Arrestin function in G protein-coupled receptor endocytosis requires phosphoinositide binding.
Internalization of agonist-activated G protein-coupled receptors is mediated by non-visual arrestins, which also bind to clathrin and are therefore thought to act as adaptors in the endocytosis process. Phosphoinositides have been implicated in the regulation of intracellular receptor trafficking, and are known to bind to other coat components including AP-2, AP180 and COPI coatomer. Given these observations, we explored the possibility that phosphoinositides play a role in arrestin's function as an adaptor. High-affinity binding sites for phosphoinositides in beta-arrestin (arrestin2) and arrestin3 (beta-arrestin2) were identified, and dissimilar effects of phosphoinositide and inositol phosphate on arrestin interactions with clathrin and receptor were characterized. Alteration of three basic residues in arrestin3 abolished phosphoinositide binding with complete retention of clathrin and receptor binding. Unlike native protein, upon agonist activation, this mutant arrestin3 expressed in COS1 cells neither supported beta2-adrenergic receptor internalization nor did it concentrate in coated pits, although it was recruited to the plasma membrane. These findings indicate that phosphoinositide binding plays a critical regulatory role in delivery of the receptor-arrestin complex to coated pits, perhaps by providing, with activated receptor, a multi-point attachment of arrestin to the plasma membrane. (+info)
Targeted construction of phosphorylation-independent beta-arrestin mutants with constitutive activity in cells.
Arrestin proteins play a key role in the desensitization of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Recently we proposed a molecular mechanism whereby arrestin preferentially binds to the activated and phosphorylated form of its cognate GPCR. To test the model, we introduced two different types of mutations into beta-arrestin that were expected to disrupt two crucial elements that make beta-arrestin binding to receptors phosphorylation-dependent. We found that two beta-arrestin mutants (Arg169 --> Glu and Asp383 --> Ter) (Ter, stop codon) are indeed "constitutively active." In vitro these mutants bind to the agonist-activated beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2AR) regardless of its phosphorylation status. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes these beta-arrestin mutants effectively desensitize beta2AR in a phosphorylation-independent manner. Constitutively active beta-arrestin mutants also effectively desensitize delta opioid receptor (DOR) and restore the agonist-induced desensitization of a truncated DOR lacking the critical G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK) phosphorylation sites. The kinetics of the desensitization induced by phosphorylation-independent mutants in the absence of receptor phosphorylation appears identical to that induced by wild type beta-arrestin + GRK3. Either of the mutations could have occurred naturally and made receptor kinases redundant, raising the question of why a more complex two-step mechanism (receptor phosphorylation followed by arrestin binding) is universally used. (+info)
Real-time visualization of the cellular redistribution of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 and beta-arrestin 2 during homologous desensitization of the substance P receptor.
The substance P receptor (SPR) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that plays a key role in pain regulation. The SPR desensitizes in the continued presence of agonist, presumably via mechanisms that implicate G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) and beta-arrestins. The temporal relationship of these proposed biochemical events has never been established for any GPCR other than rhodopsin beyond the resolution provided by biochemical assays. We investigate the real-time activation and desensitization of the human SPR in live HEK293 cells using green fluorescent protein conjugates of protein kinase C, GRK2, and beta-arrestin 2. The translocation of protein kinase C betaII-green fluorescent protein to and from the plasma membrane in response to substance P indicates that the human SPR becomes activated within seconds of agonist exposure, and the response desensitizes within 30 s. This desensitization process coincides with a redistribution of GRK2 from the cytosol to the plasma membrane, followed by a robust redistribution of beta-arrestin 2 and a profound change in cell morphology that occurs after 1 min of SPR stimulation. These data establish a role for GRKs and beta-arrestins in homologous desensitization of the SPR and provide the first visual and temporal resolution of the sequence of events underlying homologous desensitization of a GPCR in living cells. (+info)
Internalization of the TXA2 receptor alpha and beta isoforms. Role of the differentially spliced cooh terminus in agonist-promoted receptor internalization.
