OBJECTIVE: To determine whether apo E phenotype influences changes in lipid profiles induced by growth hormone replacement in growth hormone (GH)-deficient adults. DESIGNS: Patients were treated for 6 months with recombinant human GH (hGH), given in a dose of 0.125 U/kg per week for 4 weeks followed by 0.25 U/kg per week thereafter. The effects on serum lipids and the influence of apo E phenotype were examined. METHODS: Thirty patients (aged 35.1+/-11.8 years: mean +/- S.D.) with adult growth hormone deficiency with included in the study. Fasting serum samples were analysed for apo E phenotype total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) and IGF-I. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol was calculated using the Friedwald formula. RESULTS: Six months of replacement treatment with hGH resulted in a reduction in HDL-cholesterol from 0.90+/-0.10 to 0.68+/-0.08 mmol/l (P<0.01), and a small, non-significant reduction in total cholesterol from 6.14+/-0.40 to 5.99+/-0.35 mmol/l (P = 0.06). There was no significant change in the other lipid parameters. The decrease in HDL-cholesterol concentration was greater in patients carrying the apo E2 allele (0.40+/-0.07 mmol/l, P<0.05) than in patients homozygous for the apo E3 allele (0.23+/-0.04 mmol/l) and patients carrying the apo E4 allele (0.15+/-0.36 mmol/l). Patients with the apo E4 allele had lower baseline cholesterol concentrations than patients lacking the apo E4 allele, and this persisted after treatment with hGH (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Apo E phenotype may be a determining factor in the response of HDL-cholesterol to hGH in GH-deficient adults. (+info)
(2/187) Binding of beta-VLDL to heparan sulfate proteoglycans requires lipoprotein lipase, whereas ApoE only modulates binding affinity.
The binding of beta-VLDL to heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) has been reported to be stimulated by both apoE and lipoprotein lipase (LPL). In the present study we investigated the effect of the isoform and the amount of apoE per particle, as well as the role of LPL on the binding of beta-VLDL to HSPG. Therefore, we isolated beta-VLDL from transgenic mice, expressing either APOE*2(Arg158-->Cys) or APOE*3-Leiden (E2-VLDL and E3Leiden-VLDL, respectively), as well as from apoE-deficient mice containing no apoE at all (Enull-VLDL). In the absence of LPL, the binding affinity and maximal binding capacity of all beta-VLDL samples for HSPG-coated microtiter plates was very low. Addition of LPL to this cell-free system resulted in a 12- to 55-fold increase in the binding affinity and a 7- to 15-fold increase in the maximal binding capacity (Bmax). In the presence of LPL, the association constant (Ka) tended to increase in the order Enull-VLDL
(3/187) Apo E structure determines VLDL clearance and atherosclerosis risk in mice.
We have generated mice expressing the human apo E4 isoform in place of the endogenous murine apo E protein and have compared them with mice expressing the human apo E3 isoform. Plasma lipid and apolipoprotein levels in the mice expressing only the apo E4 isoform (4/4) did not differ significantly from those in mice with the apo E3 isoform (3/3) on chow and were equally elevated in response to increased lipid and cholesterol in their diet. However, on all diets tested, the 4/4 mice had approximately twice the amount of cholesterol, apo E, and apo B-48 in their VLDL as did 3/3 mice. The 4/4 VLDL competed with human LDL for binding to the human LDL receptor slightly better than 3/3 VLDL, but the VLDL clearance rate in 4/4 mice was half that in 3/3 mice. On an atherogenic diet, there was a trend toward greater atherosclerotic plaque size in 4/4 mice compared with 3/3 mice. These data, together with our earlier observations in wild-type and human APOE*2-replacement mice, demonstrate a direct and highly significant correlation between VLDL clearance rate and mean atherosclerotic plaque size. Therefore, differences solely in apo E protein structure are sufficient to cause alterations in VLDL residence time and atherosclerosis risk in mice. (+info)
(4/187) Apolipoprotein E2/E5 variants in lipoprotein glomerulopathy recurred in transplanted kidney.
