Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase: conformational change in the flexible region around Arg334 is required during the transaldimination process.
Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) catalytic mechanism has been proposed to proceed through two consecutive intermediates (i.e., Michaelis complex and the external aldimine). Limited proteolysis of AADC that preferentially digested at the C-terminal side of Arg334 was slightly retarded in the presence of dihydroxyphenyl acetate that formed a stable Michaelis complex. On the contrary, AADC was scarcely digested in the presence of L-dopa methyl ester that formed a stable external aldimine. Similar protection by the substrate analogs was observed in the chemical modification experiment. From these results, we concluded that the region around Arg334 must be exposed and flexible in the unliganded state, and forming the Michaelis complex generated a subtle conformational change, then underwent marked conformational change during the subsequent transaldimination process prerequisite to forming the external aldimine. For further analyses, we constructed a mutant gene encoding in tandem the two peptides of AADC cleaved at the Asn327-Met328 bond inside the putative flexible region. The gene product, fragmentary AADC, was still active with L-dopa as substrate, but its k(cat) value was decreased 57-fold, and the Km value was increased 9-fold compared with those of the wild-type AADC. The absorption spectra of the fragmentary AADC in the presence of L-dopa methyl ester showed shift in the equilibrium of the transaldimination from the external aldimine to the Michaelis complex. Tryptic digestion of the fragmentary AADC removed seven amino acid residues, Met328-Arg334, and resulted in complete inactivation. Susceptibility of the fragmentary enzyme to trypsin was not changed by L-dopa methyl ester revealing the loss of appropriate conformational change in the flexible region induced by substrate binding. From these results we propose that the conformational change in the flexible region is required during the transaldimination process. (+info)
Vesicular monoamine transporter-2 and aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase enhance dopamine delivery after L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine administration in Parkinsonian rats.
Medical therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD) is limited by the short-duration response and development of dyskinesia that result from chronic L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) therapy. These problems occur partly because the loss of dopamine storage sites leads to erratic dopamine delivery. Vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT-2) plays a critical role in dopamine storage by packaging dopamine into synaptic vesicles and regulating sustained release of dopamine. To restore the capacity to produce and store dopamine in parkinsonian rats, primary skin fibroblast cells (PF) were genetically modified with aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) and VMAT-2 genes. After incubation with L-DOPA in culture, the doubly transduced fibroblast cells (PFVMAA) produced and stored dopamine at a much higher level than the cells with either gene alone. PFVMAA cells in culture released dopamine gradually in a constitutive manner. Genetically modified fibroblast cells were grafted in parkinsonian rat striata, and L-DOPA was systemically administered. Higher dopamine levels were sustained for a longer duration in rats grafted with PFVMAA cells than in those grafted with either control cells or cells with AADC alone. These findings underscore the importance of dopamine storage capacity in determining the efficacy of L-DOPA therapy and illustrate a novel method of gene therapy combined with precursor administration to overcome the major obstacles of PD treatment. (+info)
Aging, high salt intake, and renal dopaminergic activity in Fischer 344 rats.
The present study examined renal dopaminergic activity and its response to high salt (HS) intake in adult (6-month-old) and old (24-month-old) Fischer 344 rats. Daily urinary excretion of L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), dopamine, and its metabolites 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid was similar in adult and old rats; by contrast, daily urinary excretion of norepinephrine in old rats was almost twice that in adult animals. HS intake (1% NaCl) over a period of 24 hours resulted in a 2-fold increase in the urinary excretion of dopamine, DOPAC, and norepinephrine in adult animals but not in old animals. Norepinephrine and L-DOPA plasma levels did not change during HS intake and were similar in both groups of rats. The natriuretic response to an HS intake in old rats (from 4.7+/-0.4 to 10.7+/-2.0 nmol. kg(-1). d(-1); Delta=6.0+/-0.9 nmol. kg(-1). d(-1)) was less than in adult rats (from 5.2+/-0.4 to 13.5+/-2.5 nmol. kg(-1). d(-1); Delta=8.3+/-0.8 nmol. kg(-1). d(-1)). A diuretic response to HS intake was observed in adult rats (from 20.9+/-2.3 to 37.6+/-2.8 mL. kg(-1). d(-1)) but not in old rats (from 37.7+/-5.7 to 42.3+/-6. 0 mL. kg(-1). d(-1)). Dopamine levels and dopamine/L-DOPA ratios in the renal cortex of old rats were greater than in adult rats. HS intake increased both dopamine levels and dopamine/L-DOPA ratios in the renal cortex of adult rats but not in old rats. Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase activity was higher in old rats than in adult rats; HS intake increased L-amino acid decarboxylase activity (nmol. mg protein(-1). l5 min(-1)) in adult rats (from 67+/-1 to 93+/-1) but not in old rats (from 86+/-2 to 87+/-2). Dopamine inhibited Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity in proximal tubules obtained from adult rats, but it failed to exert such an inhibitory effect in old rats. It is concluded that renal dopaminergic tonus in old rats is higher than in adult rats but fails to respond to HS intake as observed in adult rats. This may be due in part to the inability of dopamine to inhibit Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity in old rats. (+info)
Expression of tryptophan decarboxylase and tyrosine decarboxylase genes in tobacco results in altered biochemical and physiological phenotypes.
