Comparison of the backbone dynamics of the apo- and holo-carboxy-terminal domain of the biotin carboxyl carrier subunit of Escherichia coli acetyl-CoA carboxylase.
The biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP) is a subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, a biotin-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the first committed step of fatty acid biosynthesis. In its functional cycle, this protein engages in heterologous protein-protein interactions with three distinct partners, depending on its state of post-translational modification. Apo-BCCP interacts specifically with the biotin holoenzyme synthetase, BirA, which results in the post-translational attachment of biotin to a single lysine residue on BCCP. Holo-BCCP then interacts with the biotin carboxylase subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, which leads to the addition of the carboxylate group of bicarbonate to biotin. Finally, the carboxy-biotinylated form of BCCP interacts with transcarboxylase in the transfer of the carboxylate to acetyl-CoA to form malonyl-CoA. The determinants of protein-protein interaction specificity in this system are unknown. The NMR solution structure of the unbiotinylated form of an 87 residue C-terminal domain fragment (residue 70-156) of BCCP (holoBCCP87) and the crystal structure of the biotinylated form of a C-terminal fragment (residue 77-156) of BCCP from Escherichia coli acetyl-CoA carboxylase have previously been determined. Comparative analysis of these structures provided evidence for small, localized conformational changes in the biotin-binding region upon biotinylation of the protein. These structural changes may be important for regulating specific protein-protein interactions. Since the dynamic properties of proteins are correlated with local structural environments, we have determined the relaxation parameters of the backbone 15N nuclear spins of holoBCCP87, and compared these with the data obtained for the apo protein. The results indicate that upon biotinylation, the inherent mobility of the biotin-binding region and the protruding thumb, with which the biotin group interacts in the holo protein, are significantly reduced. (+info)
Dietary thiamin level influences levels of its diphosphate form and thiamin-dependent enzymic activities of rat liver.
This study was prompted by our incomplete understanding of the mechanism responsible for the clinical benefits of pharmacological doses of thiamin in some patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) and the question of whether thiamin diphosphate (TDP), a potent inhibitor of the activity of the protein kinase that phosphorylates and inactivates the isolated branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex, affects the activity state of the complex. Rats were fed a chemically-defined diet containing graded levels of thiamin (0, 0.275, 0.55, 5.5, and 55 mg thiamin/kg diet). Maximal weight gain was attained over a 3-wk period only in rats fed diets with 5.5 and 55 mg thiamin/kg. Feeding rats the thiamin-free diet for just 2 d caused loss of nearly half of the TDP from liver mitochondria. Three more days caused over 70% loss, an additional 3 wk, over 90%. Starvation for 2 d had no effect, suggesting a mechanism for conservation of TDP in this nutritional state. Mitochondrial TDP was higher in rats fed pharmacological amounts of thiamin (55 mg thiamin/kg diet) than in rats fed adequate thiamin for maximal growth. Varying dietary thiamin had marked but opposite effects on the activities of alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (alpha-KGDH) and BCKDH. Thiamin deficiency decreased alpha-KGDH activity, increased BCKDH activity, and increased the proportion of BCKDH in the active, dephosphorylated, state. Excess dietary thiamin had the opposite effects. TDP appears to be more tightly associated with alpha-KGDH than BCKDH in thiamin-deficient rats, perhaps denoting retention of alpha-KGDH activity at the expense of BCKDH activity. Thus, thiamin deficiency and excess cause large changes in mitochondrial TDP levels that have a major influence on the activities of the keto acid dehydrogenase complexes. (+info)
Structural characterization of l-aspartate oxidase and identification of an interdomain loop by limited proteolysis.
l-Aspartate oxidase is the first enzyme in the de novo biosynthesis of pyridinic coenzymes in facultative aerobic organisms. The enzyme is FAD dependent and it shares common features with both the oxidase and the fumarate reductase classes of flavoproteins. In this report we focused our attention on the supersecondary structure of the molecule by means of limited proteolysis studies. Moreover the polymerization state of the protein at different pH and the interactions with NAD and its analogues are described. The results suggest that l-aspartate oxidase is a monomer at pH values lower than 4.5 and a dimer at pH values higher than 6.5. The protein is organized in two major domains connected by a flexible loop located in the 120-140 region. The data obtained by limited proteolysis of the holo and the apo form in the presence and in the absence of substrates (fumarate and menadione), inhibitors (succinate) and NAD allows the proposition that both domains are involved in the binding of the flavin coenzyme. Moreover the data reported in this manuscript suggest that NAD inhibits l-aspartate oxidase activity by competing with the flavin for the binding to the enzyme. (+info)
Effects of divalent metal ions on the activity and conformation of native and 3-fluorotyrosine-PvuII endonucleases.
The activities of restriction enzymes are important examples of Mg(II)-dependent hydrolysis of DNA. While a number of crystallographic studies of enzyme-DNA complexes have also involved metal ions, there have been no solution studies exploring the relationship between enzyme conformation and metal-ion binding in restriction enzymes. Using PvuII restriction endonuclease as a model system, we have successfully developed biosynthetic fluorination and NMR spectroscopy as a solution probe of restriction-enzyme conformation. The utility of this method is demonstrated with a study of metal-ion binding by PvuII endonuclease. Replacement of 74% (+/- 10%) of the Tyr residues in PvuII endonuclease by 3-fluorotyrosine produces an enzyme with Mg(II)-supported specific activity and sequence specificity that is indistinguishable from that of the native enzyme. Mn(II) supports residual activity of both the native and fluorinated enzymes; Ca(II) does not support activity in either enzyme, a result consistent with previous studies. 1H- and 19F-NMR spectroscopic studies reveal that while Mg(II) does not alter the enzyme conformation, the paramagnetic Mn(II) produces both short-range spectral broadening and longer range changes in chemical shift. Most interestingly, Ca(II) binding perturbs a larger number of different resonances than Mn(II). Coupled with earlier mutagenesis studies that place Ca(II) in the active site [Nastri, H. G., Evans, P.D., Walker, I.H. & Riggs, P.D. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 25761-25767], these data suggest that the enzyme makes conformational adjustments to accommodate the distinct geometric preferences of Ca(II) and may play a role in the inability of this metal ion to support activity in restriction enzymes. (+info)
The aconitase of yeast. V. The reconstitution of yeast aconitase.
