(1/2323) Calcium responses induced by acetylcholine in submucosal arterioles of the guinea-pig small intestine.

1. Calcium responses induced by brief stimulation with acetylcholine (ACh) were assessed from the fluorescence changes in fura-2 loaded submucosal arterioles of the guinea-pig small intestine. 2. Initially, 1-1.5 h after loading with fura-2 (fresh tissues), ACh increased [Ca2+]i in a concentration-dependent manner. This response diminished with time, and finally disappeared in 2-3 h (old tissues). 3. Ba2+ elevated [Ca2+]i to a similar extent in both fresh and old tissues. ACh further increased the Ba2+-elevated [Ca2+]i in fresh tissues, but reduced it in old tissues. Responses were not affected by either indomethacin or nitroarginine. 4. In fresh mesenteric arteries, mechanical removal of endothelial cells abolished the ACh-induced increase in [Ca2+]i, with no alteration of [Ca2+]i at rest and during elevation with Ba2+. 5. In the presence of indomethacin and nitroarginine, high-K+ solution elevated [Ca2+]i in both fresh and old tissues. Subsequent addition of ACh further increased [Ca2+]i in fresh tissues without changing it in old tissues. 6. Proadifen, an inhibitor of the enzyme cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenase, inhibited the ACh-induced changes in [Ca2+]i in both fresh and Ba2+-stimulated old tissues. It also inhibited the ACh-induced hyperpolarization. 7. In fresh tissues, the ACh-induced Ca2+ response was not changed by apamin, charybdotoxin (CTX), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) or glibenclamide. In old tissues in which [Ca2+]i had previously been elevated with Ba2+, the ACh-induced Ca2+ response was inhibited by CTX but not by apamin, 4-AP or glibenclamide. 8. It is concluded that in submucosal arterioles, ACh elevates endothelial [Ca2+]i and reduces muscular [Ca2+]i, probably through the hyperpolarization of endothelial or smooth muscle membrane by activating CTX-sensitive K+ channels.  (+info)

(2/2323) Interaction of amylin with calcitonin gene-related peptide receptors in the microvasculature of the hamster cheek pouch in vivo.

1. This study used intravital microscopy to investigate the receptors stimulated by amylin which shares around 50% sequence homology with the vasodilator calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the hamster cheek pouch microvasculature in vivo. 2. Receptor agonists dilated arterioles (diameters 20-40 microm). The -log of the concentrations (+/- s.e.mean; n = 8) causing 50% increase in arteriole diameter were: human betaCGRP (10.8 +/- 0.3), human alphaCGRP (10.8 +/- 0.4), rat alphaCGRP (10.4 +/- 0.3). Rat amylin and the CGRP2 receptor selective agonist [Cys(ACM2,7]-human alphaCGRP were 100 fold less potent (estimates were 8.5 +/- 0.4 and 8.2 +/- 0.3 respectively). 3. The GCRP1 receptor antagonist, CGRP8-37 (300 nmol kg(-1); i.v.) reversibly inhibited the increase in diameter evoked by human alphaCGRP (0.3 nM) from 178 +/- 22% to 59 +/- 12% (n = 8; P < 0.05) and by rat amylin (100 nM) from 138 +/- 23% to 68 +/- 24% (n = 6; P < 0.05). CGRP8-37 did not inhibit vasodilation evoked by substance P (10 nM; n = 4: P > 0.05). 4. The amylin receptor antagonist, amylin8-37 (300 nmol kg(-1); i.v.) did not significantly inhibit the increase in diameter evoked by human alphaCGRP (0.3 nM) which was 112 +/- 26% in the absence, and 90 +/- 29% in the presence of antagonist (n = 4; P < 0.05); nor that evoked by rat amylin (100 nM) which was 146 +/- 23% in the absence and 144 +/- 32% in the presence of antagonist (n = 4; P > 0.05). 5. The agonist profile for vasodilatation and the inhibition of this dilatation by CGRP8-37, although not the amylin8-37 indicates that amylin causes vasodilatation through interaction with CGRP1 receptors in the hamster cheek pouch.  (+info)

(3/2323) Spread of vasodilatation and vasoconstriction along feed arteries and arterioles of hamster skeletal muscle.

