Hypnotic action of N3-substituted arabinofuranosyluracils on mice. (9/171)

Methyl (2), ethyl (3), propyl (4), butyl (5), allyl (6), benzyl (7), o-, m-, p-xylyl (8-10), and alpha-phenylethyl (11) derivatives of arabinofuranosyluracil (1) were synthesized and their pharmacological effects in mice were examined by using hypnotic activity and synergism with pentobarbital as indices for the CNS depressant effects. At a dose of 2.0 micromol/mouse by intracerebroventricular injection, the values of mean sleeping time induced by 7-11 were 144, 154, 117, 33, and 34 min, respectively, whereas the alkyl (2-6) derivatives did not cause any hypnotic activity. N3-o-Xylylarabinofuranosyluracil (8) displayed the most potent hypnotic activity among the derivatives tested. Certain derivatives (6-11) significantly prolonged the pentobarbital-induced sleeping time compared to control. The present study indicated that substitution with benzyl and/or related groups on the N3-position of arabinofuranosyluracil produced CNS depressant effects.  (+info)

Positron emission tomography-based imaging of transgene expression mediated by replication-conditional, oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 mutant vectors in vivo. (10/171)

To evaluate the efficiency of gene delivery in gene therapy strategies for malignant brain tumors, it is important to determine the distribution and magnitude of transgene expression in target tumor cells over time. Here, we assess the time- and vector dose-dependent kinetics of recombinant herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 vector-mediated gene expression and vector replication in culture and in vivo by a recently developed radiotracer method for noninvasive imaging of gene expression (J. G. Tjuvajev et al., Cancer Res., 55: 6126-6132, 1995). The kinetics of viral infection of rat 9L gliosarcoma cells by the replication-conditional HSV-1 vector, hrR3, was studied by measuring the accumulation rate of 2-[14C]-fluoro-5-iodo-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl-uracil (FIAU), a selective substrate for viral thymidine kinase (TK). The level of viral TK activity in 9L cells was monitored by the radiotracer assay to assess various vector doses and infection times, allowing vector replication and spread. In parallel, viral yields and levels of Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase activity were assessed quantitatively. To study vector replication, spread and HSV-1-tk and lacZ gene coexpression in vivo, first- or second-generation recombinant HSV-1 vectors (hrR3 or MGH-1) were injected into s.c. growing rat 9L or human U87 deltaEGFR gliomas in nude rats at various times (8 h to 8 days) and at various vector doses [1 x 10(6) to 2 x 10(9) plaque-forming units (PFUs)] prior to imaging. For noninvasive assessment of HSV-1-tk gene expression (124I-labeled FIAU % dose/g), 0.15 mCi of 124I-labeled FIAU was injected i.v. 8 h after the last vector administration, and FIAU positron emission tomography (PET) was performed 48 h later. For the assessment of HSV-1-tk and lacZ gene coexpression, 0.2 mCi of 131I-labeled FIAU was injected i.v. 24 h after the last vector administration. Forty-eight h later, animals were killed, and tumors were dissected for quantitative autoradiographical and histochemical assessment of regional distribution of radioactivity (TK expression measured as 131I-labeled FIAU % dose/g) and coexpressed lacZ gene activity. The rates of FIAU accumulation (Ki) in hrR3-infected 9L cells in culture, which reflect the levels of HSV-1-tk gene expression, ranged between 0.12 and 3.4 ml/g/min. They increased in a vector dose- and infection time-dependent manner and correlated with the virus yield (PFUs/ml), where the PFUs:Ki ratios remained relatively constant over time. Moreover, a linear relationship was observed between lacZ gene expression and FIAU accumulation 5-40 h after infection of 9L cells with a multiplicity of infection of 1.5. At later times (> 52 h postinjection), high vector doses (multiplicity of infection, 1.5) led to a decrease of FIAU accumulation rates, viral yield, and cell pellet weights, indicating vector-mediated cell toxicity. Various levels of HSV-1-tk gene expression could be assessed by FIAU-PET after in vivo infection of s.c. tumors. The levels of FIAU accumulation were comparatively low (approximately ranging from 0.00013 to 0.003% injected dose/g) and were spatially localized; this may reflect viral-induced cytolysis of infected tumor cells and limited lateral spread of the virus. Image coregistration of tumor histology, HSV-1-tk related radioactivity (assessed by autoradiography), and lacZ gene expression (assessed by beta-galactosidase staining) demonstrated a characteristic pattern of gene expression around the injection sites. A rim of lacZ gene expression immediately adjacent to necrotic tumor areas was observed, and this zone was surrounded by a narrow band of HSV-1-tk-related radioactivity, primarily in viable-appearing tumor tissue. These results demonstrate that recombinant HSV-1 vector-mediated HSV-1-tk gene expression can be monitored noninvasively by PET, where the areas of FIAU-derived radioactivity identify the viable portion of infected tumor tissue that retains FIAU accumulation ability, and that the accumulation rate of FIAU in culture, Ki, reflects the number of HSV-1 viral particles in the infected tumor cell population [4.1 +/- 0.6 x 10(6) PFUs/Ki unit (PFUs divided by ml/min/g)]. Moreover, time-dependent and spatial relationships of HSV-1-tk and lacZ gene coexpression in culture and in vivo indicate the potential for indirect in vivo imaging of therapeutic gene expression in tumor tissue infected with any recombinant HSV-1 vector where a therapeutic gene is substituted for the lacZ gene.  (+info)

