Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase imaging in mice with (1-(2'-deoxy-2'-[18F]fluoro-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-iodouracil) and metabolite (1-(2'-deoxy-2'-[18F]fluoro-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-uracil).
Bacterial thymidine kinase as a non-invasive imaging reporter for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in live animals.
Clevudine myopathy in patients with chronic hepatitis B.
Effect of 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl-E-5-(2-bromovinyl)uracil against herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in immunosuppressed mice.
(76/171)1-beta-D-Arabinofuranosyl-E-5-(2-bromovinyl)uracil (BV-araU) reduced the mortality rates of (i) 7-week-old, cyclophosphamide-treated, immunosuppressed mice (CYP mice) intraperitoneally infected with a moderately virulent strain of herpes simplex virus type 1 and (ii) 4-week-old CYP mice infected with a less virulent strain at doses of 20 and 50 mg/kg of body weight twice daily and 5 mg/kg, respectively. The degree of efficacy of BV-araU was equivalent to that of acyclovir in 4-week-old CYP mice infected with the less virulent strain. BV-araU (20 mg/kg) suppressed viral growth in various organs of CYP mice. (+info)
Repetitive noninvasive monitoring of HSV1-tk-expressing T cells intravenously infused into nonhuman primates using positron emission tomography and computed tomography with 18F-FEAU.
(77/171)Adoptive transfer of antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) has been successfully used to treat patients with different types of cancer. However, the long-term spatial-temporal dynamics of the distribution of systemically infused CTLs remains largely unknown. Noninvasive imaging of adoptively transferred CTLs using molecular-genetic reporter imaging with positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET-CT) represents an innovative approach to understanding the long-term migratory patterns and therapeutic potential of adoptively transferred T cells. Here we report the application of repetitive PET-CT imaging with [18F]fluoro-5-ethyl-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyluracil (18F-FEAU) in two nonhuman primates demonstrating that autologous polyclonal macaque T lymphocytes activated and transduced with a retroviral vector encoding for the sr39 mutant herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase (sr39HSV1-tk) reporter gene can be detected after intravenous infusion in discrete lymphoid organs and in sites of inflammation. This study represents a proof of principle and supports the application of 18F-FEAU PET-CT imaging for monitoring the distribution of intravenously administered sr39HSV1-tk gene-transduced CTLs in humans. (+info)
Different strategies for reducing intestinal background radioactivity associated with imaging HSV1-tk expression using established radionucleoside probes.
(78/171)One limitation of HSV1-tk reporter positron emission tomography (PET) with nucleoside analogues is the high background radioactivity in the intestine. We hypothesized that endogenous expression of thymidine kinase in bacterial flora could phosphorylate and trap such radiotracers, contributing to the high radioactivity levels in the bowel, and therefore explored different strategies to increase fecal elimination of radiotracer. Intestinal radioactivity was assessed by in vivo microPET imaging and ex vivo tissue sampling following intravenous injection of 18F-FEAU, 124I-FIAU, or 18F-FHBG in a germ-free mouse strain. We also explored the use of an osmotic laxative agent and/or a 100% enzymatically hydrolyzed liquid diet. No significant differences in intestinal radioactivity were observed between germ-free and normal mice. 18F-FHBG-derived intestinal radioactivity levels were higher than those of 18F-FEAU and 124I-FIAU; the intestine to blood ratio was more than 20-fold higher for 18F-FHBG than for 18F-FEAU and 124I-FIAU. The combination of Peptamen and Nulytely lowered intestinal radioactivity levels and increased (2.2-fold) the HSV1-tk transduced xenograft to intestine ratio for 18F-FEAU. Intestinal bacteria in germ-free mice do not contribute to the high intestinal levels of radioactivity following injection of radionucleoside analogues. The combination of Peptamen and Nulytely increased radiotracer elimination by increasing bowel motility without inducing dehydration. (+info)
Identification and characterization of clevudine-resistant mutants of hepatitis B virus isolated from chronic hepatitis B patients.
Treatment outcomes of clevudine versus lamivudine at week 48 in naive patients with HBeAg positive chronic hepatitis B.