1. In arterioles of the hamster cheek pouch, vasodilatation and vasoconstriction can spread via the conduction of electrical signals through gap junctions between cells that comprise the vessel wall. However, conduction in resistance networks supplying other tissues has received relatively little attention. In anaesthetized hamsters, we have investigated the spread of dilatation and constriction along feed arteries and arterioles of the retractor muscle, which is contiguous with the cheek pouch. 2. When released from a micropipette, acetylcholine (ACh) triggered vasodilatation that spread rapidly along feed arteries external to the muscle and arterioles within the muscle. Responses were independent of changes in wall shear rate, perivascular nerve activity, or release of nitric oxide, indicating cell-to-cell conduction. 3. Vasodilatation conducted without decrement along unbranched feed arteries, yet decayed markedly in arteriolar networks. Thus, branching of the conduction pathway dissipated the vasodilatation. 4. Noradrenaline (NA) or a depolarizing KCl stimulus evoked constriction of arterioles and feed arteries of the retractor muscle that was constrained to the vicinity of the micropipette. This behaviour contrasts sharply with the conduction of vasodilatation in these microvessels and with the conduction of vasoconstriction elicited by NA and KCl in cheek pouch arterioles. 5. Focal electrical stimulation produced constriction that spread rapidly along feed arteries and arterioles. These responses were inhibited by tetrodotoxin or prazosin, confirming the release of NA along perivascular sympathetic nerves, which are absent from arterioles studied in the cheek pouch. Thus, sympathetic nerve activity co-ordinated the contraction of smooth muscle cells as effectively as the conduction of vasodilatation co-ordinated their relaxation. 6. In the light of previous findings in the cheek pouch, the properties of vasoconstriction and vasodilatation in feed arteries and arterioles of the retractor muscle indicate that substantive differences can exist in the nature of signal transmission along microvessels of tissues that differ in structure and function.  (+info)

(4/2323) Neovascularization at the vascular pole region in diabetic glomerulopathy.

BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy is associated with renal structural changes involving all of the compartments. Most characteristic is the diabetic glomerulopathy. Studies of the histological changes during the early phases of nephropathy have included the glomerulopathy and also the juxtaglomerular structures. Neovascularization, well-known in diabetic retinopathy, has also been observed in the kidney. The present study concerns estimates of frequency of neovascularization at the vascular pole region in early stages of diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: Extra efferent arterioles at the glomerular vascular pole were detected during measurements of the vascular pole area applying 1-microm serial sections through kidney biopsies. It was observed that more than one efferent arteriole existed occasionally. The present study was carried out with the aim of estimating the frequency of this phenomenon in diabetic patients and in non-diabetic controls, the diabetic patients categorized according to the level of albumin excretion rate. RESULTS: Neovascularization was first observed in IDDM patients with microalbuminuria. Some of the cases presented the phenomenon in all of the glomeruli studied. As the examinations of many kidney biopsies continued the phenomenon was observed also in the non-diabetic control group and in one IDDM patient with normoalbuminuria. However, the frequency was statistically highly significantly increased in patients with elevated albumin-excretion. Within this group a strong correlation between frequency of neovascularization and the severity of diabetic glomerulopathy is seen. CONCLUSIONS: The vascular abnormality localized to the vascular pole region is observed occasionally in the normal kidney, but the frequency is increased in patients with diabetic glomerulopathy. The abnormality may develop as a consequence of a long-standing diabetic glomerulopathy and might lead to less pronounced elevation of albumin excretion.  (+info)

(5/2323) Inhibition of NO synthesis or endothelium removal reveals a vasoconstrictor effect of insulin on isolated arterioles.

In this study we tested the hypothesis that insulin may differentially affect isolated arterioles from red (RGM) and white gastrocnemius muscles (WGM) because of their differences in function and metabolic profile. We also determined whether the responses of these arterioles are endothelium dependent and mediated by either prostaglandins or nitric oxide (NO). Arterioles were isolated, pressurized to 85 mmHg, equilibrated in Krebs bicarbonate-buffered solution (pH 7.4) gassed with 10% O2 (5% CO2-85% N2), and studied in a no-flow state. Control diameters for first-order arterioles from RGM averaged 77 +/- 8 micrometers and from WGM averaged 77 +/- 5 micrometers. Cumulative dose-response curves to insulin (10 microU/ml, 100 microU/ml, 1 mU/ml, and 10 mU/ml) were obtained in arterioles before and after endothelium removal or administration of either indomethacin (Indo, 10(-5) M) or NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA, 10(-4) M). Insulin evoked concentration-dependent increases in control diameter of intact RGM and WGM arterioles of 6-26% and 9-28%, respectively. Indo was without any effect on insulin-induced dilation in RGM and WGM arterioles. Insulin-evoked dilation in both RGM and WGM arterioles was completely inhibited and converted to vasoconstriction by endothelium removal and administration of L-NNA. These results indicate that in endothelium-intact arterioles from RGM and WGM, insulin evokes an endothelium-dependent dilation that is equivalent and mediated by NO. In contrast, in the absence of a functional endothelium, insulin evokes arteriolar constriction. The finding that insulin can constrict arterioles, at physiological concentrations, suggests that insulin may play a more significant role in the regulation of vascular tone and total peripheral resistance than previously appreciated.  (+info)

(6/2323) Conducted signals within arteriolar networks initiated by bioactive amino acids.

