Using the 1994-95 National Health Interview Supplement Disability Supplement, the authors study levels of disabilities and accommodations among US adults with arthritis disability, compared to people with disability due to other conditions. Arthritis-disabled people are defined in two ways. One definition covers a broad range of arthritis and rheumatic conditions, and the other concentrates solely on arthritis. The authors find that arthritis-disabled people have more total disabilities than other-disabled peop e. However, their disabilities are less severe, have shorter durations, and accumulate more gradually over time. Despite more disabilities, people with arthritis disability use fewer assistive and service accommodations than other-disabled people. They do use more mobility aids. Because arthritis is the leading chronic condition for middle-aged and older adults, th s profile of extensive but mild-to-moderate disability is experienced by many millions of adults. Accommodations for arthritis may also be extensive but aimed more toward self-care than toward assistive and medical services. (+info)
The organization and financing of health services for persons with disabilities.
Americans with disabilities are rarely considered a distinct group of health care users in the same way as are older Americans, children, racial and ethnic minorities, and others who are perceived to have different needs and access issues. Indeed, to some extent individuals with disabilities overlap with all these groups. But they also have distinct needs with material implications for the organization, delivery, and financing of health care services. Despite the disproportionate health care needs and expenditures of many--though not all--individuals with disabilities, the mainstream health services research community has largely neglected them. This article outlines the most pressing health service research issues in addressing the health care needs of individuals with disabilities. (+info)
Disability part 2: access to dental services for disabled people. A questionnaire survey of dental practices in Merseyside.
This article aims to identify how accessible general dental practitioners thought that their services were and to identify the barriers they face in providing care for disabled people. A postal questionnaire survey was undertaken of all general dental practices in the Liverpool, Sefton, St Helens and Knowsley Health Authorities. Only one quarter of practices described themselves as having full physical access for disabled patients. However, despite this, over 90% of practices reported treating disabled patients and most were willing to treat more disabled patients. Dentists identified physical barriers, lack of time and the lack of domiciliary equipment as the main barriers to providing care for disabled people. Although dentists were willing to treat disabled patients few dental practices were accessible at the time of the survey. Further work is needed to ensure that dental practices comply with the Disability Discrimination Act. (+info)
Disability part 3: improving access to dental practices in Merseyside.
Several Merseyside dental practices took part in disability access audits of practice premises and practice staff took part in disability awareness training. Grants were awarded to part-fund improvements to practice facilities in line with the recommendations in the audit reports. The dental teams reported that the awareness training was very valuable and many common issues arose from the audits. Access for disabled people needs to be considered in all practice developments to ensure that dental practices comply with Part III of the Disability Discrimination Act by 2004. (+info)
A survey of hospital toilet facilities.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the quality of toilet facilities available for disabled people in a large provincial teaching hospital. DESIGN: Survey of toilet facilities for patients on the wards and in the outpatient department. SETTING: Teaching hospital in Leeds. RESULTS: Although the quality of toilet facilities varied, none met the standards recommended by the British Standards Institution. The worst facilities were found on a ward accommodating elderly patients, where the toilets were unsuitable for use by disabled people and bedside commodes had to be used instead. CONCLUSION: Toilet provision within a major hospital failed to meet standards required for disabled people. Admission to hospital may therefore result in loss of independence and dignity. If hospitals are to be centres of excellence, greater consideration must be given to the requirements of disabled people in the design of new wards, and current inadequate facilities should be upgraded. (+info)
Decreasing entry into a restricted area using a visual barrier.
Wandering is a difficult-to-manage behavior problem for individuals with cognitive impairments that can jeopardize safety if an individual enters a hazardous area or becomes lost. This study investigated the effects of a cloth barrier on entry into an unsafe area. The cloth barrier reduced entry into the restricted area and had high treatment acceptability. (+info)
Can adapting the homes of older people and providing assistive technology pay its way?
BACKGROUND: Adaptations and assistive technology (AT) have an important role in enabling older people to remain in their own homes. OBJECTIVE: To measure the feasibility and cost of adaptations and AT, and the scope for these to substitute and supplement formal care. DESIGN: Detailed design studies to benchmark the adaptability of 82 properties against the needs of seven notional users. SETTING: Social rented housing sector. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Measures of the adaptability of properties, costs of care, adaptations and AT, and relationships between these costs. RESULTS: The adaptability of properties varies according to many design factors and the needs of occupiers. The most adaptable properties were ground floor flats and bungalows; the least were houses, maisonettes and flats in converted houses. Purpose-built sheltered properties were generally more adaptable than corresponding mainstream properties but the opposite was the case for bungalows. Adaptations and AT can substitute for and supplement formal care, and in most cases the initial investment in adaptations and AT is recouped through subsequently lower care costs within the average life expectancy of a user. CONCLUSION: Appropriately selected adaptations and AT can make a significant contribution to the provision of living environments which facilitate independence. They can both substitute for traditional formal care services and supplement these services in a cost-effective way. (+info)
Design features of portable wheelchair ramps and their implications for curb and vehicle access.
This study evaluated a range of portable wheelchair ramps to highlight the effect of different product features on ease of use when wheelchair users climb curbs or access vehicles. Twelve portable ramps were evaluated. Although all the ramps were designed to load powered wheelchairs into motor vehicles, they were manufactured in different designs. The ramps were based on a "singlewide" platform or "channel" design. Some ramps had fixed dimensions, whereas others could be reduced in size because they were telescopic or designed to allow folding. Overall, the ramps could be divided into four subgroups on the basis of their key features. These were horizontally and longitudinally folding ramps, telescopic ramps, and ramps with fixed dimensions. The telescopic ramps could be subdivided into "U"-shaped gutter ramps and reverse profile ramps. Product appraisals and trials involving wheelchair users and caregivers of wheelchair users were done to evaluate each of these ramp designs. Although wheelchair ramps are available in a wide range of designs and configurations, we found that no single ramp design successfully met the needs of all wheelchair users or their caregivers. The evaluation highlighted a number of specific problems and potential hazards. Some ramps were found to move during a maneuver, showed poor stability when used with some vehicles, or were too narrow to allow wheelchair castors to pass through the channel without jamming. Some features, such as handles and locking mechanisms, influenced the ease with which the caregivers could use the ramps. Wheelchair users preferred the wide platform ramps because they were able to drive up these with ease and little preparation. The caregivers preferred folding or telescopic channel ramps because these were easier to handle and store. (+info)