GATA1, cytidine deaminase, and the high cure rate of Down syndrome children with acute megakaryocytic leukemia.
(41/171)Down syndrome children with acute megakaryocytic leukemia (AMkL) have higher cure rates than non-Down syndrome acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients treated with cytosine arabinoside (ara-C). Megakaryoblasts from Down syndrome AML patients are more sensitive in vitro to ara-C than cells from non-Down syndrome AML patients. Somatic mutations in the GATA1 transcription factor have been detected exclusively and almost uniformly in Down syndrome AMkL patients, suggesting a potential linkage to the chemotherapy sensitivity of Down syndrome megakaryoblasts. Stable transfection of wild-type GATA1 cDNA into the Down syndrome AMkL cell line CMK resulted in decreased (8- to 17-fold) ara-C sensitivity and a threefold-lower generation of the active ara-C metabolite ara-CTP compared with that for mock-transfected CMK cells. High intracellular levels of uridine arabinoside (ara-U) (an inactive ara-C catabolite generated by cytidine deaminase) and cytidine deaminase transcripts were detected in GATA1-transfected CMK sublines, whereas no ara-U was detected in mock-transfected cells. Cytidine deaminase transcripts were a median 5.1-fold (P = .002) lower in Down syndrome megakaryoblasts (n = 16) than in blast cells from non-Down syndrome patients (n = 56). These results suggest that GATA1 transcriptionally upregulates cytidine deaminase and that the presence or absence of GATA1 mutations in AML blasts likely confers differences in ara-C sensitivities due to effects on cytidine deaminase gene expression, which, in turn, contributes to the high cure rate of Down syndrome AMkL patients. (+info)
Imaging DNA synthesis in vivo with 18F-FMAU and PET.
(42/171)We imaged DNA synthesis in vivo with PET and (18)F-1-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl)thymine (FMAU), which is phosphorylated by thymidine kinases and incorporated into DNA. METHODS: We produced (18)F-FMAU and injected the tracer into 5 normal dogs and studied them by imaging or biodistribution for up to 2.5 h. The pharmacokinetics of FMAU in blood and urine were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. At the end of each study, selected tissues were removed to measure the total activity retained in these tissues. In addition, the selected tissues were extracted by acid precipitation, by which the macromolecules can be precipitated to determine the radioactivity of (18)F-FMAU incorporated into DNA. RESULTS: Imaging and tissue analysis showed increased activity in the lymph nodes, stomach, small intestine, and bone marrow, with mean standardized uptake values of 1.4, 1.6, 2.3, and 3.9, respectively, because of varying degrees of increased cell proliferation. In contrast, (18)F-FMAU was distributed with tissue-to-muscle ratios of approximately 1.0 in nonproliferative organs such as lung, liver, and kidneys. Analysis of the tissue extracts using acid precipitation demonstrated that 88% of activity in marrow and 65% of activity in small intestine was acid precipitated. However, more than 90% of activity in the nonproliferating tissues such as heart and lungs was in the supernatant. Increased activity was seen in the heart because of a high level of thymidine kinase 2 and in the gallbladder because of excretion. Analysis of blood and urine demonstrated that more than 95% of activity was present as intact (18)F-FMAU at the end of the studies. CONCLUSION: The results showed that (18)F-FMAU was selectively retained in DNA of the proliferating tissues and was resistant to degradation. These features indicate that (18)F-FMAU might be an alternative to (11)C-thymidine for imaging DNA synthesis in normal tissues and tumors. (+info)
Combination of nucleoside analogues in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus infection: lesson from experimental models.
(43/171)Owing to the persistence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and the selection of drug-resistant mutants, a new concept of antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis B relies on the combination of nucleoside analogues. In experimental models of HBV infection, several key points concerning these combinations were addressed. (i) Is it possible to achieve a synergic antiviral effect with polymerase inhibitors? (ii) Is it possible to impact on intracellular viral covalently closed circular DNA? (iii) What is the impact of the cross-resistance patterns of the different nucleoside analogues? (iv) What is the effect of viral load suppression on the restoration of specific antiviral cellular responses? The clinical impact of these key issues is discussed in the perspective of new clinical trials. (+info)
Behavior of thymidylate kinase toward monophosphate metabolites and its role in the metabolism of 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-beta-L-arabinofuranosyl)-5-methyluracil (Clevudine) and 2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxythymidine in cells.
