Glaucoma in aphakia and pseudophakia after congenital cataract surgery.
(9/91)Glaucoma is one of the most common causes of visual loss despite successful congenital cataract surgery. The overall incidence does not appear to have decreased with modern microsurgical techniques. The onset of glaucoma may be acute or insidious and notoriously refractory to treatment. Angle closure glaucoma may occur in the early postoperative period; but the most common type of glaucoma to develop after congenital cataract surgery is open angle glaucoma. Several risk factors have been identified and both chemical and mechanical theories have been proposed for its pathogenesis. Unlike children with congenital glaucoma, those with paediatric glaucoma following congenital cataract surgery are usually asymptomatic despite high intraocular pressure. They may require regular evaluation under anaesthesia, whenever there are any suspicious findings. Unlike congenital glaucoma, the first line of treatment for glaucoma in aphakia/pseudophakia may be medical. Traditional trabeculectomy in paediatric glaucoma following congenital cataract surgery has met with limited success. The addition of antimetabolites to trabeculectomy is known to inhibit fibrosis and enhance the success, but carries the lifelong risk of bleb-related endophthalmitis. Drainage implant surgery is a viable option to achieve longterm intraocular pressure control in this refractory group of patients. Cycloablative procedures may provide temporising treatment and should be reserved for patients with low visual potential. Diagnosis of glaucoma following congenital cataract surgery requires lifelong surveillance and continuous assessment of the problem. Further research is needed to understand the pathophysiology, prevention and treatment of this sight-threatening complication following successful cataract surgery in children. (+info)
The telomere of human chromosome 1p contains at least two independent autosomal dominant congenital cataract genes.
(10/91)AIMS: Multiple genetic causes of congenital cataract have been identified, both as a component of syndromes and in families that present with isolated congenital cataract. Linkage analysis was used to map the genetic locus in a six generation Australian family presenting with total congenital cataract. METHODS: Microsatellite markers located across all known autosomal dominant congenital cataract loci were genotyped in all recruited family members of the Tasmanian family. Both two point and multipoint linkage analysis were used to assess each locus under an autosomal dominant model. RESULTS: Significant linkage was detected at the telomere of the p arm of chromosome 1, with a maximum two point LOD of 4.21 at marker D1S507, a maximum multipoint exact LOD of 5.44, and an estimated location score of 5.61 at marker D1S507. Haplotype analysis places the gene inside a critical region between D1S228 and D1S199, a distance of approximately 6 megabases. The candidate gene PAX7 residing within the critical interval was excluded by direct sequencing in affected individuals. CONCLUSION: This is the third report of congenital cataract linkage to 1ptel. The critical region as defined by the shared haplotype in this family is clearly centromeric from the Volkmann cataract locus identified through study of a Danish family, indicating that two genes causing autosomal dominant congenital cataract map to the telomeric region of chromosome 1p. (+info)
Ahmed valve drainage implant surgery in the management of paediatric aphakic glaucoma.
(11/91)BACKGROUND: Paediatric aphakic glaucoma presents months or years after cataract surgery in children and is a major long term complication. The results of surgical treatment are poor and many children require multiple and repeat procedures with poor visual outcomes. METHODS: 13 children (19 eyes) had Ahmed valve implantation surgery, nine of the children had previous procedures such as cycloablation or trabeculectomy. Mitomycin was used at surgery in some patients and valve needling with Healon GV and 5-fluorouracil in some blebs after surgery. SF(6) gas was also used at the time of surgery in most children to reform the anterior chamber. RESULTS: 12 of the children (18 eyes) achieved intraocular pressure control of 15 mm Hg or less with a valve alone or with additional medical therapy. CONCLUSION: Ahmed valve implantation surgery alone or in combination with medical therapy is successful and safe in the management of paediatric aphakic glaucoma. (+info)
Cystoid macular oedema in paediatric aphakia and pseudophakia.
