(1/540) Metabolic acidosis-induced retinopathy in the neonatal rat.

PURPOSE: Carbon dioxide (CO2)-induced retinopathy (CDIR) in the neonatal rat, analogous to human retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), was previously described by our group. In this model, it is possible that CO2-associated acidosis provides a biochemical mechanism for CDIR. Therefore, the effect of pure metabolic acidosis on the developing retinal vasculature of the neonatal rat was investigated. METHODS: A preliminary study of arterial blood pH was performed to confirm acidosis in our model. In neonatal rats with preplaced left carotid artery catheters, acute blood gas samples were taken 1 to 24 hours after gavage with either NH4Cl 1 millimole/100 g body weight or saline. In the subsequent formal retinopathy study, 150 newborn Sprague-Dawley rats were raised in litters of 25 and randomly assigned to be gavaged twice daily with either NH4Cl 1 millimole/100 g body weight (n = 75) or saline (n = 75) from day 2 to day 7. After 5 days of recovery, rats were killed, and retinal vasculature was assessed using fluorescein perfusion and ADPase staining techniques. RESULTS: In the preliminary pH study, the minimum pH after NH4Cl gavage was 7.10+/-0.10 at 3 hours (versus 7.37+/-0.03 in controls, mean +/- SD, P < 0.01). In the formal retinopathy study, preretinal neovascularization occurred in 36% of acidotic rats versus 5% of controls (P < 0.001). Acidotic rats showed growth retardation (final weight 16.5+/-3.0 g versus 20.2+/-2.6 g, P < 0.001). The ratio of vascularized to total retinal area was smaller in acidotic rats (94%+/-4% versus 96%+/-2%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic acidosis alone induces neovascularization similar to ROP in the neonatal rat. This suggests a possible biochemical mechanism by which high levels of CO2 induce neovascularization and supports the suggestion that acidosis may be an independent risk factor for ROP.  (+info)

(2/540) Specific inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation by clopidogrel in vitro.

1. The thienopyridine clopidogrel is a specific inhibitor of ADP-induced platelet aggregation ex vivo. No direct effects of clopidogrel (< or = 100 microM) on platelet aggregation in vitro have been described so far. 2. Possible in vitro antiaggregatory effects (turbidimetry) of clopidogrel were studied in human platelet-rich plasma and in washed platelets. 3. Incubation of platelet-rich plasma with clopidogrel (< or = 100 microM) for up to 8 h did not result in any inhibition of ADP (6 microM)-induced platelet aggregation. 4. Incubation of washed platelets with clopidogrel resulted in a time- (maximum effects after 30 min) and concentration-dependent (IC50 1.9+/-0.3 microM) inhibition of ADP (6 microM)-induced platelet aggregation. Clopidogrel (30 microM) did not inhibit collagen (2.5 microg ml(-1))-, U46619 (1 microM)- or thrombin (0.1 u ml(-1))-induced platelet aggregation. The inhibition of ADP-induced aggregation by clopidogrel (30 microM) was insurmountable indicating a non-equilibrium antagonism of ADP actions. The R enantiomer SR 25989 C (30 microM) was significantly less active than clopidogrel (30 microM) in inhibiting platelet aggregation (32+/-5% vs 70+/-1% inhibition, P < 0.05, n = 5). 5. In washed platelets, clopidogrel (< or = 30 microM) did not significantly reverse the inhibition of prostaglandin E1 (1 microM)-induced platelet cyclic AMP formation by ADP (6 microM). 6. The antiaggregatory effects of clopidogrel were unchanged when the compound was removed from the platelet suspension. However, platelet inhibition by clopidogrel was completely abolished when albumin (350 mg ml(-1)) was present in the test buffer. 7. It is concluded that clopidogrel specifically inhibits ADP-induced aggregation of washed platelets in vitro without hepatic bioactivation. Inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation by clopidogrel in vitro occurs in the absence of measurable effects on the reversal of PGE1-stimulated cyclic AMP by ADP.  (+info)

(3/540) Functional characterization of rat ecto-ATPase and ecto-ATP diphosphohydrolase after heterologous expression in CHO cells.