Thromboxane A2 (TXA2) potently stimulates platelet aggregation and smooth muscle constriction and is thought to play a role in myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, and bronchial asthma. The TXA2 receptor (TXA2R) is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family and is found as two alternatively spliced isoforms, alpha (343 residues) and beta (407 residues), which share the first 328 residues. In the present report, we demonstrate by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunofluorescence microscopy that the TXA2Rbeta, but not the TXA2Ralpha, undergoes agonist-induced internalization when expressed in HEK293 cells as well as several other cell types. Various dominant negative mutants were used to demonstrate that the internalization of the TXA2Rbeta is dynamin-, GRK-, and arrestin-dependent in HEK293 cells, suggesting the involvement of receptor phosphorylation and clathrin-coated pits in this process. Interestingly, the agonist-stimulated internalization of both the alpha and beta isoforms, but not of a mutant truncated after residue 328, can be promoted by overexpression of arrestin-3, identifying the C-tails of both receptors as necessary in arrestin-3 interaction. Simultaneous mutation of two dileucine motifs in the C-tail of TXA2Rbeta did not affect agonist-promoted internalization. Analysis of various C-tail deletion mutants revealed that a region between residues 355 and 366 of the TXA2Rbeta is essential for agonist-promoted internalization. These data demonstrate that alternative splicing of the TXA2R plays a critical role in regulating arrestin binding and subsequent receptor internalization. (+info)
The absence of a direct correlation between the loss of [D-Ala2, MePhe4,Gly5-ol]Enkephalin inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity and agonist-induced mu-opioid receptor phosphorylation.
Chronic activation of the mu-opioid receptor (MOR1TAG) results in the loss of agonist response that has been attributed to desensitization and down-regulation of the receptor. It has been suggested that opioid receptor phosphorylation is the mechanism by which this desensitization and down-regulation occurs. When MOR1TAG was stably expressed in both neuroblastoma neuro2A and human embryonic kidney HEK293 cells, the opioid agonist [D-Ala2,MePhe4, Gly5-ol]enkephalin (DAMGO) induced a time- and concentration-dependent phosphorylation of the receptor, in both cell lines, that could be reversed by the antagonist naloxone. Protein kinase C can phosphorylate the receptor, but is not involved in DAMGO-induced MOR1TAG phosphorylation. The rapid rate of receptor phosphorylation, occurring within minutes, did not correlate with the rate of the loss of agonist-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase, which occurs in hours. This lack of correlation between receptor phosphorylation and the loss of response was further demonstrated when receptor phosphorylation was increased by either calyculin A or overexpression of the G-protein receptor kinases. Calyculin A increased the magnitude of MOR1TAG phosphorylation without altering the DAMGO-induced loss of the adenylyl cyclase response. Similarly, when mu- and delta-opioid (DOR1TAG) receptors were expressed in the same system, overexpression of beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 2 elevated agonist-induced phosphorylation for both receptors. However, in the same cell lines under the same conditions, overexpression of beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 2 and beta-arrestin 2 accelerated the rate of DPDPE- but not DAMGO-induced receptor desensitization. Thus, these data show that phosphorylation of MOR1TAG is not an obligatory event for the DAMGO-induced loss in the adenylyl cyclase regulation by the receptor. (+info)
Decreased expression and activity of G-protein-coupled receptor kinases in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Beta2-Adrenergic and chemokine receptor antagonists delay the onset and reduce the severity of joint injury in rheumatoid arthritis. beta2-Adrenergic and chemokine receptors belong to the G-protein-coupled receptor family whose responsiveness is turned off by the G-protein-coupled receptor kinase family (GRK-1 to 6). GRKs phosphorylate receptors in an agonist-dependent manner resulting in receptor/G-protein uncoupling via subsequent binding of arrestin proteins. We assessed the activity of GRKs in lymphocytes of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients by rhodopsin phosphorylation. We found a significant decrease in GRK activity in RA subjects that is mirrored by a decrease in GRK-2 protein expression. Moreover, GRK-6 protein expression is reduced in RA patients whereas GRK-5 protein levels were unchanged. In search of an underlying mechanism, we demonstrated that proinflammatory cytokines induce a decrease in GRK-2 protein levels in leukocytes from healthy donors. Since proinflammatory cytokines are abundantly expressed in RA, it may provide an explanation for the decrease in GRK-2 expression and activity in patients. No changes in beta2-adrenergic receptor number and Kd were detected. However, RA patients showed a significantly increased cAMP production and inhibition of TNF-alpha production by beta2-adrenergic stimulation, suggesting that reduced GRK activity is associated with increased sensitivity to beta2-adrenergic activation. (+info)
The beta2-adrenergic receptor/betaarrestin complex recruits the clathrin adaptor AP-2 during endocytosis.