Quantitative kinetics of [124I]FIAU in cat and man. (11/171)

For the assessment of the efficacy of clinical gene therapy trials, different imaging modalities have been developed that enable a noninvasive assessment of location, magnitude, and duration of transduced gene expression in vivo. These imaging methods rely on a combination of an appropriate marker gene and a radiolabeled or paramagnetic marker substrate that can be detected by PET or MRI. Here, we assess whether the nucleoside analog 2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-1beta-D-arabinofuranosyl-5-iodouracil (FIAU), a specific marker substrate for herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV-1-tk) gene expression, penetrates the blood-brain barrier (BBB) as an essential prerequisite for a noninvasive assessment of HSV-1-tk gene expression in gliomas. METHODS: No-carrier-added [(124)I]FIAU was synthesized by reacting the precursor 2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-1beta-D-arabinofuranosyluracil (FAU) with carrier-free [(124)I]NaI. The course of biodistribution of [(124)I]FIAU was investigated in anesthetized cats (n = 3; organs) and in one patient with a recurrent glioblastoma (plasma and brain) by PET imaging over several hours (cats, 1-22 h) to several days (patient, 1-68 h). FIAU PET was performed in conjunction with multitracer PET imaging (cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolic rate of O(2) in cats only; cerebral metabolic rate of glucose and [(11)C]methionine in all subjects). A region-of-interest analysis was performed on the basis of coregistered high-resolution MR images. The average radioactivity concentration was determined, decay corrected, and recalculated as percentage injected dose per gram of tissue (%ID/g) or as standardized uptake values (SUVs). RESULTS: The average chemical yield of [(124)I]FIAU synthesis was 54.6% +/- 6.8%. The chemical and radiochemical purities of [(124)I]FIAU were found to be >98% and >95%, respectively. In cats, the kinetic analysis of [(124)I]FIAU-derived radioactivity showed an early peak (1-2 min after injection) in heart and kidneys (0.20 %ID/g; SUV, 4.0) followed by a second peak (10-20 min after injection) in liver and spleen (0.16 %ID/g; SUV, 3.2) with subsequent clearance from tissues and a late peak in the bladder (10-15 h after injection). In the unlesioned cat brain, no substantial [(124)I]FIAU uptake occurred throughout the measurement (<0.02 %ID/g; SUV, <0.4). In the patient, [(124)I]FIAU uptake in normal brain was also very low (<0.0002 %ID/g; SUV, <0.16). In contrast, the recurrent glioblastoma revealed relatively high levels of [(124)I]FIAU-derived radioactivity (5-10 min after injection; 0.001 %ID/g; SUV, 0.8), which cleared slowly over the 68-h imaging period. CONCLUSION: The PET marker substrate FIAU does not penetrate the intact BBB significantly and, hence, is not the marker substrate of choice for the noninvasive localization of HSV-1-tk gene expression in the central nervous system under conditions in which the BBB is likely to be intact. However, substantial levels of [(124)I]FIAU-derived radioactivity may occur within areas of BBB disruption (e.g., glioblastoma), which is an essential prerequisite for imaging clinically relevant levels of HSV-1-tk gene expression in brain tumors after gene therapy by FIAU PET. For this purpose, washout of nonspecific radioactivity should be allowed for several days.  (+info)