The recently cloned ecto-ATPase and ecto-apyrase (ecto-ATP diphosphohydrolase) are plasma-membrane-bound enzymes responsible for the extracellular degradation of nucleoside 5'-triphosphates and nucleoside 5'-diphosphates. We expressed the rat-derived enzymes in CHO cells to compare their molecular and functional properties. Sequence-specific polyclonal antibodies differentiate between the two proteins and reveal identical molecular masses of 70-80 kDa. Both enzymes are stimulated by either Ca2+ or Mg2+ and reveal a broad substrate specificity towards purine and pyrimidine nucleotides. Whereas ecto-apyrase hydrolyzes nucleoside 5'-diphosphates at a rate approximately 20-30% lower than nucleoside-5'-triphosphates, ecto-ATPase hydrolyzes nucleoside-5'-diphosphates only to a marginal extent. The sensitivity of the two enzymes to the inhibitors of P2 receptors suramin, PPADS and reactive blue differs. Hydrolysis of ATP by ecto-ATPase leads to the accumulation in the medium of extracellular ADP as an intermediate product, whereas ecto-apyrase dephosphorylates ATP directly to AMP. Our results suggest that previous data describing extracellular hydrolysis of ATP by a variety of intact cellular systems with unidentified ecto-nucleotidases may be explained by the coexpression of ecto-ATPase and ecto-apyrase.  (+info)

(4/540) A nod factor binding lectin with apyrase activity from legume roots.

A lectin isolated from the roots of the legume, Dolichos biflorus, binds to Nod factors produced by rhizobial strains that nodulate this plant and has a deduced amino acid sequence with no significant homology to any lectin reported to date. This lectin also is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphoanhydride bonds of nucleoside di- and triphosphates; the enzyme activity is increased in the presence of carbohydrate ligands. This lectin-nucleotide phosphohydrolase (LNP) has a substrate specificity characteristic of the apyrase category of phosphohydrolases, and its sequence contains four motifs characteristic of this category of enzymes. LNP is present on the surface of the root hairs, and treatment of roots with antiserum to LNP inhibits their ability to undergo root hair deformation and to form nodules on exposure to rhizobia. These properties suggest that this protein may play a role in the rhizobium-legume symbiosis and/or in a related carbohydrate recognition event endogenous to the plant.  (+info)

(5/540) Inhibition of an ecto-ATP-diphosphohydrolase by azide.

Cell surface ATPases (ecto-ATPases or E-ATPases) hydrolyze extracellular ATP and other nucleotides. Regulation of extracellular nucleotide concentration is one of their major proposed functions. Based on enzymatic characterization, the E-ATPases have been divided into two subfamilies, ecto-ATPases and ecto-ATP-diphosphohydrolases (ecto-ATPDases). In the presence of either Mg2+ or Ca2+, ecto-ATPDases, including proteins closely related to CD39, hydrolyze nucleoside diphosphates in addition to nucleoside triphosphates and are inhibited by millimolar concentrations of azide, whereas ecto-ATPases appear to lack these two properties. This report presents the first systematic kinetic study of a purified ecto-ATPDase, the chicken oviduct ecto-ATPDase (Strobel, R.S., Nagy, A.K., Knowles, A.F., Buegel, J. & Rosenberg, M.O. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 16323-16331), with respect to ATP and ADP, and azide inhibition. Km values for ATP obtained at pH 6.4 and 7.4 are 10-30 times lower than for ADP and the catalytic efficiency is greater with ATP as the substrate. The enzyme also exhibits complicated behavior toward azide. Variable inhibition by azide is observed depending on nucleotide substrate, divalent ion, and pH. Nearly complete inhibition by 5 mm azide is obtained when MgADP is the substrate and when assays are conducted at pH 6-6.4. Azide inhibition diminishes when ATP is the substrate, Ca2+ as the activating ion, and at higher pH. The greater efficacy of azide in inhibiting ADP hydrolysis compared to ATP hydrolysis may be related to the different modes of inhibition with the two nucleotide substrates. While azide decreases both Vmax and Km for ADP, it does not alter the Km for ATP. These results suggest that the apparent affinity of azide for the E.ADP complex is significantly greater than that for the free enzyme or E.ATP. The response of the enzyme to three other inhibitors, fluoride, vanadate, and pyrophosphate, is also dependent on substrate and pH. Taken together, these results are indicative of a discrimination between ADP and ATP by the enzyme. A mechanism of azide inhibition is proposed.  (+info)

(6/540) Insertion of atToc34 into the chloroplastic outer membrane is assisted by at least two proteinaceous components in the import system.

