Competition of Abeta amyloid peptide and apolipoprotein E for receptor-mediated endocytosis.
The genetic polymorphism of apolipoprotein E (apoE) is associated with the age of onset and relative risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In contrast to apoE3, the wild type allele, apoE4 confers an increased risk of late-onset AD. We demonstrate that the beta-amyloid peptide isoforms Abeta (1-28), Abeta (1-40), and Abeta (1-43) compete for the cellular metabolism of apoE3 and apoE4 containing beta-very low density lipoproteins. An antibody raised against Abeta (1-28) cross-reacted with recombinant apoE. Epitope mapping revealed positive amino acid clusters as common epitopes of Abeta (13 through 17; HHQKL) and apoE (residues 144 through 148; LRKRL), both regions known to be heparin binding domains. Abeta in which amino acids 13 through 17 (HHQKL) were replaced by glycine (GGQGL) failed to compete with the cellular uptake of apoE enriched betaVLDL. These observations indicate that Abeta and apoE are taken up into cells by a common pathway involving heparan sulfate proteoglycans. (+info)
Apo E phenotype and changes in serum lipids in adult patients during growth hormone replacement.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether apo E phenotype influences changes in lipid profiles induced by growth hormone replacement in growth hormone (GH)-deficient adults. DESIGNS: Patients were treated for 6 months with recombinant human GH (hGH), given in a dose of 0.125 U/kg per week for 4 weeks followed by 0.25 U/kg per week thereafter. The effects on serum lipids and the influence of apo E phenotype were examined. METHODS: Thirty patients (aged 35.1+/-11.8 years: mean +/- S.D.) with adult growth hormone deficiency with included in the study. Fasting serum samples were analysed for apo E phenotype total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) and IGF-I. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol was calculated using the Friedwald formula. RESULTS: Six months of replacement treatment with hGH resulted in a reduction in HDL-cholesterol from 0.90+/-0.10 to 0.68+/-0.08 mmol/l (P<0.01), and a small, non-significant reduction in total cholesterol from 6.14+/-0.40 to 5.99+/-0.35 mmol/l (P = 0.06). There was no significant change in the other lipid parameters. The decrease in HDL-cholesterol concentration was greater in patients carrying the apo E2 allele (0.40+/-0.07 mmol/l, P<0.05) than in patients homozygous for the apo E3 allele (0.23+/-0.04 mmol/l) and patients carrying the apo E4 allele (0.15+/-0.36 mmol/l). Patients with the apo E4 allele had lower baseline cholesterol concentrations than patients lacking the apo E4 allele, and this persisted after treatment with hGH (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Apo E phenotype may be a determining factor in the response of HDL-cholesterol to hGH in GH-deficient adults. (+info)
Comparison of the LDL-receptor binding of VLDL and LDL from apoE4 and apoE3 homozygotes.
Compared with apolipoprotein E3 (apoE3), apoE2 is less effective in mediating the binding of lipoproteins to the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor. The influence of the E4 isoform, which is associated with adverse effects on plasma lipids and coronary heart disease, is less clear. We compared the ability of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and LDL from paired E4/4 and E3/3 subjects to compete against 125I-labeled LDL for binding with the LDL receptor on cultured fibroblasts and Hep G2 cells. The concentrations of VLDL or LDL required to inhibit binding of 125I-LDL by 50% (IC50, microgram apoB/ml) were determined, and results were assessed in terms of an IC50 ratio, E4/4 IC50 relative to E3/3 IC50, to reduce the influence of interassay variability. In Hep G2 cells, E4/4 VLDL was more effective than E3/3 VLDL in competing for the LDL receptor, the IC50 ratio being lower than unity (0.73 +/- 0.31, P < 0.05, two-tailed t-test). IC50 values themselves were marginally lower in E4/4 than E3/3 subjects (3.7 +/- 1.3 vs. 6.1 +/- 3.7, P < 0.08). However, there was no difference between E4/4 and E3/3 VLDL in competing for the LDL receptor on fibroblasts or between E4/4 and E3/3 LDL in competing for the LDL receptor on either cell type. These results suggest that inheritance of apoE4 is associated with an increased affinity of VLDL particles for LDL receptors on hepatocytes and may partly explain the influence of the E4 isoform on lipid metabolism. (+info)
Binding of beta-VLDL to heparan sulfate proteoglycans requires lipoprotein lipase, whereas ApoE only modulates binding affinity.
The binding of beta-VLDL to heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) has been reported to be stimulated by both apoE and lipoprotein lipase (LPL). In the present study we investigated the effect of the isoform and the amount of apoE per particle, as well as the role of LPL on the binding of beta-VLDL to HSPG. Therefore, we isolated beta-VLDL from transgenic mice, expressing either APOE*2(Arg158-->Cys) or APOE*3-Leiden (E2-VLDL and E3Leiden-VLDL, respectively), as well as from apoE-deficient mice containing no apoE at all (Enull-VLDL). In the absence of LPL, the binding affinity and maximal binding capacity of all beta-VLDL samples for HSPG-coated microtiter plates was very low. Addition of LPL to this cell-free system resulted in a 12- to 55-fold increase in the binding affinity and a 7- to 15-fold increase in the maximal binding capacity (Bmax). In the presence of LPL, the association constant (Ka) tended to increase in the order Enull-VLDL+info)
Apo E structure determines VLDL clearance and atherosclerosis risk in mice.
