was improved to 87 at the final follow-up three to five years later. All knees were free from pain. The mean range of active flexion in 24 knees was 97 degrees (78 to 115) and the mean arc of movement 91 degrees (78 to 98). The mean fixed flexion deformity was 6 degrees (0 to 25) and the extension lag 8 degrees (0 to 25). Angular deformity was corrected to between 0 degrees and 10 degrees of valgus. Four patients were able to walk one block and 20 five to seven blocks. Thirteen knees (48%) showed some necrosis at the skin edge; one knee required arthrodesis and another resection arthroplasty. One had a recurrence of tuberculous infection requiring arthrodesis. One patient had a rupture of the quadriceps tendon. To date no prosthesis has required revision for loosening. Radiolucency of 1 mm or less about the tibial prosthesis was observed at follow-up in four of the 24 knees. Our results have shown that one-stage TKA and skeletal traction after operation can achieve correction of severe flexion deformity of the knee with marked improvement in the function and quality of life. (+info)
Intra-articular morphine and/or bupivacaine after total knee replacement.
The postoperative analgesic effects of intra-articular injections of bupivacaine and/or morphine were examined prospectively in 437 patients who had total knee replacement for osteoarthritis. They were divided randomly into four groups. Group I received 10 mg of morphine (1 ml) and 9 ml of saline, group II received 10 ml of bupivacaine (2.5 mg/ml), group III received 10 ml of saline, and group IV received 10 mg of morphine (1 ml) and 9 ml of bupivacaine (2.5 mg/ml). All analgesics administered in the first 24 hours after operation were recorded. The patients rated their pain on the McGill-Melzack scale at 1, 6, 12 and 24 hours. No significant differences were found between any of the groups in the use of Demoral and/or Toradol in 24 hours, the length of stay in hospital or the pain rating at 1, 6, 12 or 24 hours. Patients in groups I and IV, whose injections included morphine, used significantly more morphine in the first 24 postoperative hours than did groups II or III. (+info)
Osteoarthritis-susceptibility locus on chromosome 11q, detected by linkage.
We present a two-stage genomewide scan for osteoarthritis-susceptibility loci, using 481 families that each contain at least one affected sibling pair. The first stage, with 272 microsatellite markers and 297 families, involved a sparse map covering 23 chromosomes at intervals of approximately 15 cM. Sixteen markers that showed evidence of linkage at nominal P+info)
Thrombelastogram reveals hypercoagulability after administration of gelatin solution.
We have compared the effects of gelatin, low molecular weight hydroxyethyl starch (HES) or albumin on tests of haemostasis and on the thrombelastogram in 42 ASA I patients undergoing total hip or knee replacement. Patients were allocated randomly to receive one of the three blood substitutes to obtain moderate intraoperative haemodilution. Blood loss and packed red cell infusion was the same in each group. A greater amount of gelatin was given (1.5 times the measured blood loss) because of its shorter half-life. There was a statistically significant but clinically negligible decrease in platelets count, prothrombin time and fibrinogen, and an increase in bleeding time in all groups. Platelets were slightly but significantly lower after HES. Haemodilution was comparable between groups. TEG showed a state of hypercoagulability in the gelatin group with a significant decrease in r, r + k and an increase in alpha angle. (+info)
Tracking adhesion factors in Staphylococcus caprae strains responsible for human bone infections following implantation of orthopaedic material.
Ten Staphylococcus caprae strains isolated from four patients and responsible for bone infections following implantation of orthopaedic material were compared to four S. caprae strains collected from milk samples of healthy goats. The following characteristics were investigated: Smal patterns, hybridization patterns with pBA2 (ribotypes), slime production, adhesion to matrix proteins (fibrinogen, fibronectin, collagen) and the staphylococcal adhesion genes (fnbA, clfA, cna, atlE, ica, fbe). None of the characteristics enabled us to distinguish the human strains from the goat strains. Slime was occasionally produced by S. caprae strains but all of them carried nucleotide sequences hybridizing at low stringency with the following genes: atlE encoding a S. epidermidis autolysin binding vitronectin and responsible for the primary adhesion to polystyrene, ica operon involved in the biosynthesis of a S. epidermidis extracellular polysaccharide, and the part of clfA encoding the serine-aspartate repeated region of a S. aureus cell-wall fibrinogen-binding protein. (+info)
Primary endoprosthesis in comminuted humeral head fractures in patients over 60 years of age.
The purpose of this study was to determine the early subjective and functional results after primary endoprosthesis replacement for comminuted humeral head fractures in patients over 60 years old. Twenty comminuted humeral head fractures in 20 patients were treated primarily (within 3.5 days (range 0-17 days) with a Neer II modular shoulder prosthesis, and were then followed up for an average of 32. 5 months (range 17-44 months). The average age of the patients was 77 years (range 63-91 years). The average post-operative Constant score was 52 points (range 30-76). This was significantly less than that of the contralateral side where the score was 80 points (range 53-100), P=0.0001. The average active abduction was 90 degrees (contralateral 157 degrees ) and active flexion 99 degrees (contralateral 161 degrees ). Eighteen of the 20 patients experienced relief of pain and would accept the same procedure again. (+info)