In vitro susceptibilities of wild-type or drug-resistant hepatitis B virus to (-)-beta-D-2,6-diaminopurine dioxolane and 2'-fluoro-5-methyl-beta-L-arabinofuranosyluracil. (12/171)

Prolonged treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection with lamivudine ([-]-beta-L-2',3'-dideoxy-3' thiacytidine) or famciclovir may select for viral mutants that are drug resistant due to point mutations in the polymerase gene. Determining whether such HBV mutants are sensitive to new antiviral agents is therefore important. We used a transient transfection system to compare the sensitivities of wild-type HBV and four lamivudine- and/or famciclovir-resistant HBV mutants to adefovir [9-(2-phosphonyl-methoxyethyl)-adenine; PMEA] and the nucleoside analogues (-)-beta-D-2, 6-diaminopurine dioxolane (DAPD) and 2'-fluoro-5-methyl-beta-L-arabinofuranosyluracil (L-FMAU). The drug-resistant mutants contained amino acid substitutions in the polymerase protein. We found that the M550I and M550V plus L526M substitutions, which confer lamivudine resistance, did not confer cross-resistance to adefovir or DAPD, but conferred cross-resistance to L-FMAU. The M550V substitution in isolation conferred a similar phenotype to M550I, except that it did not confer significant resistance to L-FMAU. The L526M substitution, which is associated with famciclovir resistance, conferred cross-resistance to L-FMAU but not to adefovir or DAPD. Inhibition of HBV secretion by DAPD, L-FMAU, and adefovir did not always correlate with inhibition of the generation of intracellular HBV replicative intermediates, suggesting that these analogs may preferentially inhibit specific stages of the viral replication cycle.  (+info)

Mutations of the woodchuck hepatitis virus polymerase gene that confer resistance to lamivudine and 2'-fluoro-5-methyl-beta-L-arabinofuranosyluracil. (13/171)

Administration of either lamivudine (2'-deoxy-3'-thiacytidine) or L-FMAU (2'-fluoro-5-methyl-beta-L-arabinofuranosyluracil) to woodchucks chronically infected with woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) induces a transient decline in virus titers. However, within 6 to 12 months, virus titers begin to increase towards pretreatment levels. This is associated with the emergence of virus strains with mutations of the B and C regions of the viral DNA polymerase (T. Zhou et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43:1947-1954, 1999; Y. Zhu et al., J. Virol. 75:311-322, 2001). The present study was carried out to determine which of the mutants that we have identified conferred resistance to lamivudine and/or to L-FMAU. When inserted into a laboratory strain of WHV, each of the mutations, or combinations of mutations, of regions B and C produced a DNA replication-competent virus and typically conferred resistance to both nucleoside analogs in cell culture. Sequencing of the polymerase active site also occasionally revealed other mutations, but these did not appear to contribute to drug resistance. Moreover, in transfected cells, most of the mutants synthesized viral DNA nearly as efficiently as wild-type WHV. Computational models suggested that persistence of several of the WHV mutants as prevalent species in the serum and, by inference, liver for up to 6 months following drug withdrawal required a replication efficiency of at least 10 to 30% of that of the wild type. However, their delayed emergence during therapy suggested replication efficiency in the presence of the drug that was still well below that of wild-type WHV in the absence of the drug.  (+info)