Toc34 is a member of the outer membrane translocon complex that mediates the initial stage of protein import into chloroplasts. Toc34, like most outer membrane proteins, is synthesized in the cytosol at its mature size without a cleavable transit peptide. The majority of outer membrane proteins do not require thermolysin-sensitive components on the chloroplastic surface or ATP for their insertion into the outer membrane. However, different results have been obtained concerning the factors required for Toc34 insertion into the outer membrane. Using an Arabidopsis homologue of pea Toc34, atToc34, we show that the insertion of atToc34 was greatly reduced by thermolysin pretreatment of chloroplasts as assayed either by protease digestion or by alkaline extraction. The insertion was also dependent on the presence of ATP or GTP. A mutant of atToc34 with the GTP-binding domain deleted still required ATP for optimal insertion, indicating that ATP was used by other protein components in the import system. The ATP-supported insertion was observed even in thermolysin-pretreated chloroplasts, suggesting that the protein component responsible for ATP-stimulated insertion is a different protein from the thermolysin-sensitive component that assists atToc34 insertion.  (+info)

(7/540) Platelet-released ADP stabilizes PAF-induced rabbit platelet aggregation by stabilizing intracellular calcium.

AIM: To examine whether platelet-released adenosine diphosphate (ADP) would contribute to the stabilization of rabbit platelet aggregation induced by platelet activating factor (PAF). METHODS: Rabbit platelet aggregation induced by PAF was measured turbimetrically. ADP release from rabbit platelets stimulated by PAF was determined by HPLC. Intracellular Ca2+ was measured using Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent indicator Fura 2-AM. RESULTS: PAF > or = 1 nmol.L-1 induced full platelet aggregation, which did not deaggregate over 5 min after aggregation reached peak. Platelet aggregation was deaggregated in a concentration-dependent manner by subsequent addition of ADP scavenger ATP-diphosphohydrolase (apyrase) at 5-100 mg.L-1. PAF 3 nmol.L-1 stimulated release of ADP (29% vs 6% of control), and elicited a rapid rise in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) which peaked at approximately 15 s. Then the [Ca2+]i gradually decayed from 585 +/- 80 nmol.L-1 within 100 s to a low level (364 +/- 82 nmol.L-1). Apyrase 100 mg.L-1, added 2 min after PAF, reduced [Ca2+]i to a lower level (171 +/- 29 nmol.L-1). CONCLUSION: Platelet-released ADP stabilizes PAF-induced rabbit platelet aggregation by stabilizing [Ca2+]i at elevated level.  (+info)

(8/540) CD39-L4 is a secreted human apyrase, specific for the hydrolysis of nucleoside diphosphates.

The human ecto-apyrase gene family consists of five reported members (CD39, CD39-L1, CD39-L2, CD39-L3, and CD39-L4). The family can be subdivided into two groups by conservation of proposed structural domains. The CD39, CD39-L1, and CD39-L3 genes all encode hydrophobic portions in their carboxy and amino termini, serving as transmembrane domains for CD39 and potentially for the other two members. CD39-L2 and CD39-L4 genes encode hydrophobic portions in their amino termini, suggesting that they might encode secreted apyrases. We demonstrate that the CD39-L4 gene encodes the first reported human secreted ecto-apyrase. COS-7 cells transfected with a CD39-L4 expression construct utilizing the naturally occurring leader peptide express recombinant protein outside of the cells. This expression can be blocked by brefeldin A, a chemical that inhibits a step in mammalian secretory pathways. We also demonstrate expression of CD39-L4 message in macrophages, suggesting that the protein is present in the circulation. Furthermore, we show that CD39-L4 is an E-type apyrase, is dependent on calcium and magnesium cations, and has high degree of specificity for NDPs over NTPs as enzymatic substrates. A potential physiological role in hemostasis and platelet aggregation is presented.  (+info)