The substrate specificity of tryptophan (Trp) decarboxylase (TDC) for Trp and tyrosine (Tyr) decarboxylase (TYDC) for Tyr was used to modify the in vivo pools of these amino acids in transgenic tobacco. Expression of TDC and TYDC was shown to deplete the levels of Trp and Tyr, respectively, during seedling development. The creation of artificial metabolic sinks for Trp and Tyr also drastically affected the levels of phenylalanine, as well as those of the non-aromatic amino acids methionine, valine, and leucine. Transgenic seedlings also displayed a root-curling phenotype that directly correlated with the depletion of the Trp pool. Non-transformed control seedlings could be induced to display this phenotype after treatment with inhibitors of auxin translocation such as 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid or N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid. The depletion of aromatic amino acids was also correlated with increases in the activities of the shikimate and phenylpropanoid pathways in older, light-treated transgenic seedlings expressing TDC, TYDC, or both. These results provide in vivo confirmation that aromatic amino acids exert regulatory feedback control over carbon flux through the shikimate pathway, as well as affecting pathways outside of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis. (+info)
Inhibition of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase activity by human autoantibodies.
A full-length rat cDNA clone encoding aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) (E.C. 22.214.171.124) was used for in vitro transcription and translation. The enzyme had catalytic activity (0. 2 pmol serotonin/microl lysate per min), and was stimulated 2.5-fold by the addition of excess pyridoxal phosphate. On size exclusion chromatography, AADC eluted as a single activity peak with an apparent mol. wt of 93 kD. This activity peak was immunoprecipitated by sera from patients with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I (APS I) containing autoantibodies against AADC. Serum and purified IgG from these patients inhibited the enzyme activity (non-competitively) by 10-80%, while sera from APS I patients without autoantibodies and controls did not. This finding confirms and extends previous observations that APS I patients have inhibitory antibodies against key enzymes involved in neurotransmitter biosynthesis. (+info)
Roles of renal dopamine and kallikrein-kinin systems in antihypertensive mechanisms of exercise in rats.
We have previously shown that both renal dopamine (DA) and kallikrein-kinin systems are activated by exercise in mild hypertensives. We aimed to confirm the effects of exercise on the renal DA system and the stimulatory effects of DA on the renal kallikrein-kinin system in rats. In experiment 1, 12 male Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats given a 4% salt diet were divided into two groups. Rats in the exercise group were forced to run at 8 m/min, 60 min/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Daily urinary volume, urinary excretion of sodium, free DA, and kallikrein activity were measured weekly. Renal aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase (AADC) activities were assayed at the end of the experiment. In experiment 2, 15 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 3 groups, a DA-5 (5 microg of DA/kg/min), a DA-10 (10 microg of DA/kg/min), and a control group. DA or vehicle was administered subcutaneously with an osmotic pump for 2 weeks. Daily urinary volume, urinary excretion of sodium, aldosterone, DA, and kallikrein activity were measured weekly. Plasma renin activity, aldosterone concentration, and renal kallikrein mRNA levels were determined at the end of the experiment. In experiment 1, urinary excretion of free DA and renal AADC activities in the exercise group were significantly higher than those in the non-exercise group at week 4. In experiment 2, renal kallikrein mRNA levels and urinary volume were significantly increased in the DA-10 group compared to the control group, although there were no differences in urinary kallikrein activities. Plasma aldosterone concentration was significantly decreased in the DA-10 group compared to that in the control group despite a lack of differences in plasma renin activities. In conclusion, exercise increased the urinary excretion of free DA, probably through increased renal AADC activity in DS rats. DA amplified renal kallikrein mRNA levels and decreased plasma aldosterone levels, probably through its suppression of aldosterone in the adrenal glands. Activation of the kallikrein-kinin system might be counteracted by post-transcriptional modification of aldosterone. These results suggest that exercise enhances renal dopamine production by activating renal AADC activity, which in turn stimulates the renal kallikrein-kinin system. (+info)
Concerted action of dopamine on renal and intestinal Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in the rat remnant kidney.
