Caesarean section rates in the Arab region: a cross-national study.
This study had a dual purpose of estimating population- and hospital-based caesarean section rates in 18 Arab countries and examining the association between these rates and important indicators of socioeconomic development. Data on caesarean section were based on the most recent population-based surveys undertaken in each country. Descriptive statistics and bivariate correlation coefficients were used for the analysis. Specifically, Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were used to analyze the associations between caesarean section rates and important population parameters. Results revealed that four Arab countries had population-based caesarean rates below 5%, while only three countries had rates above 15%. The remaining 11 countries had caesarean rates ranging between 5-15%. Higher hospital-based rates were reported for all countries. Differences in caesarean section rates between private and public hospitals were also noted. Highly significant associations were observed between population caesarean rates and female literacy, percentage urban, infant mortality rate, and the proportion of physicians per 100 000 people. The "caesarean section epidemic" observed in countries of Latin America is not yet evident in the 18 Arab countries examined. Rather, emphasis should be on improving access to appropriate obstetrical interventions in case of complications in a number of countries where rates were well below 5%. (+info)
Arabic sign language: a perspective.
Sign language in the Arab World has been recently recognized and documented. Many efforts have been made to establish the sign language used in individual countries, including Jordan, Egypt, Libya, and the Gulf States, by trying to standardize the language and spread it among members of the Deaf community and those concerned. Such efforts produced many sign languages, almost as many as Arabic-speaking countries, yet with the same sign alphabets. This article gives a tentative account of some sign languages in Arabic through reference to their possible evolution, which is believed to be affected by the diglossic situation in Arabic, and by comparing some aspects of certain sign languages (Jordanian, Palestinian, Egyptian, Kuwaiti, and Libyan) for which issues such as primes, configuration, and movement in addition to other linguistic features are discussed. A contrastive account that depicts the principal differences among Arabic sign languages in general and the spoken language is given. (+info)
Internet-based search of randomised trials relevant to mental health originating in the Arab world.
BACKGROUND: The internet is becoming a widely used source of accessing medical research through various on-line databases. This instant access to information is of benefit to busy clinicians and service users around the world. The population of the Arab World is comparable to that of the United States, yet it is widely believed to have a greatly contrasting output of randomised controlled trials related to mental health. This study was designed to investigate the existence of such research in the Arab World and also to investigate the availability of this research on-line. METHODS: Survey of findings from three internet-based potential sources of randomised trials originating from the Arab world and relevant to mental health care. RESULTS: A manual search of an Arabic online current contents service identified 3 studies, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO searches identified only 1 study, and a manual search of a specifically indexed, study-based mental health database, PsiTri, revealed 27 trials. CONCLUSION: There genuinely seem to be few trials from the Arab world and accessing these on-line was problematic. Replication of some studies that guide psychiatric/psychological practice in the Arab world would seem prudent. (+info)
Health indicators and human development in the Arab region.
BACKGROUND: The present paper deals with the relationship between health indicators and human development in the Arab region. Beyond descriptive analysis showing geographic similarities and disparities inter countries, the main purpose is to point out health deficiencies and to propose pragmatic strategies susceptible to improve health conditions and consequently enhance human development in the Arab world. METHODS: Data analysis using Principal Components Analysis is used to compare the achievements of the Arab countries in terms of direct and indirect health indicators. The variables (indicators) are seen to be well represented on the circle of correlation, allowing for interesting interpretation and analysis. The 19 countries are projected on the first and second plane respectively. RESULTS: The results given by the present analysis give a good panorama of the Arab countries with their geographic similarities and disparities. The high correlation between health indicators and human development is well illustrated and consequently, countries are classified by groups having similar human development. The analysis shows clearly how health deficits are impeding human development in the majority of Arab countries and allows us to formulate suggestions to improve health conditions and enhance human development in the Arab World. DISCUSSION: The discussion is based on the link between different direct and indirect health indicators and the relationship between these indicators and human development index. Without including the GDP indicator, our analysis has shown that the 19 Arab countries may be classified, independently of their geographic proximity, in three different groups according to their global human development level (Low, Medium and High). Consequently, while identifying health deficiencies in each group, the focus was made on the countries presenting a high potential of improvement in health indicators. In particular, maternal mortality and infant mortality which are really challenging health authorities of the first and third group were critically discussed. CONCLUSION: The Arab countries have made substantial economic and social progress during the last decades by improving life expectancy and reducing maternal and infant mortality. However, considering its natural wealth and human resources, the Arab region has accomplished less than expected in terms of human development. Huge social inequalities and health inequities exist inter and intra Arab countries. In most Arab countries, a large percentage of populations, especially in rural areas, are deprived of access to health facilities. Consequently, many women still die during pregnancy and labour, yielding unacceptable levels of maternal and infant mortality. However, the problem is seen to be more complex, going beyond geography and technical accessibility to health care, it compasses, among others, levels of literacy, low social and economic status of women, qualification of health staff, general behaviour and interactions between patients and medical personnel (including corruption). (+info)
Hospital-based caesarean section in the Arab region: an overview.
This article provides an overview of hospital-based rates of caesarean delivery in 18 Arab countries and the association between these rates and selected demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Data on caesarean section were based on 2 of the most recent national hospital-based surveys in each country and on published studies based on hospital samples. High levels of caesarean delivery were found in Egypt (26% in 2003), followed by Sudan (20% in 1993). Six countries and the West Bank area of Palestine had rates >15% and 11 countries and Gaza had rates between 5% and 15%. The findings indicate an increasing trend of caesarean section delivery in the region. Policies aiming at reducing surgical deliveries should seek to identify and address these risk factors. (+info)
Case notes and clinicians: Galen's "Commentary" on the Hippocratic "Epidemics" in the Arabic tradition.