Extrathymic derivation of gut lymphocytes in parabiotic mice.
In adult mice, c-kit+ stem cells have recently been found in their liver, intestine and appendix, where extrathymic T cells are generated. A major population of such thymus-independent subsets among intraepithelial lymphocytes is T-cell receptor (TCR)gamma delta+ CD4- CD8alpha alpha+(beta-) cells, but the origins of other lymphocyte subsets are still controversial. In this study, we examined what type of lymphocyte subsets were produced in situ by such stem cells in the small intestine, large intestine and appendix. To investigate this subject, we used parabiotic B6.Ly5.1 and B5.Ly5. 2 mice which shared the same circulation by day 3. The origin of lymphocytes was identified by anti-Ly5.1 and anti-Ly5.2 monoclonal antibodies in conjunction with immunofluorescence tests. Lymphocytes in Peyer's patches and lamina propria lymphocytes (especially B cells and CD4+ T cells) in the small intestine became a half-and-half mixture of Ly5.1+ and Ly5.2+ cells in each individual of parabiotic pairs of mice by day 14. However, the mixture was low in CD8alpha alpha+, CD8alpha beta+ and gamma delta T cells in the small and large intestines and in CD3+ CD8+ B220+ cells in the appendix. These cells might be of the in situ origin. When one individual of a pair was irradiated before parabiosis, the mixture of partner cells was accelerated. However, a low-mixture group always continued to show a lower mixture pattern than did a high-mixture group. The present results suggest that extrathymic T cells in the digestive tract may arise from their own pre-existing precursor cells and remain longer at the corresponding sites. (+info)
Enrichment of c-kit+ Lin- haemopoietic progenitor cells that commit themselves to extrathymic T cells in in vitro culture of appendix mononuclear cells.
The appendix as well as the small intestine have recently been found to carry c-kit+ stem cells which give rise to extrathymic T cells. In this study, the properties of c-kit+ stem cells in the appendix of mice were further characterized. When appendix mononuclear cells (MNC) were cultured in the presence of stem cell factor, interleukin-3, interleukin-6 and erythropoietin on a methylcellulose culture plate, the population of c-kitdull Lin- and that of c-kithi Lin- cells expanded. Morphological study revealed that these c-kithi Lin- cells were basophilic granular cells (possibly mast cells). Both populations of cultured appendix MNC were then injected into severe combined immunodeficient mice or cultured with Tst-4 thymic stroma cells. These in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that c-kitdull Lin- cells were oligopotent haemopoietic progenitor cells which gave rise to extrathymic T cells, while c-kithi Lin- cells lacked haemopoietic progenitor cell activity. In contrast to c-kit+ stem cells in the bone marrow, those in the appendix did not give rise to myeloid cells and conventional thymic T cells under any of the conditions tested. The present results suggest that the appendix primarily comprises c-kit+ cells which give rise to basophilic granular cells and extrathymic T cells and that such c-kit+ cells have the ability to replicate themselves in culture in vitro. (+info)
Hematuria: an unusual presentation for mucocele of the appendix. Case report and review of the literature.
Mucocele of the appendix is a nonspecific term that is used to describe an appendix abnormally distended with mucus. This may be the result of either neoplastic or non-neopleastic causes and may present like most appendiceal pathology with either mild abdominal pain or life-threatening peritonitis. Urologic manifestations of mucocele of the appendix have rarely been reported. Laparoscopy can be used as a diagnostic tool in equivocal cases. Conversion to laparotomy may be indicated if there is a special concern for the ability to remove the appendix intact or if more extensive resection is warranted, as in malignancy. We here report our experience with a woman presenting with hematuria whose ultimate diagnosis was mucocele of the appendix, and we review the appropriate literature. This case highlights the mucocele as a consideration in the differential diagnosis of appendiceal pathology and serves to remind the surgeon of the importance for careful intact removal of the diseased appendix. (+info)
Carcinoid of the appendix during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: unexpected benefits.
