Accuracy of EBRA-FCA in the measurement of migration of femoral components of total hip replacement. Einzel-Bild-Rontgen-Analyse-femoral component analysis.
Several methods of measuring the migration of the femoral component after total hip replacement have been described, but they use different reference lines, and have differing accuracies, some unproven. Statistical comparison of different studies is rarely possible. We report a study of the EBRA-FCA method (femoral component analysis using Einzel-Bild-Rontgen-Analyse) to determine its accuracy using three independent assessments, including a direct comparison with the results of roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA). The accuracy of EBRA-FCA was better than +/- 1.5 mm (95% percentile) with a Cronbach's coefficient alpha for interobserver reliability of 0.84; a very good result. The method had a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 78% compared with RSA for the detection of migration of over 1 mm. This is accurate enough to assess the stability of a prosthesis within a relatively limited period. The best reference line for downward migration is between the greater trochanter and the shoulder of the stem, as confirmed by two experimental analyses and a computer-assisted design. (+info)
The prediction of failure of the stem in THR by measurement of early migration using EBRA-FCA. Einzel-Bild-Roentgen-Analyse-femoral component analysis.
We report the ten-year results for three designs of stem in 240 total hip replacements, for which subsidence had been measured on plain radiographs at regular intervals. Accurate migration patterns could be determined by the method of Einzel-Bild-Roentgen-Analyse-femoral component analysis (EBRA-FCA) for 158 hips (66%). Of these, 108 stems (68%) remained stable throughout, and five (3%) started to migrate after a median of 54 months. Initial migration of at least 1 mm was seen in 45 stems (29%) during the first two years, but these then became stable. We revised 17 stems for aseptic loosening, and 12 for other reasons. Revision for aseptic loosening could be predicted by EBRA-FCA with a sensitivity of 69%, a specificity of 80%, and an accuracy of 79% by the use of a threshold of subsidence of 1.5 mm during the first two years. Similar observations over a five-year period allowed the long-term outcome to be predicted with an accuracy of 91%. We discuss the importance of four different patterns of subsidence and confirm that the early measurement of migration by a reasonably accurate method can help to predict long-term outcome. Such methods should be used to evaluate new and modified designs of prosthesis. (+info)
Excessive paternal transmission in psoriatic arthritis.
OBJECTIVE: The differential expression of a disease according to the sex of the disease-transmitting parent has been demonstrated in several autoimmune disorders. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether there are differences in the transmission and expression of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) that are dependent on the sex of the affected parent. METHODS: All probands (patients with PsA) were identified from among the patients attending the University of Toronto Psoriatic Arthritis Clinic. A self-reported family history of psoriasis or PsA was noted for each proband. Differences in parental and offspring transmission with respect to the proband were evaluated. In addition, the expression of PsA according to the sex of the affected parent was assessed at the time of the proband's presentation to the clinic. RESULTS: Ninety-five probands had affected parents: 62 (65%) had an affected father, and 33 (35%) had an affected mother. Thus, the proportion of paternal transmission (0.65) was significantly greater than was expected (0.5) (P = 0.001). Twelve of 74 offspring from male probands (16.2%) were affected with psoriasis or PsA, as compared with 9 of 108 offspring from female probands (8.3%) (P = 0.10). Probands whose fathers were affected had a higher frequency of skin lesions prior to arthritis (P = 0.047), an erythrocyte sedimentation rate > 15 mm/hour (P = 0.044), and a lower incidence of rheumatoid factor (P = 0.044). No differences were noted with respect to age at the onset of psoriasis or PsA, the severity of the PsA, or the frequency of HLA antigens. CONCLUSION: There appears to be excessive paternal transmission in PsA. Further clinical confirmation and elucidation of its genetic basis is warranted. (+info)
Arthritis of the finger joints: a comprehensive approach comparing conventional radiography, scintigraphy, ultrasound, and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.
