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(1/722) Filtration leukocytapheresis therapy in rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy and safety of filtration leukocytapheresis (LCP) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Twenty-five patients with drug-resistant RA were randomly assigned to undergo filtration LCP and 7 to undergo sham apheresis (control group) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Three apheresis procedures were performed, with 1-week intervals between procedures. The efficacy of filtration LCP was evaluated according to the American College of Rheumatology definition of improvement in RA. Medications for each patient were unchanged for at least 6 months prior to enrollment and throughout the study. RESULTS: Tender joint counts, swollen joint counts, patient assessment of pain and global severity, physician assessment of global severity, and Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index were significantly improved in the LCP group compared with the control group (P < 0.05 for patient assessment of pain; P < 0.01 for all others). Seventy-nine percent of the patients in the LCP group exhibited significant overall improvement, while none of the patients in the control group were improved (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The results indicate that filtration LCP is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for patients with drug-resistant RA.  (+info)

(2/722) An acutely painful elbow as a first presentation of von Willebrand's disease.

A 26 year old woman presented to the accident and emergency department with a painful right elbow. There had been no history of trauma. Clinical examination suggested an effusion, which was confirmed on radiological examination. Her elbow was aspirated and revealed a haemarthrosis. Subsequent investigations revealed a diagnosis of von Willebrand's disease (vWD). A spontaneously occurring effusion of the elbow may be due to a haemarthrosis. Aspiration of blood in the absence of trauma may lead to a diagnosis of an occult coagulopathy in addition to relieving pain. The diagnosis and treatment of vWD is discussed.  (+info)

(3/722) Prevalence of joint pain is higher among women in rural Japan than urban Japanese-American women in Hawaii.

OBJECTIVE: Environmental factors such as farming contribute to the frequency of joint symptoms. The purpose of this study is to explore the possible role of environment (lifestyle), by comparing the prevalence of joint pain between Japanese in a rural farming district in Japan and in urban Hawaii. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Current or previous pain at specific joints was surveyed among 222 women in rural Japan and 638 Japanese women in urban Hawaii aged 60-79. The age adjusted prevalence was compared using logistic regression. RESULTS: The prevalence of pain at one or more joints was approximately 70% in Japan and 50% in Hawaii. The prevalence of knee pain in Japan ranged from 36% at ages 60-69 years to 53% at 70-79 years (mean 41%), whereas knee pain affected only 20% of women in Hawaii in both age groups. The odds ratio (and 95% CI) was 3.2 (2.1, 4.8) for knee pain, and 4.0 (2.2, 7.4) for mid-back pain in Japan, compared with Hawaii. Pain was also significantly more common in Japan at the shoulder, elbow, and ankle, but not at other joints. Women in Japan were shorter and weighed less than in Hawaii. Adjustment for body mass index increased the odds ratios to 4.4 (2.9, 6.8) for knee, and 4.5 (2.4, 8.5) for mid-back pain. CONCLUSION: Although the potential influence of cultural factors or other sources of bias cannot be ruled out, the large differences in the prevalence of pain at specific joints suggest that environmental factors are probably responsible, because both populations are of similar genetic stock.  (+info)

(4/722) Health benefits of joint replacement surgery for patients with osteoarthritis: prospective evaluation using independent assessments in Scotland.

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine extent of change in psychological, functional, and social health after knee and hip joint replacement surgery using independent assessments. DESIGN: Patients were recruited before surgery and interviewed preoperatively, three months after surgery, and nine months after surgery. Interviews were conducted in the patients' own homes. SETTING: Two orthopaedic surgery units in Scotland. PARTICIPANTS: A consecutive sample of 107 patients with osteoarthritis having primary replacement of the knee or hip. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Assessments of depression, anxiety, pain, functional activity, informal care, and formal service utilisation were made at three time points. MAIN RESULTS: Anxiety and pain were significantly reduced and functional activity levels significantly increased after surgery. While gains in anxiety and pain reduction occurred between the preoperative and three month assessments, gains in activity were made between the three month and nine month assessments. Although pain was reduced and activity increased, levels of depression were unchanged after surgery. Patients reported need for assistance with fewer activities after surgery, but increases in the use of formal services and increases in the number of hours per week of informal support received were observed at both three month and nine month follow up. CONCLUSIONS: The main benefit of joint replacement surgery is pain relief. Gains in functional activity, particularly mobility and leisure activities are made by many patients. Paradoxically, surgery for osteoarthritis seems to act as a "gateway" to increases in formal and informal community support, which are maintained into the longer term.  (+info)

(5/722) Knee pain and the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve.