(44/171)L-nucleoside analogs are a new class of antiviral and anticancer agents, several of which are currently used in the clinic. The phosphorylation of these agents to the triphosphate form is thought to be important for exertion of their pharmacological activities. 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-beta-L-arabinofuranosyl)-5-methyluracil (L-FMAU; Clevudine) is a thymidine analog that is currently under phase III clinical trials as an anti-human hepatitis B virus agent. We examined the behavior of its monophosphate metabolite with human recombinant thymidylate kinase (TMPK) and showed that L-FMAU monophosphate (L-FMAUMP) is a poorer substrate than its D-configuration anomer (D-FMAUMP). The phosphorylation efficiency of l-FMAUMP is similar to that of the monophosphate of 2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (d4T), an anti-human immunodeficiency virus analog, both of which are approximately 1% TMP. To clarify the role of human TMPK in the phosphorylation of L-FMAUMP to the diphosphate metabolite in cells, a Tet-On inducible human TMPK cell line system was established. In this system, the expression of TMPK is closely regulated in response to various concentrations of doxycycline. When the cells were treated with L-FMAU or d4T, the amounts of the diphosphate and triphosphate metabolites of these analogs were increased, in accordance with an increase in human TMPK activity in cells. In conclusion, this is the first demonstration of the behavior of TMPK toward L-FMAUMP. This study indicates that human TMPK can phosphorylate L-FMAUMP and play a critical role in L-FMAU metabolism in cells. (+info)
Clevudine inhibits hepatitis delta virus viremia: a pilot study of chronically infected woodchucks.
(45/171)In a small controlled study, clevudine, a potent inhibitor of hepadnaviruses, including hepatitis B virus and woodchuck hepatitis virus, suppressed hepatitis delta virus (HDV) viremia in chronically infected woodchucks. Suppression was correlated with the marked reduction of woodchuck hepatitis virus surface antigen in individual animals, consistent with the concept that repression of surface antigen expression may be a useful antiviral strategy for HDV. (+info)
Identification of the mitochondrial targeting signal of the human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1): implications for interspecies differences in mitochondrial toxicity of fialuridine.
(46/171)We have previously shown that the human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1) is expressed and functional in the mitochondrial membrane and that this expression enhances the mitochondrial toxicity of the nucleoside drug, fialuridine (FIAU) (Lai, Y., Tse, C. M., and Unadkat, J. D. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 4490-4497). Here we report on identification of the mitochondrial targeting sequence of hENT1. Using confocal microscopy and different truncated and point mutants of hENT1-YFP (yellow fluorescent protein) expressed in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, we identified amino acid residues Pro(71),Glu(72), and Asn(74) (the PEXN motif) of hENT1 as important in mitochondrial targeting of hENT1. Identification of this mitochondrial targeting sequence provides a possible explanation for the dramatic difference in mitochondrial toxicity of FIAU between humans and rodents. Although the mouse ENT1 (mENT1), expressed in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, can transport FIAU, confocal microscopy showed that mENT1-GFP (green fluorescent protein) was not localized to the mitochondria. Consistent with this observation, mitochondria isolated from mouse livers did not transport FIAU. Sequence alignment of hENT1, mENT1, and rat ENT1 (rENT1) showed that the PEXN motif of hENT1 was substituted with a PAXS motif in both mENT1 and rENT1. Substitution of PAXS in mENT1 with PEXN (to create mENT1-PEXN-GFP) and of PEXN in hENT1 with PAXS (to create hENT1-PAXS-YFP) resulted in partial mitochondrial localization of mENT1-PEXN-GFP and loss of mitochondrial localization of hENT1-PAXS-YFP. This is the first time that the mitochondrial targeting signal of hENT1 has been identified. Our data suggest that the lack of mitochondrial toxicity of FIAU in mice is due to the lack of mENT1 targeting to and expression in the mitochondria. (+info)
Randomized, double-blind study of emtricitabine (FTC) plus clevudine versus FTC alone in treatment of chronic hepatitis B.