Lipid abnormalities are associated with various disorders ranging from generalized atherosclerosis to renal diseases, including lipoprotein glomerulopathy that is characterized by glomerular lipoprotein thrombi and causes type III hyperlipoproteinemia, proteinuria, and renal failure. This study examines lipoprotein glomerulopathy, which recurred in a transplanted kidney. Molecular biologic analysis of the patient's apolipoprotein (apo) E gene demonstrated E2/E5 type variants. Immunohistochemical analysis of the diseased kidney demonstrated various lipid peroxidation-specific protein adducts, suggesting a potential role of oxidative stress in this disorder. Recurrence in the transplanted kidney suggested a pathogenic role of extraglomerular humoral component(s) resulting from abnormal lipoprotein metabolism, presumably linked to apo E and other genetic or acquired factor(s). Furthermore, the finding that the patient showed pathologic abnormalities in the transplanted kidney with no clinical signs or symptoms of renal disease indicated that lipoprotein glomerular damage progresses early before any clinical manifestations. (+info)
(5/187) A novel apolipoprotein E mutation, E2 (Arg25Cys), in lipoprotein glomerulopathy.
BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein glomerulopathy (LPG) is characterized by intraglomerular lipoprotein thrombosis and high plasma concentrations of apolipoprotein (apo) E. An apo E variant, apo E2 (Arg145Pro) Sendai, was recently identified in three patients with LPG. We detected a novel point mutation in the apo E gene in a patient with LPG, and we characterized the mutant apo E. METHODS: The propositus was a 32-year-old male patient on maintenance hemodialysis because of LPG. The mutation was detected by sequencing of genomic DNA from the patient and was confirmed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) with Aor51HI. Recombinant apo E2 (Arg25Cys) Kyoto and normal apo E3 were expressed from COS-1 cells. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-binding activities of the variants were determined in an in vitro competition assay. RESULTS: The propositus had the apo E phenotype E2/E4, as determined by isoelectric focusing, and the genotype epsilon3/epsilon4, as determined by RFLP with HhaI. Sequence analysis of amplified DNA showed a C to T transition, changing the codon for residue 25 from arginine to cysteine. The proband was a heterozygous carrier for apo E2 (Arg25Cys) Kyoto. A family study showed that the mother was a heterozygous carrier of apo E2 Kyoto and had dysbetalipoproteinemia, but no LPG. The pathophysiological effect of this mutation was investigated in vitro by binding studies of recombinant apo E2 Kyoto to LDL receptors on human fibroblasts. The ability of recombinant apo E2 Kyoto to displace LDL was reduced to 10% compared with recombinant apo E3. CONCLUSIONS: Apo E2 (Arg25Cys) Kyoto is a novel mutation of apo E that is etiologically related to LPG. However, our case indicates that the development of LPG may involve other genetic or environmental factors. Furthermore, our data suggest that arginine-25 of apo E plays an important functional role by influencing the receptor-binding ability of apo E. (+info)
(6/187) Cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related hemorrhage. Interaction of APOE epsilon2 with putative clinical risk factors.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Current evidence suggests that the apolipoprotein E (APOE for gene; apoE for protein) epsilon4 allele predisposes to cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) whereas epsilon2 is associated with CAA-related hemorrhage (CAAH). The clinical risk factors for other forms of intracranial hemorrhage are a less-frequent feature of CAAH. In this study we examined potential clinical risk factors in patients with CAAH and assessed these with respect to APOE genotype. METHODS: Thirty-six patients were identified with a pathological diagnosis of CAAH. Clinical notes were reviewed to document age of hemorrhage onset, history of dementia, antiplatelet/anticoagulant medication, hypertension, minor head trauma, or transient neurological events. In a review of reported cases of CAAH, the frequency of these clinical features was also recorded. APOE genotypes were determined with use of polymerase chain reaction techniques. RESULTS: There were 24 women and 12 men; the mean age was 70.3 years. One third (n=12) had been taking antiplatelet medication, and a similar number were demented. Nine patients were hypertensive, and 4 had a history of recent minor head trauma. The relative frequency of each of these clinical features was similar to that in previous reports. Forty-four percent (16 of 36) possessed an epsilon2 allele. Antiplatelet or anticoagulant medication, hypertension, or minor head trauma were significantly more frequent antecedents of CAAH in epsilon2 carriers than in non-epsilon2 carriers (81% versus 35%, P=0.008), antiplatelet/anticoagulant medication in particular (P=0.038). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that antiplatelet or anticoagulant medication, hypertension, or minor head trauma are most likely to precipitate cerebral hemorrhage in patients with CAA who are also epsilon2 carriers. This may result from isoform-specific effects of apoE on the structure of amyloid-laden blood vessel walls. (+info)
(7/187) Independent effects of Apo E phenotype and plasma triglyceride on lipoprotein particle sizes in the fasting and postprandial states.