We have generated mice expressing the human apo E4 isoform in place of the endogenous murine apo E protein and have compared them with mice expressing the human apo E3 isoform. Plasma lipid and apolipoprotein levels in the mice expressing only the apo E4 isoform (4/4) did not differ significantly from those in mice with the apo E3 isoform (3/3) on chow and were equally elevated in response to increased lipid and cholesterol in their diet. However, on all diets tested, the 4/4 mice had approximately twice the amount of cholesterol, apo E, and apo B-48 in their VLDL as did 3/3 mice. The 4/4 VLDL competed with human LDL for binding to the human LDL receptor slightly better than 3/3 VLDL, but the VLDL clearance rate in 4/4 mice was half that in 3/3 mice. On an atherogenic diet, there was a trend toward greater atherosclerotic plaque size in 4/4 mice compared with 3/3 mice. These data, together with our earlier observations in wild-type and human APOE*2-replacement mice, demonstrate a direct and highly significant correlation between VLDL clearance rate and mean atherosclerotic plaque size. Therefore, differences solely in apo E protein structure are sufficient to cause alterations in VLDL residence time and atherosclerosis risk in mice. (+info)
Expression of human apolipoprotein E3 or E4 in the brains of Apoe-/- mice: isoform-specific effects on neurodegeneration.
Apolipoprotein (apo) E isoforms are key determinants of susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease. The apoE4 isoform is the major known genetic risk factor for this disease and is also associated with poor outcome after acute head trauma or stroke. To test the hypothesis that apoE3, but not apoE4, protects against age-related and excitotoxin-induced neurodegeneration, we analyzed apoE knockout (Apoe-/-) mice expressing similar levels of human apoE3 or apoE4 in the brain under control of the neuron-specific enolase promoter. Neuronal apoE expression was widespread in the brains of these mice. Kainic acid-challenged wild-type or Apoe-/- mice had a significant loss of synaptophysin-positive presynaptic terminals and microtubule-associated protein 2-positive neuronal dendrites in the neocortex and hippocampus, and a disruption of neurofilament-positive axons in the hippocampus. Expression of apoE3, but not of apoE4, protected against this excitotoxin-induced neuronal damage. ApoE3, but not apoE4, also protected against the age-dependent neurodegeneration seen in Apoe-/- mice. These differences in the effects of apoE isoforms on neuronal integrity may relate to the increased risk of Alzheimer's disease and to the poor outcome after head trauma and stroke associated with apoE4 in humans. (+info)
Age-dependent association of apolipoprotein E genotype with coronary and aortic atherosclerosis in middle-aged men: an autopsy study.
BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein E (apoE) polymorphism is one of the genetic determinants of serum cholesterol values. The apoE epsilon4 allele has been associated with advanced coronary heart disease (CHD) diagnosed by angiography, but the role of the apoE genotype in atherosclerosis has not been confirmed at vessel-wall level, nor is any age-dependent effect of the apoE genotype on the development of CHD known. METHODS AND RESULTS: The right and left anterior descending coronary arteries (RCA and LAD) and the aorta from 700 male autopsy cases (Helsinki Sudden Death Study) in 1981-1982 and 1991-1992 (average age 53 years, range 33 to 70 years) were stained for fat, and all areas covered with fatty streaks, fibrotic plaques, and complicated lesions were measured. In the RCA and LAD, the apoE genotype was significantly associated with the area of total atherosclerotic lesions in men <53 years old but not with that in older men (P=0.0085 and P=0.041, respectively, for age-by-genotype interaction). Men <53 years old with the epsilon4/3 genotype showed 61% larger total atherosclerotic lesion area in the RCA (P=0.0027) and 26% larger area in the LAD (P=0.12) than did men with the epsilon3/3. The apoE epsilon4/3 was also associated with atherosclerotic lesions in the abdominal (P=0.014) and thoracic (P=0.12) aorta, but this effect, unlike that of the coronary arteries, was not age-related. CONCLUSIONS: In men, the apoE epsilon4 allele is a significant genetic risk factor for coronary atherosclerosis in early middle age. This suggests that at older age, other known risk factors of CHD play a more important role in the atherosclerotic process than apoE polymorphisms. (+info)
Alimentary lipemia, postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and common carotid intima-media thickness in healthy, middle-aged men.
BACKGROUND: Alimentary lipemia has been associated with coronary heart disease and common carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). This study was designed to investigate the relations of subclasses of postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) with IMT. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ninety-six healthy 50-year-old men with an apolipoprotein (apo) E3/E3 genotype underwent an oral fat tolerance test and B-mode carotid ultrasound examination. The apo B-48 and apo B-100 contents of each fraction of TRLs were determined as a measure of chylomicron remnant and VLDL particle concentrations. In the fasting state, LDL cholesterol (P<0.05) and basal proinsulin (P<0. 05) were significantly related to IMT, whereas HDL cholesterol, plasma triglycerides, and insulin were not. In the postprandial state, plasma triglycerides at 1 to 4 hours (P<0.01 at 2 hours), total triglyceride area under the curve (AUC) (P<0.05), incremental triglyceride AUC (P<0.01), and the large VLDL (Sf 60 to 400 apo B-100) concentration at 3 hours (P<0.05) were significantly related to IMT. Multivariate analyses showed that plasma triglycerides at 2 hours, LDL cholesterol, and basal proinsulin were consistently and independently related to IMT when cumulative tobacco consumption, alcohol intake, waist-to-hip circumference ratio, and systolic blood pressure were included as confounders. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide further evidence for postprandial triglyceridemia as an independent risk factor for early atherosclerosis and also suggest that the postprandial triglyceridemia is a better predictor of IMT than particle concentrations of individual TRLs. (+info)