The present study evaluated renal and intestinal adaptations in sodium handling in uninephrectomized (Unx) rats and the role of dopamine. Two weeks after uninephrectomy, the remnant kidney in Unx rats weighed 33 +/- 2% more than the corresponding kidney in sham-operated (Sham) animals. This was accompanied by increases in urinary levels of dopamine and major metabolites [3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid] and increases in maximal velocity values (169 vs. 115 nmol. mg protein(-1). 15 min(-1)) for renal aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of renal dopamine. High salt (HS) intake increased (P < 0.05) the urinary excretion of dopamine and DOPAC in Unx and Sham rats. However, the urinary levels of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, dopamine, and DOPAC in Sham rats during HS intake were lower than in Unx rats. Blockade of dopamine D(1) receptors (Sch-23390, 2 x 30 microg/kg) reduced the urinary excretion of sodium in Unx (31% decrease) more pronouncedly than in Sham (19% decrease) rats. However, inhibition of renal Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity by dopamine was of similar magnitude in Unx and Sham rats. In parallel, it was observed that uninephrectomy resulted in a significant reduction in jejunal sodium absorption and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in jejunal epithelial cells. In jejunal epithelial cells from Sham rats, dopamine (1 microM) failed to inhibit Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, whereas in Unx rats it produced a significant reduction. It is concluded that uninephrectomy results in increased renal dopaminergic activity and dopamine-sensitive enhanced natriuresis. Furthermore, it is suggested that decreased jejunal absorption of sodium may take place in response to partial renal ablation, as an example of renal-intestinal cross talk. (+info)
The aromatic-L-amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor carbidopa is selectively cytotoxic to human pulmonary carcinoid and small cell lung carcinoma cells.
The carcinoid tumor is an uncommon neuroendocrine neoplasm the hallmark of which is excessive serotonin production. In studying kinetics of tryptophan hydroxylase and aromatic-L-amino acid decarboxylase (AAAD) in human carcinoid hepatic metastases and adjacent normal liver (J. A. Gilbert et al, Biochem. Pharmacol., 50: 845-850, 1995), we identified one significant difference: the Vmax of carcinoid AAAD was 50-fold higher than that in normal liver. Here, we report Western and Northern analyses detecting large quantities of AAAD polypeptide and mRNA in human carcinoid primary as well as metastatic tumors compared with normal surrounding tissues. To assess the feasibility of targeting these high AAAD levels for chemotherapy, AAAD inhibitors carbidopa (alpha-methyl-dopahydrazine), alpha-monofluoromethyldopa (MFMD), and 3-hydroxybenzylhydrazine (NSD-1015) were incubated (72 h) with NCI-H727 human lung carcinoid cells. Carbidopa and MFMD were lethal (IC50 = 29 +/- 2 microM and 56 +/- 6 microM, respectively); NSD-1015 had no effect on proliferation. On exposure to other human tumor lines, carbidopa was lethal only to NCI-H146 and NCI-H209 small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) lines (IC50 = 12 +/- 1 microM and 22 +/- 5 microM, respectively). Carbidopa (100 microM) decreased growth of (but did not kill) SK-N-SH neuroblastoma and A204 rhabdomyosarcoma cells and did not affect proliferation of DU 145 prostate, MCF7 breast, or NCI-H460 large cell lung carcinoma lines. The rank order of lines by AAAD activity was NCI-H146 > NCI-H209 > SK-N-SH > NCI-H727, whereas A204, DU 145, MCF7, and NCI-H460 had no measurable activity. For lung tumor lines (carcinoid, two SCLC, and one large cell lung carcinoma), AAAD activity was correlated with the potency of carbidopa-induced cytotoxicity. However, carcinoid cell death was not solely attributable to complete inhibition of either AAAD activity or the serotonin synthetic pathway. In further evaluating potential applications of these findings with carbidopa, we determined that sublethal doses of carbidopa produced additive cytotoxic effects in carcinoid cells in combination with etoposide and cytotoxic synergy in SCLC cells when coincubated with topotecan. (+info)