Immunization with surface antigen vaccine alone and after treatment with 1-(2-fluoro-5-methyl-beta-L-arabinofuranosyl)-uracil (L-FMAU) breaks humoral and cell-mediated immune tolerance in chronic woodchuck hepatitis virus infection. (14/171)

Woodchucks chronically infected with the woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) were treated with the antiviral drug 1-(2-fluoro-5-methyl-beta-L-arabinofuranosyl)-uracil (L-FMAU) or placebo for 32 weeks. Half the woodchucks in each group then received four injections of surface antigen vaccine during the next 16 weeks. Vaccination alone elicited a low-level antibody response to surface antigen in most carriers but did not affect serum WHV DNA and surface antigen. Carriers treated first with L-FMAU to reduce serum WHV DNA and surface antigen and then vaccinated had a similar low-level antibody response to surface antigen. Following vaccinations, cell-mediated immunity to surface antigen was demonstrated in both groups, independent of serum viral and antigen load, but was significantly enhanced in woodchucks treated with L-FMAU and was broadened to include other viral antigens (core, e, and x antigens and selected core peptides). Cell-mediated immunity and antibody responses to surface antigen were observed after drug discontinuation in half of the carriers that received L-FMAU alone. Surface antigen vaccine alone or in combination with drug broke humoral and cell-mediated immune tolerance in chronic WHV infection, but the combination with drug was more effective. This suggested that a high viral and antigen load in carriers is important in maintaining immunologic tolerance during chronicity. The humoral and cellular immunity associated with the combination of L-FMAU and vaccine resembled that observed in self-limited WHV infection. Such combination therapy represents a potentially useful approach to the control of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in humans.  (+info)

Half-life of the duck hepatitis B virus covalently closed circular DNA pool in vivo following inhibition of viral replication. (15/171)

Covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) is a crucial intermediate in the replication of hepadnaviruses. We inhibited the replication of duck hepatitis B virus in congenitally infected ducks with a combination of lamivudine and a dideoxyguanosine prodrug. Inhibition of viral replication should prevent renewal of the cccDNA pool, and its decay was measured in liver biopsy samples collected over a 5-month period. In three ducks, the cccDNA pools declined exponentially, with half-lives ranging from 35 to 57 days. In two others, the pools declined exponentially for about 70 days but then stabilized at about 6 copies/diploid genome. The selection of drug-resistant virus mutants is an unlikely explanation for this unexpected stabilization of cccDNA levels. Liver sections stained for the cell division marker PCNA showed that animals in which cccDNA loss was continuous had significantly greater numbers of PCNA-positive nuclei than did those animals in which cccDNA levels had plateaued.  (+info)

Rebound of hepatitis B virus replication in HepG2 cells after cessation of antiviral treatment. (16/171)

Treatment of patients with lamivudine (3TC) results in loss of detectable levels of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA from serum; however, the relapse rate, with regard to both reappearance of virus in the bloodstream and hepatic inflammation, is high when therapy is terminated. Although the rebound observed in patients has also been seen in animal hepadnavirus models, rebound has not been analyzed in an in vitro cell culture system. In this study, we used the HBV recombinant baculovirus/HepG2 system to measure the time course of antiviral agent-mediated loss of HBV replication as well as the time course and magnitude of HBV production after release from antiviral treatment. Because of the sensitivity of the system, it was possible to measure secreted virions, intracellular replicative intermediates, and nuclear non-protein-bound HBV DNA and separately analyze individual species of DNA, such as single-stranded HBV DNA compared to the double-stranded form and relaxed circular compared to covalently closed circular HBV DNA. We first determined that HBV replication in the HBV recombinant baculovirus/HepG2 system could proceed for at least 35 days, with a 30-day plateau level of replication, making it possible to study antiviral agent-mediated loss of HBV followed by rebound after cessation of drug treatment. All HBV DNA species decreased in a time-dependent fashion following antiviral treatment, but the magnitude of decline differed for each HBV DNA species, with the covalently closed circular form of HBV DNA being the most resistant to drug therapy. When drug treatment ceased, HBV DNA species reappeared with a pattern that recapitulated the initiation of replication, but with a different time course.  (+info)