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(1/2364) Prevention of collagen-induced arthritis by gene delivery of soluble p75 tumour necrosis factor receptor.

Collagen type II-induced arthritis (CIA) in DBA/1 mice can be passively transferred to SCID mice with spleen B- and T-lymphocytes. In the present study, we show that infection ex vivo of splenocytes from arthritic DBA/1 mice with a retroviral vector, containing cDNA for the soluble form of human p75 receptor of tumour necrosis factor (TNF-R) before transfer, prevents the development of arthritis, bone erosion and joint inflammation in the SCID recipients. Assessment of IgG subclass levels and studies of synovial histology suggest that down-regulating the effector functions of T helper-type 1 (Th1) cells may, at least in part, explain the inhibition of arthritis in the SCID recipients. In contrast, the transfer of splenocytes infected with mouse TNF-alpha gene construct resulted in exacerbated arthritis and enhancement of IgG2a antibody levels. Intriguingly, infection of splenocytes from arthritic DBA/1 mice with a construct for mouse IL-10 had no modulating effect on the transfer of arthritis. The data suggest that manipulation of the immune system with cytokines, or cytokine inhibitors using gene transfer protocols can be an effective approach to ameliorate arthritis.  (+info)

(2/2364) Modulation of acute and chronic inflammatory processes by cacospongionolide B, a novel inhibitor of human synovial phospholipase A2.

1. Cacospongionolide B is a novel marine metabolite isolated from the sponge Fasciospongia cavernosa. In in vitro studies, this compound inhibited phospholipase A2 (PLA2), showing selectivity for secretory PLA2 (sPLA2) versus cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2), and its potency on the human synovial enzyme (group II) was similar to that of manoalide. 2. This activity was confirmed in vivo in the 8 h zymosan-injected rat air pouch, on the secretory enzyme accumulating in the pouch exudate. Cacospongionolide B, that is bioavailable when is given orally, reduced the elevated levels of sPLA2 present in paw homogenates of rats with adjuvant arthritis. 3. This marine metabolite showed topical anti-inflammatory activity on the mouse ear oedema induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA) and decreased carrageenin paw oedema in mice after oral administration of 5, 10 or 20 mg kg(-1). 4. In the mouse air pouch injected with zymosan, cacospongionolide B administered into the pouch, induced a dose-dependent reduction in the levels of eicosanoids and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) in the exudates 4 h after the stimulus. It also had a weak effect on cell migration. 5. The inflammatory response of adjuvant arthritis was reduced by cacospongionolide B, which did not significantly affect eicosanoid levels in serum, paw or stomach homogenates and did not induce toxic effects. 6 Cacospongionolide B is a new inhibitor of sPLA2 in vitro and in vivo, with anti-inflammatory properties in acute and chronic inflammation. This marine metabolite was active after oral administration and able to modify TNFalpha levels, and may offer an interesting approach in the search for new anti-inflammatory agents.  (+info)

(3/2364) Localization of non-Mhc collagen-induced arthritis susceptibility loci in DBA/1j mice.

One approach to understanding common human diseases is to determine the genetic defects responsible for similar diseases in animal models and place those defective genes in their corresponding biochemical pathways. Our laboratory is working with an animal model for human rheumatoid arthritis called collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). We are particularly interested in determining the location of disease-predisposing loci. To that end, we performed experiments to localize susceptibility loci for CIA in an F2 cross between the highly susceptible mouse strain DBA/1j and the highly resistant mouse strain SWR/j. Specifically, a quantitative trait locus analysis was performed to localize regions of the mouse genome responsible for susceptibility/severity to CIA. One susceptibility locus, Cia1 in the major histocompatibility locus, had been identified previously. Two additional loci were detected in our analysis that contribute to CIA severity (Cia2, Cia3) on chromosomes 2 and 6. A third locus was detected that contributes to the age of onset of the disease. This locus (Cia4) was located on chromosome 2 and was linked to the same region as Cia2. Determining the identity of these loci may provide insights into the etiology of human rheumatoid arthritis.  (+info)

(4/2364) Effects of petrosaspongiolide M, a novel phospholipase A2 inhibitor, on acute and chronic inflammation.