(12/91)AIM: To assess the incidence of cystoid macular oedema (CMO), following lensectomy, anterior vitrectomy (limbal and pars plicata), and primary posterior capsulorhexis following surgery for congenital and developmental cataract. METHODS: A prospective study was carried out involving 30 eyes (20 children) with cataract. Lensectomy, primary posterior capsulorhexis, and anterior vitrectomy were performed on all eyes. Vitrectomy was performed using either a limbal or pars plicata approach. Fluorescein angiography was carried out 4-7 weeks after surgery. Fluorescein was administered intravenously and visualised using the Retcam. RESULTS: Anterior vitrectomy was carried out via the limbal approach in 12 eyes and, of these, six were implanted with an intraocular lens. The pars plicata approach was carried out in 18 eyes and 10 received an implant. CMO was not detected in any eye. CONCLUSION: CMO was not detected in the early postoperative period irrespective of approach to anterior vitrectomy or presence of an intraocular lens. Intravenous fluorescein angiography was performed without complication. (+info)
Glaucoma and increased central corneal thickness in aphakic and pseudophakic patients after congenital cataract surgery.
(13/91)AIM: To compare the mean central corneal thickness (CCT) among aphakic and pseudophakic patients following congenital cataract surgery with age matched controls. METHODS: This study included 43 eyes of 43 aphakic and pseudophakic patients following congenital cataract surgery. 44 healthy, age and sex matched volunteers were recruited for comparison with the patients. After a complete eye examination, corneal thickness and intraocular pressure were measured. RESULTS: In the study group, 33 eyes were aphakic, and the remaining 10 eyes were pseudophakic. The median CCT was 556.0 microm (range 490-640 microm) in the control group and 626 microm (range 523-870 microm) in the study group (p<0.05). There was a significant difference in CCT between aphakic and pseudophakic eyes in which an intraocular lens (IOL) had been implanted at the time of congenital cataract surgery (p = 0.011). The same difference was not observed between aphakic and pseudophakic eyes in which an IOL had been implanted secondarily (p = 0.835). The median age of the patients at the time of lensectomy was 24 months (range 1 week to 120 months). There was a negative correlation between the age at lensectomy and CCT (r = -0.485, p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Aphakic and pseudophakic patients have significantly thicker corneas than age matched controls. This difference can have an important effect on interpreting intraocular pressures in these patients. It is also important to assess the effects of early surgery for congenital cataracts, as well as those of primary and secondary IOL implantation, on CCT. (+info)
Risk factors for the development of aphakic glaucoma after congenital cataract surgery.
(14/91)PURPOSE: It is well known that lensectomy surgery during the first year of life increases the risk of aphakic glaucoma. However, it is controversial whether there is a specific time period during the first year of life after which performing lensectomy surgery has a lower risk of aphakic glaucoma development. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was done of all patients seen by a pediatric glaucoma specialist (D.S.W.) from 1970 to 2003. Patients were included if they had congenital cataract surgery performed by either D.S.W. or a referring ophthalmologist. Cataracts were defined as congenital if they were identified within the first 6 months of life, were dominantly inherited, or were of the lamellar type. Aphakic glaucoma was defined as having repeated intraocular pressures greater than 25 mm Hg after congenital cataract surgery. Patients were excluded if they had any conditions that independently are associated with glaucoma. Statistical analysis for risk factors for aphakic glaucoma development was done using SAS software. RESULTS: Three hundred sixty-eight eyes of 258 patients were included in the study. Two hundred sixteen eyes (58.7%) of 150 patients developed aphakic glaucoma. Risk factors of greatest significance (P < .0001) included having lensectomy within the first year of life and the development of postoperative complications. CONCLUSIONS: No specific age for lensectomy during that first year of life was associated with a decreased risk for aphakic glaucoma development. Surgery for congenital cataracts should not be delayed if the only reason for delay is to prevent the development of aphakic glaucoma. (+info)
Cataract prevalence, cataract surgical coverage and barriers to uptake of cataract surgical services in Pakistan: the Pakistan National Blindness and Visual Impairment Survey.