Pain over the front of the knee is common after surgery or trauma but often a definite diagnosis is difficult to make. Over the past year we have seen five cases in which the pain could be ascribed to damage to a branch of the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve. Two were subsequent to trauma and three to surgical procedures. In all five cases surgical exploration gave symptomatic relief. Eight cadaveric knees were prosected to explore further the anatomy of this nerve in relation to the injuries. Injury to one of these branches should be considered in cases of persistent anterior, anteromedial or anterolateral knee pain or neurological symptoms following surgery or trauma.  (+info)

(6/722) The wrist of the formula 1 driver.

OBJECTIVES: During formula 1 driving, repetitive cumulative trauma may provoke nerve disorders such as nerve compression syndrome as well as osteoligament injuries. A study based on interrogatory and clinical examination of 22 drivers was carried out during the 1998 formula 1 World Championship in order to better define the type and frequency of these lesions. METHODS: The questions investigated nervous symptoms, such as paraesthesia and diminishment of sensitivity, and osteoligamentous symptoms, such as pain, specifying the localisation (ulnar side, dorsal aspect of the wrist, snuff box) and the effect of the wrist position on the intensity of the pain. Clinical examination was carried out bilaterally and symmetrically. RESULTS: Fourteen of the 22 drivers reported symptoms. One suffered cramp in his hands at the end of each race and one described a typical forearm effort compartment syndrome. Six drivers had effort "osteoligamentous" symptoms: three scapholunate pain; one medial hypercompression of the wrist; two sequellae of a distal radius fracture. Seven reported nerve disorders: two effort carpal tunnel syndromes; one typical carpal tunnel syndrome; one effort cubital tunnel syndrome; three paraesthesia in all fingers at the end of a race, without any objective signs. CONCLUSIONS: This appears to be the first report of upper extremity disorders in competition drivers. The use of a wrist pad to reduce the effects of vibration may help to prevent trauma to the wrist in formula 1 drivers.  (+info)

(7/722) Is diagnostic arthroscopy of the hip worthwhile? A prospective review of 328 adults investigated for hip pain.

We describe a prospective study of 328 patients undergoing arthroscopy of the hip. Arthrography, CT or MRI was performed when clinically indicated. A preoperative diagnosis was reached in 174 patients (53%), while the remaining 154 were diagnosed as having 'idiopathic hip pain'. In seven patients, access to the hip was inadequate. Arthroscopy altered the diagnosis in 176 hips (53%). The new primary diagnoses were osteoarthritis (75 patients), osteochondral defects (34), torn labra (23), synovitis (11) and loose bodies (9). In 172 hips (52%) an operative procedure was undertaken. In the remaining 84 patients (26%), arthroscopy neither changed the diagnosis nor provided surgical treatment. Arthroscopy of the hip is considered to be of value in assessing and treating the adult patient with pain in the hip of uncertain cause.  (+info)

(8/722) O'nyong-nyong fever in south-central Uganda, 1996-1997: clinical features and validation of a clinical case definition for surveillance purposes.

O'nyong-nyong (ONN) fever, caused by infection with a mosquito-borne central African alphavirus, is an acute, nonfatal illness characterized by polyarthralgia. During 1996-1997, south-central Uganda experienced the second ONN fever epidemic ever recognized. Among 391 persons interviewed and sampled, 40 cases of confirmed and 21 of presumptive, well-characterized acute, recent, or previous ONN fever were identified through active case-finding efforts or during a household serosurvey and by the application of clinical and laboratory criteria. Among confirmed cases, the knees and ankles were the joints most commonly affected. The median duration of arthralgia was 6 days (range, 2-21 days) and of immobilization was 4 days (range, 1-14 days). In the majority, generalized skin rash was reported, and nearly half had lymphadenopathy, mainly of the cervical region. Viremia was documented in 16 cases, primarily during the first 3 days of illness, and in some of these, body temperature was normal. During this epidemic, the combination of fever, arthralgia, and lymphadenopathy had a specificity of 83% and a sensitivity of 61% in the identification of cases of ONN fever and thus could be useful for surveillance purposes.  (+info)