The marine product petrosaspongiolide M is a novel inhibitor of phospholipase A2 (PLA2), showing selectivity for secretory PLA2 versus cytosolic PLA2, with a potency on the human synovial enzyme (group II) similar to that of manoalide. This compound was more potent than manoalide on bee venom PLA2 (group III) and had no effect on group I enzymes (Naja naja and porcine pancreatic PLA2). Inhibition of PLA2 was also observed in vivo in the zymosan-injected rat air pouch, on the secretory enzyme accumulated in the pouch exudate. Petrosaspongiolide M decreased carrageenan paw edema in mice after the oral administration of 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg. This marine metabolite (0.01-1.0 micromol/pouch) induced a dose-dependent reduction in the levels of prostaglandin (PG)E2, leukotriene B4, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the mouse air pouch injected with zymosan 4 h after the stimulus. It also had a weaker effect on cell migration. The inflammatory response of adjuvant arthritis was reduced by petrosaspongiolide M, which also inhibited leukotriene B4 levels in serum and PGE2 levels in paw homogenates. In contrast with indomethacin, this marine compound did not reduce PGE2 levels in stomach homogenates. Petrosaspongiolide M is a new inhibitor of secretory PLA2 in vitro and in vivo, with anti-inflammatory properties in acute and chronic inflammation.  (+info)

(5/2364) Efficacy of sustained blood levels of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in animal models of arthritis: comparison of efficacy in animal models with human clinical data.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) in rat adjuvant arthritis and rat type II collagen-induced arthritis, and to compare the efficacy in rat models with that seen in human clinical trials of IL-1Ra. METHODS: Rats with developing adjuvant arthritis or established collagen-induced arthritis were treated with IL-1Ra by continuous infusion in order to determine and maintain efficacious blood levels of this IL-1 inhibitory protein in the rats for comparison with human clinical data. The effects of treatment in the rats were monitored by sequential caliper measurement of the ankle joints, determination of final paw weights, and histologic evaluation with particular emphasis on bone and cartilage lesions. The effects of IL-1Ra on joint swelling and radiographic bone damage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in a 6-month trial were compared with the findings in rats. RESULTS: Dramatic differences in the profile of IL-1Ra activity were seen between the 2 groups of rats. Modest antiinflammatory effects were observed in the adjuvant arthritis rats treated with IL-1Ra. However, marked inhibition of bone resorption occurred, even at doses with which antiinflammatory activity was not seen. In contrast, IL-1Ra treatment of rats with established collagen-induced arthritis resulted in nearly complete suppression of all aspects of the disease when adequate blood levels of IL-1Ra were maintained. Treatment of RA patients with IL-1Ra (150 mg daily) resulted in modest inhibition of joint swelling and inhibition of radiographic progression of bone lesions. CONCLUSION: IL-1 appears to be of major importance in mediating the bone resorption that occurs in rat adjuvant arthritis, but is less important in the pathogenesis of periarticular inflammation in this disease. In contrast, IL-1 is of major importance in mediating all aspects of disease progression in rat collagen-induced arthritis. Similar to the response in adjuvant arthritic rats, RA patients treated with IL-1Ra showed only modest antiinflammatory activity, but had evidence of inhibition of progression of bone resorption. However, a comparison of the plasma levels of IL-1Ra in humans and rats suggests that the optimal level of dosing for continuous saturation of IL-1 receptors may not have been achieved in humans, although this was achieved in the rat studies.  (+info)

(6/2364) Somatostatin receptor subtype expression in cells of the rat immune system during adjuvant arthritis.

