Dentinal tubule occlusion with lanthanum fluoride and powdered apatite glass ceramics in vitro.
To simulate hypersensitive dentin, the smear layer and dentinal plugs of bovine root dentin specimens were removed by immersion in 10% phosphoric acid, polishing with hydroxyapatite particles, and ultrasonic cleansing. The fluoride-tannic acid-lanthanum-apatite (FTLA) group was treated with acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) containing tannic acid followed by rubbing with a paste of lanthanum chloride (LaCl3) and powdered apatite glass ceramics. The treated specimens were immersed in a remineralizing solution that mimics saliva for 6 weeks. The SEM observations revealed that the treated surfaces of the FTLA group were completely covered with fine spherical compounds and the dentinal tubules were occluded with plugs to a depth of about 3 microns. Fluoride and lanthanum were detected to a depth of over 20 microns by EPMA observation. After the remineralization, the surface of FTLA-treated specimen did not have any opened tubules and showed a remarkable increase in the number of fine spherical deposits in the dentinal tubules. These results suggest that the reaction products produced by sequential treatment with acidic fluoride and LaCl3 and powdered apatite glass ceramics are able to effectively occlude dentinal tubules. (+info)
Reversible suppression of in vitro biomineralization by activation of protein kinase A.
Parathyroid hormone (PTH-(1-34)) potently suppresses apatite deposition in osteoblastic cultures. These inhibitory effects are mediated through signaling events following PTH receptor binding. Using both selective inhibitors and activators of protein kinase A (PKA), this study shows that a transient activation of PKA is sufficient to account for PTH's inhibition of apatite deposition. This inhibition is not a result of reduced cell proliferation, reduced alkaline phosphatase activity, increased collagenase production, or lowering medium pH. Rather, data suggest a functional relationship between matrix assembly and apatite deposition in vitro. Bone sialoprotein (BSP) and apatite co-localize in the extracellular matrix of mineralizing cultures, with matrix deposition of BSP temporally preceding that of apatite. Transient activation of PKA by either PTH-(1-34) or short term cAMP analog treatment blocks the deposition of BSP in the extracellular matrix without a significant reduction in the total amount of BSP synthesized and secreted. This effect is reversible after allowing the cultures to recover in the absence of PKA activators for several days. Thus, a transient activation of PKA may suppress mineral deposition in vitro as a consequence of altering the assembly of an extracellular matrix permissive for apatite formation. (+info)
Porous apatite-wollastonite glass-ceramic as an intramedullary plug.
We evaluated the efficacy and biocompatibility of porous apatite-wollastonite glass ceramic (AW-GC) as an intramedullary plug in total hip replacement (THR) for up to two years in 22 adult beagle dogs. Cylindrical porous AW-GC rods (70% porosity, mean pore size 200 microm) were prepared. Four dogs were killed at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months each and six at 24 months after implantation. Radiological evaluation confirmed the efficacy of porous AW-CG as an intramedullary plug. Histological evaluation showed osteoconduction at one month and resorption of the porous AW-GC, which was replaced by newly-formed bone, at 24 months. Our findings indicate that porous AW-GC can be used clinically as an intramedullary plug in THR. (+info)
A bone replaceable artificial bone substitute: morphological and physiochemical characterizations.
A composite material consisting of carbonate apatite (CAp) and type I atelocollagen (AtCol) (88/12 in wt/wt%) was designed for use as an artificial bone substitute. CAp was synthesized at 58 degrees C by a solution-precipitation method and then heated at either 980 degrees C or 1,200 degrees C. In this study, type I AtCol was purified from bovine tail skins. A CAp-AtCol mixture was prepared by centirfugation and condensed into composite rods or disks. The scanning electron-microscopic (SEM) characterization indicated that the CAp synthesized at 58 degrees C displayed a crystallinity similar to that of natural bone and had a high porosity (mean pore size: about 3-10 microns in diameter). SEM also revealed that the CAp heated at 980 degrees C was more porous than that sintered at 1,200 degrees C, and the 1,200 degrees C-heated particles were more uniformly encapsulated by the AtCol fibers than the 980 degrees C-heated ones. A Fourier transformed-infrared spectroscopic analysis showed that the bands characteristic of carbonate ions were clearly observed in the 58 degrees C-synthesized CAp. To enhance the intramolecular cross-linking between the collagen molecules, CAp-AtCol composites were irradiated by ultraviolet (UV) ray (wave length 254 nm) for 4 hours or vacuum-dried at 150 degrees C for 2 hours. Compared to the non cross-linked composites, the UV-irradiated or dehydrothermally cross-linked composites showed significantly (p < 0.05) low collagen degradation and swelling ratio. Preliminary mechanical data demonstrated that the compressive strengths of the CAp-AtCol composites were higher than the values reported for bone. (+info)
Augmentation of (pedicle) screws with calcium apatite cement in patients with severe progressive osteoporotic spinal deformities: an innovative technique.