(15/91)AIM: To estimate the prevalence of visual impairment and blindness caused by cataract, the prevalence of aphakia/pseudophakia, cataract surgical coverage (CSC) and to identify barriers to the uptake of cataract services among adults aged >or=30 years in Pakistan. METHODS: Probability proportional-to-size procedures were used to select a nationally representative sample of adults. Each subject underwent interview, visual acuity measurement, autorefraction, biometry and ophthalmic examination. Those that saw <6/12 in either eye underwent a more intensive examination procedure including corrected visual acuity, slit lamp and dilated fundus examination. CSC was calculated for different levels of visual loss by person and by eye. Individuals with <6/60 in the better eye as a result of cataract were interviewed regarding barriers. RESULTS: 16 507 Adults were examined (95.5% response rate). The crude prevalence of blindness (presenting <3/60 in the better eye) caused by bilateral cataract was 1.75% (95% CI 1.55%, 1.96%). 1317 Participants (633 men; 684 women) had undergone cataract surgery in one or both eyes, giving a crude prevalence of 8.0% (95% CI 7.6%, 8.4%). The CSC (persons) at <3/60, <6/60 and <6/18 were 77.1%, 69.3% and 43.7%, respectively. The CSC (eyes) at <3/60, <6/60 and <6/18 were 61.4%, 52.2% and 40.7%, respectively. Cost of surgery (76.1%) was the main barrier to surgery. CONCLUSION: Approximately 570 000 adults are estimated to be blind (<3/60) as a result of cataract in Pakistan, and 3,560000 eyes have a visual acuity of <6/60 because of cataract. Overall, the national surgical coverage is good but underserved populations have been identified. (+info)
Glaucoma following congenital cataract surgery--the role of early surgery and posterior capsulotomy.
(16/91)BACKGROUND: To determine the rate of glaucoma following congenital cataract surgery at Moorfields Eye Hospital (MEH), and to investigate potential risk factors for glaucoma in our case series. METHODS: A retrospective case notes review was undertaken of all congenital cataract lensectomies performed at MEH between 1994 and 2000. The following parameters were ascertained: age at surgery, unilateral or bilateral cataract, whether a posterior capsulotomy (PC) was performed at the time of surgery, whether an intraocular lens (IOL) was inserted, duration of follow-up, and if aphakic glaucoma (AG) developed. All lensectomies were performed through a limbal incision by a single consultant surgeon. RESULTS: A total of 47 subjects were identified - 40 patients with bilateral cataracts and 7 with unilateral. Of the 40 bilateral cataract patients, 76 eyes had lensectomies; with 37 of these patients (71 lensectomies) having at least 5 year follow-up. Based on patient count, the 5 year risk of AG in at least one eye following surgery was 21.6%. Based on eye count, the 5 year risk of AG after lensectomy was 15.5%. The average age at surgery of patients who did not develop AG, and had at least 5 years follow-up, was 28.7 months (range 2 weeks to 6 years), with 20% having surgery within the first month of life. In comparison, the average age at surgery of patients with at least 5 years follow-up, who developed AG was 1.6 months (range 2 weeks to 7 months), with 60% having surgery within the first month of life. In subjects with at least 5 years follow-up, a PC rate of 100% was identified in the eyes that developed AG, compared to 61% in eyes that did not develop AG. An IOL was inserted in O% of eyes with AG, compared to 57% in eyes that did not develop AG. Onset of AG ranged from one month post surgery to 7 years, with an average yearly incidence of 5.3%. CONCLUSION: Early surgery in patients with bilateral cataracts is associated with a marked increase in risk of AG. Our data suggest that an intact posterior capsule may be associated with a lower rate of AG. (+info)