(47/171)Emtricitabine (FTC) is approved for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus. FTC and clevudine (CLV) have activity against hepatitis B virus (HBV). This report summarizes the results of a double-blind, multicenter study of patients with chronic hepatitis B who had completed a phase 3 study of FTC and were randomized 1:1 to 200 mg FTC once daily (QD) plus 10 mg CLV QD or 200 mg FTC QD plus placebo for 24 weeks with 24 weeks of follow-up. One hundred sixty-three patients were treated (82 with FTC plus CLV [FTC+CLV] and 81 with FTC); 72% were men, 53% were Asian, 47% were Caucasian, and 52% were hepatitis B e antigen positive, and the median baseline HBV DNA level was 6 log(10) copies/ml. After 24 weeks of treatment, 74% (FTC+CLV) versus 65% (FTC alone) had serum HBV DNA levels of <4,700 copies/ml (P = 0.114) (Digene HBV Hybrid Capture II assay). Twenty-four weeks posttreatment, the mean change in serum HBV DNA levels from baseline was -1.25 log(10) copies/ml (FTC+CLV), 40% had undetectable viremia (versus 23% for FTC alone), and 63% had normal alanine aminotransferase levels (versus 42% for FTC alone) (P < or = 0.025 for all endpoints). The safety profile was similar between arms during treatment, with less posttreatment exacerbation of hepatitis B in the combination arm. In summary, after 24 weeks of treatment, no significant difference between arms was observed, but there was a significantly greater virologic and biochemical response 24 weeks posttreatment in the FTC+CLV arm. (+info)
Molecular imaging with 123I-FIAU, 18F-FUdR, 18F-FET, and 18F-FDG for monitoring herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase and ganciclovir prodrug activation gene therapy of cancer.
(48/171)The ability to monitor tumor responses during prodrug activation gene therapy and other anticancer gene therapies is critical for their translation into clinical practice. Previously, we demonstrated the feasibility of noninvasive in vivo imaging with 131I-5-iodo-2'-fluoro-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyluracil (131I-FIAU) for monitoring herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) cancer gene expression in an experimental animal model. Here we tested the efficacy of SPECT with 123I-FIAU and PET with 5-18F-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (18F-FUdR), 2-18F-fluoroethyl-L-tyrosine (18F-FET), and 18F-FDG for monitoring tumor responses during prodrug activation gene therapy with HSV1-tk and ganciclovir (GCV). METHODS: In the flanks of FVB/N female mice, 4 tumors per animal were established by subcutaneous injection of 1 x 10(5) cells of NG4TL4 sarcoma cells, HSV1-tk-transduced NG4TL4-STK cells, or a mixture of these cells in different proportions to model different efficacies of transfection and HSV1-tk gene expression levels in tumors. Ten days later, the animals were treated with GCV (10 mg/kg/d intraperitoneally) for 7 d. Gamma-Imaging with 123I-FIAU and PET with 18F-FUdR, 18F-FET, and 18F-FDG were performed before and after initiation of therapy with GCV in the same animal. RESULTS: Before GCV treatment, no significant difference in weight and size was found in tumors that expressed different HSV1-tk levels, suggesting similar in vivo proliferation rates for NG4TL4 and NG4TL4-STK sarcomas. The accumulation of 123I-FIAU at 24 h after injection was directly proportional to the percentage of NG4TL4-STK cells in the tumors. The 123I-FIAU accumulation at 4 and 7 d of GCV therapy decreased significantly compared with pretreatment levels and was proportional to the percentage of HSV1-tk-positive tumor cells. Tumor uptake of 18F-FUdR in all HSV1-tk-expressing tumors also decreased significantly compared with pretreatment levels and was proportional to the percentage of HSV1-tk-positive tumor cells. The accumulation of 18F-FET decreased minimally (about 1.5-fold) and 18F-FDG decreased only 2-fold after 7 d of GCV therapy, and the degree of reduction was proportional to the percentage of HSV1-tk-positive tumor cells. CONCLUSION: We have shown that gamma-camera imaging with 123I-FIAU was the most reliable method for prediction of tumor response to GCV therapy, which was proportional to the magnitude of HSV1-tk expression in tumor tissue. 123I-FIAU imaging can be used to verify the efficacy of elimination of HSV1-tk-expressing cells by therapy with GCV. PET with 18F-FUdR reliably visualizes proliferating tumor tissue and is most suitable for the assessment of responses in tumors undergoing HSV1-tk plus GCV prodrug activation gene therapy. PET with 18F-FDG or 18F-FET can be used as additional "surrogate" biomarkers of the treatment response, although these radiotracers are less sensitive than 18F-FUdR for monitoring tumor responses to prodrug activation gene therapy with HSV1-tk and GCV in this sarcoma model. (+info)