Somatostatin is a neuropeptide that is widely distributed throughout the body. It acts as a neurohormone and a neurotransmitter and may also have an immunomodulatory role. The genes for five subtypes of somatostatin receptors (sst) have been cloned, suggesting that the diverse effects of the peptide might be mediated by different receptors. We are interested in studying the role of sst ininflammation, using an animal model. Because of the up-regulation of sst expression in inflamed joints in human rheumatoid arthritis, we chose rat adjuvant arthritis as an experimental model. In order to determine which of the sst subtypes might be important in immune modulation, subtype expression in leukocytes isolated from different lymphoid tissues of the rat was studied. Also, the expression levels of the most abundantly expressed sst mRNAs in leukocytes from spleen and blood were compared in rats with adjuvantarthritis and controls, using a semi-quantitative approach. Furthermore, the effect of systemic administration of a long-acting somatostatin analogue, octreotide, which binds selectively to sst subtypes 2 and 5 (sst2 and sst5), on the incidence and the severity of rat adjuvant arthritis, was studied. The main sst expressed in cells of the rat immune system, both resting and activated, were found to be sst3 and sst4. This contrasts with the human and murine situations, in which sst2 appears to be the main subtype expressed in the immune system. No quantitative differences in sst subtype mRNA levels in leukocytes from spleen and blood were found between rats with adjuvant arthritis and controls. Finally, no effect of systemic administration of octreotide on either the incidence or severity of adjuvant arthritis in Lewis rats was found. As octreotide binds selectively to sst2 and sst5, the absence of an immunomodulatory effect of this analogue in rat adjuvant arthritis corroborates our finding that these sst subtypes are not expressed in cells of the rat immune system. In conclusion, cells of the rat immune system appear to express a spectrum of sst (sst3 and sst4) different from that found in human granulomatous and autoimmune disease (mainly sst2). Therefore, the rat adjuvant arthritis model appears to be suitable only for studying the immunomodulatory effects of somatostatin analogues which have a high affinity for sst3 and sst4, but not for studying the immunomodulatory effects of octreotide, which has a high affinity only for sst2 and sst5.  (+info)

(7/2364) Prevention of collagen-induced arthritis in mice by a polyphenolic fraction from green tea.

Identification of common dietary substances capable of affording protection or modulating the onset and severity of arthritis may have important human health implications. An antioxidant-rich polyphenolic fraction isolated from green tea (green tea polyphenols, GTPs) has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties in experimental animals. In this study we determined the effect of oral consumption of GTP on collagen-induced arthritis in mice. In three independent experiments mice given GTP in water exhibited significantly reduced incidence of arthritis (33% to 50%) as compared with mice not given GTP in water (84% to 100%). The arthritis index also was significantly lower in GTP-fed animals. Western blot analysis showed a marked reduction in the expression of inflammatory mediators such as cyclooxygenase 2, IFN-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor alpha in arthritic joints of GTP-fed mice. Histologic and immunohistochemical analysis of the arthritic joints in GTP-fed mice demonstrated only marginal joint infiltration by IFN-gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha-producing cells as opposed to massive cellular infiltration and fully developed pannus in arthritic joints of non-GTP-fed mice. The neutral endopeptidase activity was approximately 7-fold higher in arthritic joints of non-GTP-fed mice in comparison to nonarthritic joints of unimmunized mice whereas it was only 2-fold higher in the arthritic joints of GTP-fed mice. Additionally, total IgG and type II collagen-specific IgG levels were lower in serum and arthritic joints of GTP-fed mice. Taken together our studies suggest that a polyphenolic fraction from green tea that is rich in antioxidants may be useful in the prevention of onset and severity of arthritis.  (+info)

(8/2364) Specific targeting of activated endothelium in rat adjuvant arthritis with a 99mTc-radiolabeled E-selectin-binding peptide.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the potential of an E-selectin-binding peptide (ESbp) to specifically bind activated endothelium in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) animal models. METHODS: ESbp (KYDGDITWDQLWDLMK; 2,027 daltons) was labeled with biotin and 99mTc. The affinity of ESbp derivatives for E-selectin was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The binding of biotin-ESbp was compared with that of an anti-E-selectin antibody, by immunohistochemical analyses of human synovial sections and sections from the Mycoplasma pulmonis MRL-lpr/lpr mouse arthritis model. 99mTc-ESbp was sequentially imaged in vivo with a gamma camera in the rat adjuvant-induced arthritis model. RESULTS: E-selectin expression was detected in human RA synovium and mouse arthritic synovium using biotin-ESbp. Both biotin-ESbp and 99mTc-labeled ESbp had high affinity for E-selectin (dissociation constant 2-5 nM). In vivo imaging showed specific binding of 99mTc-ESbp to the rat ankle joint prior to clinical manifestations of inflammation. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that activated endothelium can be targeted with 99mTc-ESbp. The specificity of targeting can be used to evaluate up-regulation of E-selectin in RA models, and to follow changes in this up-regulation during treatment trials.  (+info)