Carcinoid tumors of the midgut arise from the distal duodenum, jejunum, ileum, appendix, ascending and right transverse colon. The appendix and terminal ileum are the most common location. The majority of carcinoid tumors originate from neuroendocrine cells along the gastrointestinal tract, but they are also found in the lung, ovary, and biliary tracts. We report the first case of elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy in which we found a suspicious lesion at the tip of the appendix and proceeded to perform a laparoscopic appendectomy. The lesion revealed a carcinoid tumor of the appendix. (+info)
Characterization of a novel transcript of prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthase 1 with a tissue-specific profile of expression.
The enzyme prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthase (PGHS) has a pivotal role in the prostanoid biosynthetic pathway because it catalyses the formation of prostaglandin H(2) (PGH(2)), the common precursor of prostanoids. Two PGHS isoforms have been reported, PGHS-1 and PGHS-2, which have 61% identity (at the amino acid level) and 73% similarity (at the nucleotide level) between the two human enzymes. Transcription of the PGHS-1 gene leads to the formation of two transcripts (2.8 and 5.1 kb); two transcripts of 2.8 and 4.5 kb are produced from the PGHS-2 gene. By Northern blot analysis with the entire coding region of human PGHS-1, 2.8 and 5.1 kb transcripts as well as a novel 4.5 kb transcript were detected in the human megakaryoblastic cell line MEG-01. We designed a strategy to characterize the 4.5 kb PGHS transcript. Probes specific for each PGHS-1 and PGHS-2 were designed on the basis of the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR), where no similarity is present. The 4.5 kb transcript was detected only with the PGHS-1-specific 3' UTR probes and not with the PGHS-2-specific 3' UTR probe. To investigate the origin of the 4.5 kb PGHS-1 transcript, the remaining 947 bp of the 5.1 kb PGHS-1 transcript was generated by 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (3' RACE) and sequenced. A non-canonical polyadenylation signal (AAGAAA) located upstream of a potential cleavage site (CA) was found and could generate the 4.5 kb PGHS-1 transcript. Analysis of the sequence also produced several possible G/U-rich elements downstream of the potential cleavage site. An RNA dot-blot with 50 different human tissues was probed with the 4.5 and 5.1 kb PGHS-1-specific probes. A signal for the 4.5 kb PGHS-1 transcript was detected in the bladder and appendix. Signals of lower intensity were detected in the colon, bone marrow, small intestine, uterus, prostate, peripheral leucocyte, lymph node and stomach. In conclusion, our results suggest that the cell line MEG-01, the bladder and the appendix contain a new PGHS-1 transcript of 4.5 kb that can be produced from the PGHS-1 gene and we provide a better strategy for distinguishing PGHS-1 transcripts from PGHS-2. (+info)
ICBP90, a novel human CCAAT binding protein, involved in the regulation of topoisomerase IIalpha expression.
The one-hybrid system with an inverted CCAAT box as the DNA target sequence was used to identify proteins acting on key DNA sequences of the promoter of the topoisomerase IIalpha gene. Screening of cDNA libraries from the leukemia Jurkat cell line and from the adult human thymus resulted in the isolation of a novel protein of 793 amino acids (89,758 Da). This protein has in vitro CCAAT binding properties and has been called ICBP90. Adult thymus, fetal thymus, fetal liver, and bone marrow, known as active tissues in terms of cell proliferation, are the tissues richest in ICBP90 mRNA. In contrast, highly differentiated tissues and cells such as the central nervous system and peripheral leukocytes are free of ICBP90 mRNA. Western blotting experiments showed a simultaneous expression of topoisomerase IIalpha and ICBP90 in proliferating human lung fibroblasts. Simultaneous expression of both proteins has also been observed in HeLa cells, but in both proliferating and confluent cells. Overexpression of ICBP90 in COS-1-transfected cells induced an enhanced expression of endogenous topoisomerase IIalpha. Immunohistochemistry experiments showed that topoisomerase IIalpha and ICBP90 were coexpressed in proliferating areas of paraffin-embedded human appendix tissues and in high-grade breast carcinoma tissues. We have identified ICBP90, which is a novel CCAAT binding protein, and our results suggest that it may be involved in topoisomerase IIalpha expression. ICBP90 may also be useful as a new proliferation marker for cancer tissues. (+info)
Assessment of the prevalence of vCJD through testing tonsils and appendices for abnormal prion protein.