Our purpose was to determine the specificity of L-arginine (L-Arg)-induced conducted signals for intra- vs. extracellular actions of L-Arg. Diameter and red blood cell velocities were measured for arterioles [18 +/- 1.6 (SE) micrometer] in the cremaster muscle of pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized (Nembutal, 70 mg/kg) hamsters (n = 53). Remote (conducted) responses were viewed approximately 1,000 micrometer upstream from the local (micropipette) application. Six amino acids were tested: L-arginine, L-cystine, L-leucine, L-lysine, L-histidine, and L-aspartate (100 microM each). Only L-Arg induced a remote dilation; L-lysine and L-aspartate had no effect, and the others each induced a significant remote constriction. There is a second conducted signal initiated by L-arginine that preconditions the arteriolar network and upregulates a direct response of L-arginine to dilate the remote site. This was blocked by inhibition of L-arginine uptake at the local (preconditioning) site (100 microM L-histidine or 1 mM phenformin). Arginine-glycine-aspartate (100 microM)-induced remote dilations (+3. 2 +/- 0.3 micrometer) were not mimicked by a peptide control and were prevented by anti- integrin alphav monoclonal antibody. Remote dilations were greater in animals with a higher wall shear stress for arginine-glycine-aspartate (r2 = 0.92) but not for L-arginine (r2 = 0.12). Thus L-arginine initiates separate conducted signals related to system y+ transport, integrins, and baseline flow.  (+info)

(7/2323) Endothelin antagonists block alpha1-adrenergic constriction of coronary arterioles.

We have previously observed that intracoronary administration of the alpha1-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine (PE) over a period of minutes induced both an immediate and long-lasting (2 h) vasoconstriction of epicardial coronary arterioles. Because it is unlikely that alpha1-adrenergic constriction would persist for hours after removal of the agonist, this observation supports the view that another constrictor(s) is released during alpha1-adrenergic activation and induces the prolonged vasoconstriction. Therefore, we hypothesized that the prolonged microvascular constriction after PE is due to the production of endothelin (ET). We focused on ET not only because this peptide produces potent vasoconstriction but also because its vasoconstrictor action is characterized by a long duration. To test this hypothesis, the diameters of coronary arterioles (<222 micrometers) in the beating heart of pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs with stroboscopic intravital microscopy were measured during a 15-min intracoronary infusion of PE (1 microgram. kg-1 . min-1) and at 15-min intervals for a total of 120 min. All experiments were performed in the presence of beta-adrenergic blockade with propranolol. At 120 min, arterioles in the PE group were constricted (-23 +/- 9% change in diameter vs. baseline). Pretreatment with the ET-converting enzyme inhibitor phosphoramidon or the ETA-receptor antagonist FR-139317 prevented the PE-induced constriction at 120 min (-1 +/- 3 and -6 +/- 3%, respectively, P < 0.01 vs. PE). Pretreatment with the selective alpha1-adrenergic antagonist prazosin (Prz) also prevented the sustained constriction (0 +/- 2%, P < 0.01 vs. PE) but Prz given 60 min after PE infusion did not (-13 +/- 3%). In the aggregate, these results show that vasoconstriction of epicardial coronary arterioles via alpha1-adrenergic activation is blocked by an ET antagonist and an inhibitor of its production. From these data, we conclude that alpha1-adrenergic activation promotes the production and/or release of ET, which produces or facilitates microvascular constriction of epicardial canine coronary arterioles.  (+info)

(8/2323) Flow regulation of ecNOS and Cu/Zn SOD mRNA expression in porcine coronary arterioles.

The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that increased flow through coronary arterioles increases endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase (ecNOS) and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) mRNA expression. Single porcine coronary arterioles (ID 100-160 micrometers; pressurized) were cannulated, perfused, and exposed to intraluminal flow sufficient to produce maximal flow-induced dilation of coronary arterioles (high flow; 7.52 +/- 0.22 microliter/min), low flow (0.84 +/- 0.05 microliter/min), or no flow for 2 or 4 h. Mean shear stress was calculated to be 5.7 +/- 1.0 dyn/cm2 for high-flow arterioles and 1. 6 +/- 1.0 dyn/cm2 for low-flow arterioles. At the end of the treatment period, mRNA was isolated from each vessel, and ecNOS and SOD mRNA expression was assessed using a semiquantitative RT-PCR. All data were standardized by coamplifying ecNOS or SOD with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. The results indicate that ecNOS mRNA expression is increased in arterioles exposed to 2 or 4 h of high flow. In contrast, SOD mRNA expression was increased only after 4 h of high flow. Neither gene is induced by exposure to low flow. On the basis of these data, we concluded that ecNOS and SOD mRNA expression is regulated by flow in porcine coronary arterioles. In addition, we concluded that a threshold level of flow and shear stress must be sustained to elicit the upregulation of ecNOS and SOD mRNA expression.  (+info)