Screw augmentation with calcium apatite cement (CAC) was used in seven patients with a progressive osteoporotic spinal deformity. Thirty-nine spinal segments (64 screws) were augmented: 15 anteriorly (three patients) and 24 posteriorly (five patients). Dorsally, hemilaminectomy was performed at the level of all augmented screws to rule out CAC leakage. Autogenous bone graft was applied in all patients to induce fusion. Screw augmentation failure occurred in only one patient: 1 of the 16 ventral augmented screws (5.5%) was still loose after the augmentation procedure. In three other patients, 4 out of 48 augmented dorsal screws (5.5%) showed CAC leakage at the pedicle corpus vertebra level. Pedicle wall damage was present at two levels, while at two other levels no wall damage was found during visualization. No CAC-related complications were observed perioperatively. No implant migration was observed, and fusion was observed in all cases at follow-up examination performed at a mean of 32 months after surgery. (+info)
Calcification of rachitic rat cartilage in vitro by extracellular matrix vesicles.
Growth plate cartilage from rachitic rats was studied to assess the role in calcification of extracellular matrix vesicles, which are thought to participate in the initial stage of mineralization of connective tissue. The concentration of matrix vesicles and their distribution within the longitudinal septa was found to be normal in rats made rachitic by feeding by a diet low in vitamin D and phosphate for 3 weeks after weaning. Rachitic cartilage matrix did not contain circumvesicular clusters of apatite as does normal cartilage; however, occasional vesicles did enclose one or a few apatite needles. When slices of rachitic cartilage were incubated at 37 C in a metastable calcium phosphate solution ([Ca++] times [PO SEE ARTICLE] equals 3.5 mM identical to 2), apatite formation was initiated in association with matrix vesicles. Under these conditions, mineralization was prominent in the upper hypertrophic cartilage, where matrix vesicles became encrusted with apatite after only 2 to 3 hours of incubation. Vesicular apatite accumulation was inhibited by preheating the cartilage to 60 C for 30 minutes. Measurements of 45Ca uptake by rachitic cartilage slices from metastable calcium phosphates solution also indicated inhibition of calcification by heat. Light microscopic autoradiographs showed 45Ca localization primarily in the matrix of longitudinal septa and substantiated the inhibition site of mineralization in healing rachitic cartilage. The presence of apatite within rachitic vesicles prior to heating and the inhibition of vesicle calcification by heat suggests an active, enzymatically and mediated mechanism of vesicular calcification. (+info)
Modification of electrochemically deposited apatite using supercritical water.
Supercritical water was used as a modification method of electrochemically deposited apatite on pure titanium. The apatites were coated on a commercially pure titanium plate using a hydrothermal-electrochemical method. A constant direct current at 12.5 mA/cm2 was loaded for 1 hr at 25, 60, 100, 150 and 200 degrees C in an electrolyte containing calcium and phosphate ions. The deposited apatite on the titanium substrate was stored in supercritical water at 450 degrees C under 45 MPa for 8 hr. With this treatment, the crystallinity of the apatites increased, sharp edges of the deposited apatites were rounded off, and the bonding strength of the titanium substrate to the deposited apatites significantly increased. On the other hand, weight loss in 0.01 N HCl decreased and the weight gain rate in a simulated body fluid also decreased with this treatment. It is suggested that the modification using supercritical water improved the mechanical strength of the deposited apatite, but worsened its bioactivity. (+info)
Calcium apatite crystals in synovial fluid rice bodies.
BACKGROUND: Rice bodies can occur in the joints in many rheumatic conditions, but they are most common in rheumatoid arthritis. They are generally believed to occur rarely in patients with osteoarthritis, but one study reported rice bodies with apatite crystals. OBJECTIVE: To report on a series of joint fluids with rice bodies containing apatite clumps and examine their clinical pictures. METHODS: All synovial fluid analysis reports for 10 years were reviewed for rice bodies and eight patients were reported on. A series of patients with a variety of diseases with synovial fluid rice bodies found to contain calcific material is described. All were examined by compensated polarised light and alizarin red stain, and four were examined by electron microscopy. RESULTS: The eight patients all had alizarin red S chunks embedded throughout the rice body. Transmission electron microscopy disclosed the presence of a matrix of collagen, fibrin, and amorphous materials containing typical apatite crystals. Clinical diagnoses, radiographic findings, and leucocyte counts varied, but six of the eight patients had had previous repeated corticosteroid injections into the joints. CONCLUSION: Aggregates of apatites may be more common than previously recognised in rice bodies as they are not routinely sought. Whether they are a result of joint damage or depot steroid injections and whether that might contribute to further joint injury now needs to be investigated. (+info)