The apoenzyme of yeast aconitase [EC 126.96.36.199] was prepared by treatment of yeast aconitase with sodium mersalyl, followed by passage by passage of the reaction mixture through a column of Dowex A-1 and gel filtration on Sephadex G-25. The apoenzyme had no aconitase activity, but the active enzyme could be reconstituted by treatment of the apoenzyme with ferrous ions and sodium sulfide in the presence of 2-mercapto-ethanol. The reconstituted active enzyme was isolated by DEAE-Sephadex A-50 column chromatography and Sephadex G-100 gel filtration from the reaction mixture. The reconstituted enzyme was identical with the original untreated enzyme in terms of specific activity, iron content and spectral characteristics, but not in terms of labile sulfur content. A significant difference in visible spectra between the holo- and apoenzymes appeared to be due to the difference in iron and labile sulfur contents between the two proteins. (+info)
Rapid PCR test for discriminating between Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis isolates using primers derived from the pH-regulated PHR1 and PHR2 genes of C. albicans.
The development of a satisfactory means to reliably distinguish between the two closely related species Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis in the clinical mycology laboratory has proved difficult because these two species are phenotypically so similar. In this study, we have detected homologues of the pH-regulated C. albicans PHR1 and PHR2 genes in C. dubliniensis. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis suggests that there are significant sequence differences between the genes of the two species. In order to exploit this apparent difference, oligonucleotide primers based on the coding sequence of the C. albicans PHR1 structural gene were designed and used in PCR experiments. Use of these primers with C. albicans template DNA from 17 strains yielded a predicted 1.6-kb product, while C. dubliniensis template DNA from 19 strains yielded no product. We therefore propose that PCR using these primers is a rapid and reliable means of distinguishing the two germ tube- and chlamydospore-producing species C. albicans and C. dubliniensis. (+info)
A novel 35 kDa frog liver acid metallophosphatase.
The lower molecular weight (35 kDa) acid phosphatase from the frog (Rana esculenta) liver is a glycometalloenzyme susceptible to activation by reducing agents and displaying tartrate and fluoride resistance. Metal chelators (EDTA, 1,10-phenanthroline) inactivate the enzyme reversibly in a time- and temperature-dependent manner. The apoenzyme is reactivated by divalent transition metal cations, i. e. cobalt, zinc, ferrous, manganese, cadmium and nickel to 130%, 75%, 63%, 62%, 55% and 34% of the original activity, respectively. Magnesium, calcium, cupric and ferric ions were shown to be ineffective in this process. Metal analysis by the emission spectrometry method (inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry) revealed the presence of zinc, iron and magnesium. The time course of the apoenzyme reactivation, the stabilization effect and the relatively high resistance to oxidizing conditions indicate that the zinc ion is crucial for the enzyme activity. The presence of iron was additionally confirmed by the visible absorption spectrum of the enzyme with a shoulder at 417 nm and by the electron paramagnetic resonance line of high spin iron(III) with geff of 2.4. The active center containing only zinc or both zinc and iron ions is proposed. The frog liver lower molecular weight acid phosphatase is a novel metallophosphatase of lower vertebrate origin, distinct from the mammalian tartrate-resistant, purple acid phosphatases. (+info)
Purification of beef kidney D-aspartate oxidase overexpressed in Escherichia coli and characterization of its redox potentials and oxidative activity towards agonists and antagonists of excitatory amino acid receptors.
The flavoenzyme d-aspartate oxidase from beef kidney (DASPO, EC 1.4. 3.1) has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli. A purification procedure, faster than the one used for the enzyme from the natural source (bDASPO), has been set up yielding about 2 mg of pure recombinant protein (rDASPO) per each gram of wet E. coli paste. rDASPO has been shown to possess the same general biochemical properties of bDASPO, except that the former contains only FAD, while the latter is a mixture of two forms, one active containing FAD and one inactive containing 6-OH-FAD (9-20% depending on the preparation). This results in a slightly higher specific activity (about 15%) for rDASPO compared to bDASPO and in facilitated procedures for apoprotein preparation and reconstitution. Redox potentials of -97 mV and -157 mV were determined for free and l-(+)-tartrate complexed DASPO, respectively, in 0.1 M KPi, pH 7.0, 25 degrees C. The large positive shift in the redox potential of the coenzyme compared to free FAD (-207 mV) is in agreement with similar results obtained with other flavooxidases. rDASPO has been used to assess a possible oxidative activity of the enzyme towards a number of compounds used as agonists or antagonists of neurotransmitters, including d-aspartatic acid, d-glutamic acid, N-methyl-d-aspartic acid, d,l-cysteic acid, d-homocysteic acid, d, l-2-amino-3-phosphonopropanoic acid, d-alpha-aminoadipic acid, d-aspartic acid-beta-hydroxamate, glycyl-d-aspartic acid and cis-2, 3-piperidine dicarboxylic acid. Kinetic parameters for each substrate in 50 mM KPi, pH 7.4, 25 degrees C are reported. (+info)