Comparison of radiolabeled nucleoside probes (FIAU, FHBG, and FHPG) for PET imaging of HSV1-tk gene expression. (17/171)

The efficacy of 3 radiolabeled probes of current interest for imaging herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) expression in vivo with PET, including (124)I- or (131)I-labeled 2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl-5-iodouracil (FIAU), (18)F-labeled 9-[4-fluoro-3-(hydroxymethyl)butyl]guanine (FHBG), and (18)F-labeled 9-[3-fluoro-1-hydroxy-2-propoxymethyl]guanine (FHPG), was compared. METHODS: Two established rat glioma cell lines, stably transduced RG2TK+ and wild-type RG2, were used for paired comparisons of probe accumulation in vitro and for paired comparisons of subcutaneous xenografts produced from these cell lines in athymic rnu/rnu rats. RESULTS: The in vitro paired probe uptake (0-3 h) comparisons in RG2TK+ cells showed that FIAU accumulation was 15-fold greater than that of FHBG and 41-fold greater than that of FHPG. The net accumulation rate values (+/-SD) calculated for RG2TK+ cells were 0.317 +/- 0.066, 0.022 +/- 0.001, and 0.0077 +/- 0.0003 mL/min/g cells for FIAU, FHBG, and FHPG, respectively. These results and similar uptake studies in RG2 wild-type cells suggest a possible cell membrane transport limitation for FHBG and FHPG. The paired 2-h in vivo uptake studies produced similar differences in RG2TK+ xenografts for FIAU and FHBG (1.22 +/- 0.21 vs. 0.074 +/- 0.49 %dose/g) and for FIAU and FHPG (1.27 +/- 0.14 vs. 0.023 +/- 0.008 %dose/g). These differences were clearly visible on the images. FIAU accumulation at 24 h was 1.53 +/- 0.40 %dose/g. Plasma clearance was FHBG > FHPG >> FIAU. The FIAU images showed significant stomach and some intestinal background radioactivities, whereas hepatobiliary and intestinal background activities were very high for the guanosine analogs (FHBG > FHPG). Dynamic imaging showed early ( approximately 10 min) selective localization of FIAU in RG2TK+ xenografts, whereas FHBG and FHPG are being cleared from the HSV1-tk transduced and wild-type xenografts over the initial 2-h imaging period. CONCLUSION: The in vitro and in vivo results (including the PET images) show that FIAU is a substantially more efficient probe than FHBG or FHPG for imaging HSV1-tk expression, with greater sensitivity and contrast as well as lower levels of abdominal background radioactivity at 2 and 24 h.  (+info)

Rationale of 5-(125)I-iodo-4'-thio-2'-deoxyuridine as a potential iodinated proliferation marker. (18/171)

The aim of this investigation was to synthesize and test a novel metabolically stable iodinated nucleoside as a proliferation-imaging agent for SPECT. METHODS: 5-Iodo-4'-thio-2'-deoxyuridine (ITdU) and 5-iodo-1-(4-thio-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)uracil (ITAU) were tested. The radiolabeling of ITdU and ITAU with (125)I was achieved by a destannylation reaction of the trimethylstannyl precursor of each nucleoside. The products were isolated in high yields and with >99% radiochemical purities. RESULTS: (125)I-ITdU was effectively phosphorylated by cytosolic nucleoside kinases and specifically incorporated into a thymidine kinase-expressing L-M cell rather than a thymidine kinase-deficient mutant L-M (TK(-)) cell. In addition, an in vitro cell metabolism study of (125)I-ITdU clarified that (125)I-ITdU was effectively and specifically incorporated into a DNA fraction (>90% at 60 min). Therefore, (125)I-ITdU was proven to be an ideal DNA synthesis marker such as 5-(125)I-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (IUdR). In contrast, (125)I-ITAU was neither remarkably phosphorylated by cytosolic nucleoside kinases nor notably incorporated into an L-M cell rather than an L-M (TK(-)) cell. (125)I-ITdU and (125)I-ITAU showed a higher resistance to phosphorolytic cleavage by recombinant thymidine phosphorylase than did (125)I-IUdR. Furthermore, biodistribution of (125)I-ITdU and (125)I-ITAU revealed better in vivo stability of radioiodination than that of (125)I-IUdR. (125)I-ITdU also displayed a significantly higher uptake in proliferating organs (thymus, spleen, small intestine, and bone) than in nonproliferating organs (brain, muscle, liver, and lung), as did (125)I-IUdR, at 18 h after injection. As indicated by the in vitro study, (125)I-ITAU did not show any significant uptake in proliferating organs. CONCLUSION: Radioiodine-labeled ITdU is potentially useful as a proliferation-imaging agent, and further studies should clarify the usefulness of this compound as a tumor-imaging agent.  (+info)