betaarrestins mediate the desensitization of the beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2AR) and many other G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Additionally, betaarrestins initiate the endocytosis of these receptors via clathrin coated-pits and interact directly with clathrin. Consequently, it has been proposed that betaarrestins serve as clathrin adaptors for the GPCR family by linking these receptors to clathrin lattices. AP-2, the heterotetrameric clathrin adaptor protein, has been demonstrated to mediate the internalization of many types of plasma membrane proteins other than GPCRs. AP-2 interacts with the clathrin heavy chain and cytoplasmic domains of receptors such as those for epidermal growth factor and transferrin. In the present study we demonstrate the formation of an agonist-induced multimeric complex containing a GPCR, betaarrestin 2, and the beta2-adaptin subunit of AP-2. beta2-Adaptin binds betaarrestin 2 in a yeast two-hybrid assay and coimmunoprecipitates with betaarrestins and beta2AR in an agonist-dependent manner in HEK-293 cells. Moreover, beta2-adaptin translocates from the cytosol to the plasma membrane in response to the beta2AR agonist isoproterenol and colocalizes with beta2AR in clathrin-coated pits. Finally, expression of betaarrestin 2 minigene constructs containing the beta2-adaptin interacting region inhibits beta2AR endocytosis. These findings point to a role for AP-2 in GPCR endocytosis, and they suggest that AP-2 functions as a clathrin adaptor for the endocytosis of diverse classes of membrane receptors. (+info)
Identification of NSF as a beta-arrestin1-binding protein. Implications for beta2-adrenergic receptor regulation.
Previous studies have demonstrated that beta-arrestin1 serves to target G protein-coupled receptors for internalization via clathrin-coated pits and that its endocytic function is regulated by dephosphorylation at the plasma membrane. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we have identified a novel beta-arrestin1-binding protein, NSF (N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein), an ATPase essential for many intracellular transport reactions. We demonstrate that purified recombinant beta-arrestin1 and NSF interact in vitro and that these proteins can be coimmunoprecipitated from cells. beta-Arrestin1-NSF complex formation exhibits a conformational dependence with beta-arrestin1 preferentially interacting with the ATP bound form of NSF. In contrast to the beta-arrestin1-clathrin interaction, however, the phosphorylation state of beta-arrestin1 does not affect NSF binding. Functionally, overexpression of NSF in HEK 293 cells significantly enhances agonist-mediated beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2-AR) internalization. Furthermore, when coexpressed with a beta-arrestin1 mutant (betaarr1S412D) that mimics a constitutively phosphorylated form of beta-arrestin1 and that acts as a dominant negative with regards to beta2-AR internalization, NSF rescues the betaarr1S412D-mediated inhibition of beta2-AR internalization. The demonstration of beta-arrestin1-NSF complex formation and the functional consequences of NSF overexpression suggest a hitherto unappreciated role for NSF in facilitating clathrin coat-mediated G protein-coupled receptor internalization. (+info)