LDL particle sizes and Apo E phenotypes were determined in 212 subjects of whom 51 had angina. LDL diameter was significantly less in subjects with an epsilon2 allele (24.76+/-0.08 vs 24.94+/-0.02 nm, P=0.02), and this was evident for both E2/E3 (24.77+/-0.09 nm) and E2/E4 (24.69+/-0.08 nm) phenotypes. Although there was a negative relation between LDL diameter and plasma triglyceride, the effect of apo E2 was still evident with adjustment for triglyceride. In multiple regression analysis, the significant determinants of LDL diameter were gender (with females having larger particles than males), body mass index, and the presence (or absence) of E2. HDL particle sizes and compositions were determined on fasting samples and, additionally, 5 and 8 hours after a fat-rich meal for 48 coronary heart disease cases and 49 control subjects. Fasting HDL particle sizes were not related to the presence of E2 but were significantly smaller for subjects possessing an epsilon4 allele (8. 09+/-0.08 vs 8.39+/-0.05 nm, P=0.003) and were negatively related to plasma triglyceride. However, the effect of E4 persisted after adjustment for triglyceride. In a multiple regression analysis, the only significant determinant of fasting HDL diameter was the presence (or absence) of E4 with fasting plasma triglyceride just failing to reach significance (P=0.06). There was a postprandial increase in HDL diameter that was less marked in subjects with coronary heart disease. The postprandial increase in HDL diameter was of sufficient magnitude to result in size reclassification of HDL particles. The influence of E4 was also evident at both postprandial time points. Compositional analysis demonstrated that the increase in HDL diameters postprandially could be attributed to triglyceride enrichment, with an accompanying fall in cholesterol ester content. Phospholipid changes postprandially were biphasic with an initial fall followed by a rise in concentration. The increase in triglyceride content was significantly less in those subjects with angina despite an equivalent rise in plasma triglyceride. The present study demonstrates significant, but different, effects of variation in apo E phenotype on the particle sizes of both HDL and LDL. Such effects were still evident with adjustment for differences in plasma triglyceride and suggests that variation in apo E phenotype exerts effects on lipoprotein particle sizes by mechanisms additional to those dependent on change in plasma triglyceride. (+info)
(8/187) Pathogenesis of type III hyperlipoproteinemia (dysbetalipoproteinemia). Questions, quandaries, and paradoxes.
Type III hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP) is a genetic disorder characterized by accumulation of remnant lipoproteins in the plasma and development of premature atherosclerosis. Although receptor binding-defective forms of apolipoprotein (apo) E are the common denominator in this disorder, a number of apparent paradoxes concerning its pathogenesis still exist. However, studies in transgenic animals are resolving the mechanisms underlying this disorder. PARADOX I: Defective apoE (commonly apoE2) is essential but not sufficient to cause overt type III HLP. In fact, most apoE2 homozygotes are hypolipidemic. Studies in apoE2 transgenic models have demonstrated the impact of other genes or hormones in converting the hypolipidemia to hyperlipidemia. PARADOX II: Among apoE2 homozygotes, men are more susceptible than women to type III HLP. Transgenic studies have shown that estrogen affects both LDL receptor expression and lipolytic processing, explaining the resistance of women to this disorder until after menopause. PARADOX III: ApoE deficiency is associated with hypercholesterolemia, whereas the type III HLP phenotype is characterized by both hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. The hypercholesterolemia is caused by impaired receptor-mediated clearance, whereas the hypertriglyceridemia is caused primarily by impaired lipolytic processing of remnants and increased VLDL production associated with increased levels of apoE. PARADOX IV: ApoE2 is associated with recessive inheritance of this disorder, whereas other defective apoE variants are associated with dominant inheritance. Determinants of the mode of inheritance are the differential binding of apoE variants to the LDL receptor versus the HSPG/LRP complex and the preference of certain apoE variants for specific lipoproteins. Thus, the pathogenesis of this sometimes mysterious disorder has been clarified. (+info)