OBJECTIVE: A prospective study was performed comparing conventional radiography, 3-phase bone scintigraphy, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with precontrast and dynamic postcontrast examinations in 60 patients with various forms of arthritis including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), spondyl-arthropathy, and arthritis associated with connective tissue disease. METHODS: A total of 840 finger joints were examined clinically and by all 4 imaging methods. Experienced investigators blinded to the clinical findings and diagnoses analyzed all methods independently of each other. The patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 included 32 patients (448 finger joints) without radiologic signs of destructive arthritis (Larsen grades 0-1) of the evaluated hand and wrist and group 2 included 28 patients (392 finger joints) with radiographs revealing erosions (Larsen grade 2) of the evaluated hand and/or wrist. RESULTS: Clinical evaluation, scintigraphy, MRI, and ultrasound were each more sensitive than conventional radiography in detecting inflammatory soft tissue lesions as well as destructive joint processes in arthritis patients in group 1. All differences were statistically significant. We found ultrasound to be even more sensitive than MRI in the detection of synovitis. MRI detected erosions in 92 finger joints (20%; 26 patients) in group 1 that had not been detected by conventional radiography. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that MRI and ultrasound are valuable diagnostic methods in patients with arthritis who have normal findings on radiologic evaluation. (+info)
Clinical, radiographic and HLA associations as markers for different patterns of psoriatic arthritis.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine whether the five clinical forms of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) identified by Moll and Wright (Semin Arthritis Rheum 1973;3:55-78) could be clearly distinguished, especially as the disease evolved over time, to analyse whether radiographic features or HLA associations could define subsets with greater precision and to identify predictors of disease outcome. METHODS: Seventy-three patients (37 males and 36 females) were followed for a median time of 8 yr (range 1-16 yr). A standard clinical protocol was used to assess patients at each visit and two clinical scores. based on the joint areas involved, were defined to evaluate the mode of onset and the evolution of arthritis. X-ray films of the hands, feet and sacroiliac joints were taken and the patients were divided into two categories according to the presence or absence of erosions and an X-ray erosion score was also used. Three classification methods were used to define the different clinical subsets. HLA-A, B and DR antigens were tested by standard microlymphocytotoxicity assays. A multiple linear regression model was used in the statistical analysis. RESULTS: The five classical clinical subsets defined by Moll and Wright did not remain since distinct peripheral arthritis patterns tended to evolve over time. Only two discrete groups were identified, axial disease (AD) (sacroilitis with or without peripheral arthritis) in 29% of cases and peripheral disease (PD) without sacroilitis in 71%. AD was positively associated with the duration of arthritis (P < 0.04), presence of mutilation (P < 0.02) and the joint area score over disease evolution (JASE) (P < 0.02). There were erosions in 71% of the patients. Erosions correlated with the presence of mutilation (P < 0.007) and with the JASE (P < 0.0005). HLA-B27 was found in 43% of patients with AD, but only in 11% of PD patients (P < 0.01). No other clear HLA correlations were found. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the relatively small number of patients, this longitudinal study suggests that only two clinical subsets can be clearly defined in PsA, AD and PD; these are primarily determined on clinical grounds although HLA-B27 is strongly associated with AD. The evolution of PD pattern with time means that narrower peripheral arthritis subsets are of little clinical use. (+info)
Heritabilities of radiologic osteoarthritis in peripheral joints and of disc degeneration of the spine.
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the genetic influence on the occurrence of radiologic osteoarthritis (ROA) in the knees, hips, and hands and disc degeneration of the spine in the general population. METHODS: A random sample of 1,583 individuals was drawn to estimate the prevalence of ROA and disc degeneration in the general population. Of 118 probands with multiple affected joint sites who were derived from this sample, we were able to recruit 257 siblings. The variance of ROA and disc degeneration within sibling pairs was compared with the variance between sibling pairs. Heritability estimates for ROA in the knees, hips, and hands and for disc degeneration of the spine were calculated. OA was defined according to radiologic criteria, using the Kellgren/Lawrence grading system. RESULTS: We observed that hand ROA and disc degeneration of the spine were statistically significantly more frequent in siblings than in the random sample, whereas the prevalence of knee and of hip ROA was similar and lower, respectively. Heritability estimates for hand ROA and disc degeneration were statistically significant, P = 0.56 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.34-0.76) and P = 0.75 (95% CI 0.30-1.00), respectively. For knee and hip ROA, no evidence of a genetic effect in the general population was found. Finally, the heritability estimate for a score that summed the number of joints affected in the knees, hips, hands, and spine was 0.78 (95% CI 0.52-0.98). All heritability estimates were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, and bone mineral density. CONCLUSION: The present study shows that in the general population, there is a strong genetic effect for hand ROA and disc degeneration of the spine. The findings on the total number of joints affected at multiple sites suggest genetic susceptibility to generalized OA. (+info)
Subperiosteal ganglion cyst of the tibia. A communication with the knee demonstrated by delayed arthrography.
We report a patient with a subperiosteal ganglion cyst of the tibia which was imaged by radiography, arthrography, CT and MRI. The images were correlated with the arthroscopic surgical and histological findings. Spiculated formation of periosteal new bone on plain radiographs led to the initial suspicion of a malignant tumour. Demonstration of the cystic nature of the tumour using cross-sectional imaging was important for the precise diagnosis. Communication between the ganglion cyst and the knee was shown by a delayed arthrographic technique, and the presence of this communication was confirmed at arthroscopy and surgically. (+info)
Placement of intra-articular injections verified by mini air-arthrography.
OBJECTIVE: To develop and assess a simple, inexpensive method for ascertaining the placement of intra-articular injections for knee osteoarthritis METHODS: During a one year period patients with "dry" osteoarthritis of the knee who received intra-articular therapy were tested by air-arthrography. Along with triamcinolone and lignocaine (lidocaine), 5 ml of air was injected into the joint. On subsequent lateral and anterior-posterior radiographs a correct placement was verified by a sharply defined shadow of air in the suprapatellar pouch, while extra-articular air was diffusely spread in the surrounding tissue. RESULTS: In 51 of 56 cases the injection was correctly placed. In the remaining five cases the injection was immediately repeated and positioned within the joint. No adverse events were seen that could be ascribed to the use of air during the study, although bleeding in the quadriceps was seen one week after an extra-articular injection. CONCLUSION: With mini-air arthrography, it is possible to test the placement of intra-articular injections in knee joints. The method is proposed as a learning tool as well as providing a means of quality assurance in studies involving intra-articular injections. (+info)