Rat studies comparing 11C-FMAU, 18F-FLT, and 76Br-BFU as proliferation markers. (19/171)

We analyzed and compared 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-[methyl-(11)C]thymine ((11)C-FMAU), 3'-deoxy-3'-[(18)F]fluorothymidine ((18)F-FLT) and 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-[(76)Br]bromouracil ((76)Br-BFU) with respect to tissue uptake, DNA incorporation, and excretion modulation in rats. The goal of the investigation was to evaluate the efficiency of the 3 nucleoside tracers as potential tracers for measuring proliferation. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups and administered 5 MBq (11)C-FMAU, 1 MBq (18)F-FLT, or 2 MBq (76)Br-BFU. For each tracer, a subgroup was also administered 6 mg/kg cimetidine. The rats in the (11)C-FMAU group were killed at 5, 20, 40, 60, and 80 min after injection; the rats in the (18)F-FLT group were killed at 80 min and 2 and 4 h; and the rats in the (76)Br-BFU group were killed at 5, 20, 40, and 80 min and 2, 4, 6, and 24 h. Samples of blood, liver, kidney, spleen, and intestine were taken, and the radioactivity was measured. DNA separation was made in the samples of spleen, and the radioactivity in the DNA fraction was measured. RESULTS: Maximal uptake of radioactivity was seen in the spleen and intestine, organs with active DNA synthesis. The highest relative radioactivity uptake was at 60 min in the (11)C-FMAU groups and at 4 h in the (18)F-FLT group. In the (76)Br-BFU group, the uptake increased gradually during the observation period, and uptake of radioactivity increased markedly in rats receiving cimetidine. Cimetidine did not affect radioactivity uptake in the (11)C-FMAU or (18)F-FLT groups. The fraction of radioactivity in DNA was 78% in spleen at 60 min in the (11)C-FMAU group, 80% at 60 min and 97% at 4 h in the (76)Br-BFU group. The DNA-incorporation was only 2% in the (18)F-FLT group. CONCLUSION: (76)Br-BFU predominantly incorporates into DNA and has great potential as a PET tracer for the assessment of proliferation in vivo. (11)C-FMAU also may have potential as a proliferation marker, but the observation time is limited. (18)F-FLT does not incorporate into DNA and is therefore not a direct marker of proliferation.  (+info)

Comparison of anti-hepatitis B virus activities of lamivudine and clevudine by a quantitative assay. (20/171)

In this study, we used a quantitative assay to measure the concentration-dependent effects of antivirals on extracellular hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA as well as on different cytoplasmic and nuclear forms of HBV DNA that participate in HBV replication. HBV recombinant baculovirus, which efficiently delivers the HBV genome to HepG2 cells, was used for this study because (i) antivirals can be administered prior to initiation of HBV infection or after HBV infection and (ii) sufficiently high HBV replication levels are achieved that HBV covalently closed circular (CCC) DNA can be easily detected and individual HBV DNA species can be quantitatively analyzed separately from total HBV DNA. The results showed that the levels of HBV replicative intermediate and extracellular DNA decreased in a concentration-dependent fashion following antiviral treatment. The 50% effective concentration (EC(50)) and EC(90) values and the Hill slopes differed for the different HBV DNA species analyzed. The data clearly indicated that (i) nuclear HBV DNAs are more resistant to antiviral therapy than cytoplasmic or extracellular HBV DNAs and (ii) nuclear HBV CCC DNA is more resistant than the nuclear relaxed circular form. This report presents the first in vitro comparison of the effects of two antivirals administered prior to initiation of HBV infection and the first thorough in vitro quantitative study of concentration-dependent antiviral effects on HBV CCC DNA.  (+info)