The objective of this study was to determine the age group or groups which will provide the most information on the potential size of the vCJD epidemic in Great Britain via the sampling of tonsil and appendix material to detect the presence of abnormal prion protein (PrP(Sc)). A subsidiary aim was to determine the degree to which such an anonymous age-stratified testing programme will reduce current uncertainties in the size of the epidemic in future years. A cohort- and time-stratified model was used to generate epidemic scenarios consistent with the observed vCJD case incidence. These scenarios, together with data on the age distribution of tonsillectomies and appendectomies, were used to evaluate the optimal age group and calendar time for undertaking testing and to calculate the range of epidemic sizes consistent with different outcomes. The analyses suggested that the optimal five-year age group to test is 25-29 years, although a random sample of appendix tissue from all age groups is nearly as informative. A random sample of tonsil tissue from all age groups is less informative, but the information content is improved if sampling is restricted to tissues removed from those over ten years of age. Based on the assumption that the test is able to detect infection in the last 75% of the incubation period, zero detected infections in an initial random sample of 1000 tissues would suggest that the epidemic will be less than 870,000 cases. If infections are detected, then the model prediction suggests that both relatively small epidemics (800+ cases if one is detected or 8300+ if two are detected) and larger epidemics (21,000+ cases if three or more are detected) are possible. It was concluded that testing will be most informative if undertaken using appendix tissues or tonsil tissues removed from those over ten years of age. Large epidemics can only be excluded if a small number of infections are detected and the test is able to detect infection early in the incubation period. (+info)
The coexistence of low-grade mucinous neoplasms of the appendix and appendiceal diverticula: a possible role in the pathogenesis of pseudomyxoma peritonei.
We examined 38 appendectomies with diagnoses of mucocele, diverticulum, or adenoma to study the coincidence of appendiceal diverticula and appendiceal low-grade mucinous neoplasms and to examine the possible role of diverticula in the pathogenesis of pseudomyxoma peritonei. Invasive adenocarcinomas and retention cysts were excluded (six cases). Cases were classified as adenomas or mucinous tumors of unknown malignant potential, with or without diverticula. Medical records were reviewed for multiple parameters, including presenting symptoms, presence of pseudomyxoma peritonei, and presence of associated malignancies. Binomial statistics were used to calculate the probability that the observed prevalence of low-grade mucinous neoplasms and diverticula together was significantly different from the expected prevalence of diverticula or low-grade mucinous neoplasms alone, using historical controls from the literature. Twenty-five percent of the total cases (8 of 32) contained both a low-grade mucinous neoplasm (7 cystadenomas and 1 mucinous tumor of unknown malignant potential) and a diverticulum. Thus, 8 of 19 low-grade mucinous neoplasms (42%) were associated with diverticula. Of the appendices with both low-grade mucinous neoplasms and diverticula, three contained dissecting acellular mucin within the appendiceal wall, four showed diverticular perforation, and one had pseudomyxoma peritonei associated with the ruptured diverticulum. A significant percentage (P < .001) of cases contained low-grade mucinous neoplasms and diverticula together. The case of coexistent low-grade mucinous neoplasm, diverticulum, and pseudomyxoma peritonei suggests that diverticula could play a role in the pathogenesis of pseudomyxoma peritonei. This could occur either by involvement of preexisting diverticula by the neoplasm or by distention of the appendiceal lumen by mucin, leading to increased intraluminal pressure and subsequent diverticulum formation at a weak area in the wall. Either mechanism might allow low-grade mucinous neoplasms to penetrate the appendiceal wall more easily. (+info)