Insulin-like growth factors I and II are unable to form and maintain their native disulfides under in vivo redox conditions. (1/706)

Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I does not quantitatively form its three native disulfide bonds in the presence of 10 mM reduced and 1 mM oxidized glutathione in vitro [Hober, S. et al. (1992) Biochemistry 31, 1749-1756]. In this paper, we show (i) that both IGF-I and IGF-II are unable to form and maintain their native disulfide bonds at redox conditions that are similar to the situation in the secretory vesicles in vivo and (ii) that the presence of protein disulfide isomerase does not overcome this problem. The results indicate that the previously described thermodynamic disulfide exchange folding problem of IGF-I in vitro is also present in vivo. Speculatively, we suggest that the thermodynamic disulfide exchange properties of IGF-I and II are biologically significant for inactivation of the unbound growth factors by disulfide exchange reactions to generate variants destined for rapid clearance.  (+info)

Activation of Xenopus eggs by proteases: possible involvement of a sperm protease in fertilization. (2/706)

Egg activation in cross-fertilization between Xenopus eggs and Cynops sperm may be caused by a protease activity against Boc-Gly-Arg-Arg-MCA in the sperm acrosome. To determine the role of the sperm protease in fertilization, the protease was purified from Cynops sperm using several chromatographic techniques. We found that purified sperm protease readily hydrolyzes Boc-Gly-Arg-Arg-MCA and Z-Arg-Arg-MCA, that protease activity was inhibited by the trypsin inhibitors aprotinin and leupeptin, and that not only the purified protease, but also cathepsin B, induces activation in Xenopus eggs. We inseminated unfertilized Xenopus eggs with homologous sperm in the presence of various peptidyl MCA substrates or protease inhibitors and demonstrated that trypsin inhibitors or MCA substrates containing Arg-Arg-MCA reversibly inhibited fertilization of both fully jellied and denuded eggs. Sperm motility was not affected by the reagents. An extract obtained from Xenopus sperm showed hydrolytic activity against Boc-Gly-Arg-Arg-MCA, Z-Arg-Arg-MCA, and Arg-MCA. These results suggest that the tryptic protease in Xenopus sperm is involved in fertilization, most likely by participating in egg activation.  (+info)

Allosteric modulation of BPTI interaction with human alpha- and zeta-thrombin. (3/706)

In this study, thrombin interaction with the basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) was investigated in the presence of different allosteric modulators of thrombin, that is the C-terminal hirudin peptide 54-65 (Hir54-65), a recombinant thrombomodulin form (TMEGF4-6) and Na+. BPTI binding to alpha-thrombin is positively linked to Na+. Under low sodium concentration (5 mM Na+) the BPTI affinity for alpha-thrombin was roughly threefold lower than in the presence of 150 mM sodium (Ki = 320 microM vs. 100 microM). The hirudin fragment, which binds to the fibrinogen recognition site (FRS) of thrombin, induced a progressive and saturable decrease (3.6-fold) of alpha-thrombin affinity for BPTI, whereas the thrombomodulin peptide, which binds to a more extended region of FRS, caused a 5.5-fold increase of the enzyme affinity for the inhibitor. The opposite effect exerted by Hir54-65 and TMEGF4-6 was also observed for BPTI interaction with zeta-thrombin, in which the amidic bond between W148 and T149 is cleaved. However, in this case the effect by Hir54-65 and TMEGF4-6, although qualitatively similar to that observed with alpha-thrombin, had a smaller magnitude. Thrombin hydrolysis of Protein C was also differently affected by Hir54-65 and TMEGF4-6 peptides. While the latter enhanced the Protein C activation, the former caused a reduction of both alpha- and zeta-thrombin kcat/K(m)' for Protein C cleavage. These results showed that (a) Na+ facilitates BPTI interaction with thrombin; (b) Hir54-65 and TMEGF4-6, though sharing in part the same binding site at the thrombin FRS, can affect in opposite way thrombin's interaction with BPTI and Protein C; (c) such findings along with the results obtained with zeta-thrombin might be explained by admitting that the thermodynamic linkage between FRS and the critical W60-loop is also controlled by ligation and/or conformational state of the W148 insertion loop.  (+info)

Strategy for balancing anticoagulation and hemostasis in aortocoronary bypass surgery: blood conservation and graft patency. (4/706)

The minimal effective dose of aprotinin on hemostasis under normothermic perfusion, the influence of anticoagulant therapy on graft patency, and the thromboembolic and hemorrhagic events were investigated after aortocoronary bypass graft operation (CABG). One hundred CABG patients under normothermic perfusion were randomly divided into the following groups: (1) coumadin plus acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) (n=32); no aprotinin used during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB); (2) minimal-dose, 10(6) KIU during CPB, aprotinin used, followed by ASA and coumadin (n=36); and (3) very low-dose, total of 2x10(6) KIU before CPB and during CPB; aprotinin used; anticoagulation therapy with heparin early after surgery and followed by replacement with ASA and coumadin (n=32). The patency of arterial grafts was 100% in all groups. The patency of vein grafts was 95-98% and there was no difference among the groups. The blood loss was significantly reduced in both aprotinin groups (groups 2 and 3) compared to the coumadin plus ASA group, although no difference existed between the 2 aprotinin groups. Postoperative thrombotic and hemorrhagic events were not observed in any group. From this study, it was concluded that 10(6) KIU aprotinin in pump-prime-only followed by oral ASA and coumadin was the recommendation from the benefit/cost consideration.  (+info)

Comparison of anionic and cationic trypsinogens: the anionic activation domain is more flexible in solution and differs in its mode of BPTI binding in the crystal structure. (5/706)