Effects of pyrimidine and purine analog combinations in the duck hepatitis B virus infection model. (21/171)

To design new strategies of antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis B, we have evaluated the antiviral activity of the combination of amdoxovir (DAPD), emtricitabine [(-)FTC], and clevudine (L-FMAU) in the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) model. Using their triphosphate (TP) derivatives in a cell-free system expressing a wild-type active DHBV reverse transcriptase (RT), the three dual combinations exhibited a greater additive inhibitory effect on viral minus-strand DNA synthesis than the single drugs, according to the Bliss independence model. Both dual combinations with DAPD TP were the most efficient while the triple combination increased the inhibitory effect on the DHBV RT activity in comparison with the dual association, however, without additive effect. Postinoculation treatment of experimentally infected primary duck hepatocytes showed that dual and triple combinations potently inhibited viral DNA synthesis during treatment but did not inhibit the reinitiation of viral DNA synthesis after treatment cessation. Preinoculation treatment with the same combinations exhibited antiviral effects on intracellular viral DNA replication, but it was unable to prevent the initial covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) formation. Short-term in vivo treatment in acutely infected ducklings showed that the dual combinations were more-potent inhibitors of virus production than the single treatments, with the L-FMAU and FTC combination being the most potent. A longer administration of L-FMAU and FTC for 4 weeks efficiently suppressed viremia and viral replication. However, no viral clearance from the liver was observed, suggesting that the enhanced antiviral effect of this combination was not sufficient for cccDNA suppression and HBV eradication from infected cells.  (+info)

A radioimmunoassay method for 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyluracil using antibodies directed against 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine. (22/171)

Above pH 7.0 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyluracil (ara-U) shows marked pH-dependent cross-reactivity with antibodies directed towards 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine. Since this peculiar phenomenon has not been observed with other nucleosides and nucleotides thus far tested, it is probably the result of base-catalyzed tautomerism of ara-U to its enolic form which renders it more structurally similar to 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine. By performing the radioimmunoassay at both pH 6.2 and 8.6 we could determine 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine and ara-U simultaneously. This method for ara-U assay is simple, fairly reliable, and applicable to blood level studies.  (+info)

Cytoplasmically retargeted HSV1-tk/GFP reporter gene mutants for optimization of noninvasive molecular-genetic imaging. (23/171)

To optimize the sensitivity of imaging HSV1-tk/GFP reporter gene expression, a series of HSV1-tk/GFP mutants was developed with altered nuclear localization and better cellular enzymatic activity, compared to that of the native HSV1-tk/GFP fusion protein (HSV1-tk/GFP). Several modifications of HSV1-tk/GFP reporter gene were performed, including targeted inactivating mutations in the nuclear localization signal (NLS), the addition of a nuclear export signal (NES), a combination of both mutation types, and a truncation of the first 135 bp of the native hsv1-tk coding sequence containing a "cryptic" testicular promoter and the NLS. A recombinant HSV1-tk/GFP protein and a highly sensitive sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for HSV1-tk/GFP were developed to quantitate the amount of reporter gene product in different assays to allow normalization of the data. These different mutations resulted in various degrees of nuclear clearance, predominant cytoplasmic distribution, and increased total cellular enzymatic activity of the HSV1-tk/GFP mutants, compared to native HSV1-tk/GFP when expressed at the same levels. This appears to be the result of improved metabolic bioavailability of cytoplasmically retargeted mutant HSV1-tk/GFP enzymes for reaction with the radiolabeled probe (e.g., FIAU). The analysis of enzymatic properties of different HSV1-tk/GFP mutants using FIAU as a substrate revealed no significant differences from that of the native HSV1-tk/GFP. Improved total cellular enzymatic activity of cytoplasmically retargeted HSV1-tk/GFP mutants observed in vitro was confirmed by noninvasive imaging of transduced subcutaneous tumor xenografts bearing these reporters using [(131)I]FIAU and a gamma-camera.  (+info)

Convenient synthesis of arabinonucleoside containing oligodeoxyribonucleotides. (24/171)

C2 substituted arabinofuranosyluracil derivatives were synthesized and its incorporations into DNA were easily carried out by using post-synthetic modification.  (+info)