Expression and hepatobiliary transport characteristics of the concentrative and equilibrative nucleoside transporters in sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes.
Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid pharmacokinetics of 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine and 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyluracil following the repeated intravenous administration of high- and intermediate-dose 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine.
(66/171)We examined the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pharmacokinetics of 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-C) and 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyluracil (ara-U) in 19 patients with acute leukemia in order to determine whether ara-C or ara-U accumulate in these fluid compartments over time. Plasma and CSF samples were obtained just prior to the conclusion of the first and seventh, and immediately before the second and eighth, 2-h, twice-daily i.v. infusions of 3 g/m2/dose of ara-C (n = 10), 2 g/m2/dose of ara-C (n = 3), and 0.75 g/m2/dose of ara-C (n = 6). There was no accumulation of ara-C in the plasma or CSF, or of ara-U in the plasma following repeated ara-C infusions, ara-U did accumulate in the CSF; the end-dose 1/end-dose 7 CSF ara-U ratio was 0.35 +/- 0.12 and significantly different from this ratio for CSF ara-C (2.10 +/- 3.01; P = 0.004). The end-dose 7 CSF ara-U level was greater than the end-dose 1 CSF ara-U level in all paired specimens. There was a significant correlation between the dose of ara-C administered and the end-dose plasma ara-C and the end-dose CSF ara-U levels (P less than 0.02). One patient who received 3 g/m2/dose of ara-C developed neurotoxicity; his plasma and CSF ara-C and ara-U levels were not extraordinary during the period of ara-C administration, but he had persistent CSF ara-U demonstrable 75 h after his final ara-C dose. CSF ara-U accumulation might underlie the pathophysiology of ara-C-induced neurotoxicity. Intermediate doses of ara-C given i.v. (0.75 g/m2/dose over 2 h) appeared to generate therapeutic CSF ara-C levels and cleared CSF leukemia in one patient. (+info)
Bortezomib-induced enzyme-targeted radiation therapy in herpesvirus-associated tumors.
Noninvasive molecular imaging of hypoxia in human xenografts: comparing hypoxia-induced gene expression with endogenous and exogenous hypoxia markers.
Generation, biological consequences and repair mechanisms of cytosine deamination in DNA.
(69/171)Base moieties in DNA are spontaneously threatened by naturally occurring chemical reactions such as deamination, hydrolysis and oxidation. These DNA modifications have been considered to be major causes of cell death, mutations and cancer induction in organisms. Organisms have developed the DNA base excision repair pathway as a defense mechanism to protect them from these threats. DNA glycosylases, the key enzyme in the base excision repair pathway, are highly conserved in evolution. Uracil constantly occurs in DNA. Uracil in DNA arises by spontaneous deamination of cytosine to generate pro-mutagenic U:G mispairs. Uracil in DNA is also produced by the incorporation of dUMP during DNA replication. Uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG) acts as a major repair enzyme that protects DNA from the deleterious consequences of uracil. The first UNG activity was discovered in E. coli in 1974. This was also the first discovery of base excision repair. The sequence encoded by the ung gene demonstrates that the E. coli UNG is highly conserved in viruses, bacteria, archaea, yeast, mice and humans. In this review, we will focus on central and recent findings on the generation, biological consequences and repair mechanisms of uracil in DNA and on the biological significance of uracil-DNA glycosylase. (+info)
5-[18F]Fluoroalkyl pyrimidine nucleosides: probes for positron emission tomography imaging of herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase gene expression.
Molecular-genetic PET imaging using an HSV1-tk mutant reporter gene with enhanced specificity to acycloguanosine nucleoside analogs.
Imaging of lymph node micrometastases using an oncolytic herpes virus and [F]FEAU PET.