Unlike bovine cationic trypsin, rat anionic trypsin retains activity at high pH. This alkaline stability has been attributed to stabilization of the salt bridge between the N-terminal Ile16 and Asp194 by the surface negative charge (Soman K, Yang A-S, Honig B, Fletterick R., 1989, Biochemistry 28:9918-9926). The formation of this salt bridge controls the conformation of the activation domain in trypsin. In this work we probe the structure of rat trypsinogen to determine the effects of the surface negative charge on the activation domain in the absence of the Ile16-Asp194 salt bridge. We determined the crystal structures of the rat trypsin-BPTI complex and the rat trypsinogen-BPTI complex at 1.8 and 2.2 A, respectively. The BPTI complex of rat trypsinogen resembles that of rat trypsin. Surprisingly, the side chain of Ile16 is found in a similar position in both the rat trypsin and trypsinogen complexes, although it is not the N-terminal residue and cannot form the salt bridge in trypsinogen. The resulting position of the activation peptide alters the conformation of the adjacent autolysis loop (residues 142-153). While bovine trypsinogen and trypsin have similar CD spectra, the CD spectrum of rat trypsinogen has only 60% of the intensity of rat trypsin. This lower intensity most likely results from increased flexibility around two conserved tryptophans, which are adjacent to the activation domain. The NMR spectrum of rat trypsinogen contains high field methyl signals as observed in bovine trypsinogen. It is concluded that the activation domain of rat trypsinogen is more flexible than that of bovine trypsinogen, but does not extend further into the protein core.  (+info)

Effect of glycerol on the interactions and solubility of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor. (6/706)

The effects of additives used to stabilize protein structure during crystallization on protein solution phase behavior are poorly understood. Here we investigate the effect of glycerol and ionic strength on the solubility and strength of interactions of the bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor. These two variables are found to have opposite effects on the intermolecular forces; attractions increase with [NaCl], whereas repulsions increase with glycerol concentration. These changes are mirrored in bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor solubility where the typical salting out behavior for NaCl is observed with higher solubility found in buffers containing glycerol. The increased repulsions induced by glycerol can be explained by a number of possible mechanisms, all of which require small changes in the protein or the solvent in its immediate vicinity. Bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor follows the same general phase behavior as other globular macromolecules where a robust correlation between protein solution second virial coefficient and solubility has been developed. This study extends previous reports of this correlation to solution conditions involving nonelectrolyte additives.  (+info)

Hydroiodic acid attachment kinetics as a chemical probe of gaseous protein ion structure: bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor. (7/706)

The kinetics of attachment of hydroiodic acid (HI) to the (M + 6H)6+ ions of native and reduced forms of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) in the quadrupole ion trap environment are reported. Distinctly nonlinear (pseudo first-order) reaction kinetics are observed for reaction of the native ions, indicating two or more noninterconverting structures in the parent ion population. The reduced form, on the other hand, shows very nearly linear reaction kinetics. Both forms of the parent ion attach a maximum of five molecules of hydroiodic acid. This number is expected based on the amino acid composition of the protein. There is a total of 11 strongly basic sites in the protein (i.e., six arginines, four lysines, and one N-terminus). An ion with protons occupying six of the basic sites has five available for hydroiodic acid attachment. The kinetics of successive attachment of HI to the native and reduced forms of BPTI also differ, particularly for the addition of the fourth and fifth HI molecules. A very simple kinetic model describes the behavior of the reduced form reasonably well, suggesting that all of the neutral basic sites in the reduced BPTI ions have roughly equal reactivity. However, the behavior of the native ion is not well-described by this simple model. The results are discussed within the context of differences in the three-dimensional structures of the ions that result from the presence or absence of the three disulfide linkages found in native BPTI. The HI reaction kinetics appears to have potential as a chemical probe of protein ion three-dimensional structure in the gas phase. Hydroiodic acid attachment chemistry is significantly different from other chemistries used to probe three-dimensional structure and hence, promises to yield complementary information.  (+info)

Urokinase receptor (uPAR, CD87) is a platelet receptor important for kinetics and TNF-induced endothelial adhesion in mice. (8/706)

BACKGROUND: Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR, CD87) is a widely distributed 55-kD, glycoprotein I-anchored surface receptor. On binding of its ligand uPA, it is known to increase leukocyte adhesion and traffic. Using genetically deficient mice, we explored the role of uPAR in platelet kinetics and TNF-induced platelet consumption. METHODS AND RESULTS: Anti-uPAR antibody stained platelets from normal (+/+) but not from uPAR-/- mice, as seen by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis. 51Cr-labeled platelets from uPAR-/- donors survived longer than those from +/+ donors when injected into a +/+ recipient. Intratracheal TNF injection induced thrombocytopenia and a platelet pulmonary localization, pronounced in +/+ but absent in uPAR-/- mice. Aprotinin, a plasmin inhibitor, decreased TNF-induced thrombocytopenia. TNF injection markedly reduced the survival and increased the pulmonary localization of 51Cr-labeled platelets from +/+ but not from uPAR-/- donors, indicating that it is the platelet uPAR that is critical for their response to TNF. As seen by electron microscopy, TNF injection increased the number of platelets and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in the alveolar capillaries of +/+ mice, whereas in uPAR-/- mice, platelet trapping was insignificant and PMN trapping was slightly reduced. Platelets within alveolar capillaries of TNF-injected mice were activated, as judged from their shape, and this was evident in +/+ but not in uPAR-/- mice. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate for the first time the critical role of platelet uPAR for kinetics as well as for activation and endothelium adhesion associated with inflammation.  (+info)