The impact of a multidisciplinary approach on caring for ventilator-dependent patients.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical and financial outcomes of a highly structured multidisciplinary care model for patients in an intensive care unit (ICU) who require prolonged mechanical ventilation. The structured model outcomes (protocol group) are compared with the preprotocol outcomes. DESIGN: Descriptive study with financial analysis. SETTING: A twelve-bed medical-surgical ICU in a non-teaching tertiary referral center in Ogden, Utah. STUDY PARTICIPANTS: During a 54 month period, 469 consecutive intensive care patients requiring mechanical ventilation for longer than 72 hours who did not meet exclusion criteria were studied. INTERVENTIONS: A multidisciplinary team was formed to coordinate the care of ventilator-dependent patients. Care was integrated by daily collaborative bedside rounds, monthly meetings, and implementation of numerous guidelines and protocols. Patients were followed from the time of ICU admission until the day of hospital discharge. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Patients were assigned APACHE II scores on admission to the ICU, and were divided into eight diagnostic categories. ICU length of stay, hospital length of stay, costs, charges, reimbursement, and in-hospital mortality were measured. RESULTS: Mortality in the preprotocol and protocol group, after adjustment for APACHE II scores, remained statistically unchanged (21-23%). After we implemented the new care model, we demonstrated significant decreases in the mean survivor's ICU length of stay (19.8 days to 14.7 days, P= 0.001), hospital length of stay (34.6 days to 25.9 days, P=0.001), charges (US$102500 to US$78500, P=0.001), and costs (US$71900 to US$58000, P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of a structured multidisciplinary care model to care for a heterogeneous population of ventilator-dependent ICU patients was associated with significant reductions in ICU and hospital lengths of stay, charges, and costs. Mortality rates were unaffected. (+info)
Comparison of indirect calorimetry, the Fick method, and prediction equations in estimating the energy requirements of critically ill patients.
BACKGROUND: Accurate measurement of resting energy expenditure (REE) is helpful in determining the energy needs of critically ill patients requiring nutritional support. Currently, the most accurate clinical tool used to measure REE is indirect calorimetry, which is expensive, requires trained personnel, and has significant error at higher inspired oxygen concentrations. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare REE measured by indirect calorimetry with REE calculated by using the Fick method and prediction equations by Harris-Benedict, Ireton-Jones, Fusco, and Frankenfield. DESIGN: REEs of 36 patients [12 men and 24 women, mean age 58+/-22 y and mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score 22+/-8] in a hospital intensive care unit and receiving mechanical ventilation and total parenteral nutrition (TPN) were measured for > or = 15 min by using indirect calorimetry and compared with REEs calculated from a mean of 2 sets of hemodynamic measurements taken during the metabolic testing period with an oximetric pulmonary artery catheter. RESULTS: Mean REE by indirect calorimetry was 8381+/-1940 kJ/d and correlated poorly with the other methods tested (r = 0.057-0.154). This correlation did not improve after adjusting for changes in respiratory quotient (r2 = 0.28). CONCLUSIONS: These data do not support previous findings showing a strong correlation between REE determined by the Fick method and other prediction equations and indirect calorimetry. In critically ill patients receiving TPN, indirect calorimetry, if available, remains the most appropriate clinical tool for accurate measurement of REE. (+info)
Circulating interleukin 6 and interleukin 10 in community acquired pneumonia.
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory cytokine concentrations correlate with severity of sepsis. We hypothesised that patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) associated with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) would have greater interleukin 6 (IL-6) production due to activation of the inflammatory cytokine cascade, matched by a significant anti-inflammatory cytokine response. Interleukin 10 (IL-10) was evaluated as a potential surrogate marker of severity of sepsis in CAP and age related impairment of the cytokine response was studied in elderly patients with CAP. METHODS: Circulating immunoreactive IL-6 and IL-10 levels were measured in 38 patients with CAP subdivided into a group fulfilling the criteria for SIRS (n = 28) and a non-SIRS group (n = 10) in a variety of age groups and correlated with APACHE II scores. RESULTS: 80% had circulating IL-6 levels (median 46.7 pg/ml, range 4.6-27,000) and 60% had circulating IL-10 levels (median 15.5 pg/ml, range 2.5-765). Concentrations of both were significantly increased in patients with SIRS compared with non-SIRS patients. Those with activation of the inflammatory cytokine cascade (IL-6 positive) produced more IL-10 than IL-6 negative patients. Older patients had a similar cytokine response. Both cytokines correlated positively with APACHE II scores. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first demonstration of circulating IL-10 in CAP. A greater counter-inflammatory response in patients with SIRS and in IL-6 positive patients suggests a potential immunomodulatory role for IL-10 in controlling the inflammatory cytokine response in CAP. IL-10 concentrations correlate with severity of illness in CAP and may be of prognostic importance. There is no age related impairment in the cytokine response. (+info)
Neutrophil CD11b and soluble ICAM-1 and E-selectin in community acquired pneumonia.
It was hypothesized that there would be an upregulation of systemic neutrophil CD11b expression in pneumonia. Expression of CD11b and concentrations of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and E-selectin were evaluated as potential surrogate markers of the severity of pneumonia. Possible age-related immunosenescence in relation to neutrophil CD11b expression in elderly patients with pneumonia was examined for. In patients with community-acquired pneumonia (n = 36) neutrophil CD11b expression was measured by flow cytometry and soluble ICAM-1 and E-selectin concentrations by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. An upregulation of neutrophil CD11b expression and increased soluble adhesion molecule concentrations on admission were confirmed, but the concentrations did not correlate with patient Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores. Neutrophil CD11b expression was similar between elderly (age range 70-100 yrs) and younger (age range 18-70 yrs) patients with pneumonia. In conclusion, there is evidence of neutrophil and endothelial cell activation in pneumonia as indicated by upregulation of CD11b and increased soluble intercellular adhesion molecule and E-selectin, however, they do not appear to be good surrogate markers of severity of infection. Advanced age does not influence adhesion molecule expression in pneumonia. (+info)
Amphotericin B with and without itraconazole for invasive aspergillosis: A three-year retrospective study.
BACKGROUND: Treatment of invasive aspergillosis is frequently unsuccessful, so innovations in therapy are needed. Clinical studies demonstrate that itraconazole may be an effective alternative to amphotericin B. Itraconazole also has been combined with amphotericin B in animal models of aspergillosis, but this regimen produced antagonistic effects. OBJECTIVES: To determine the role of itraconazole in the adjunctive treatment of invasive aspergillosis. METHODS: A review was conducted of all patients with definite or probable aspergillosis from January 1995 to December 1997 who were treated with conventional amphotericin B alone or in combination with itraconazole. RESULTS: Of 21 patients, 10 received amphotericin B and 11 received the combination. The two groups of patients were comparable clinically at baseline (including similar mean APACHE III scores). Both groups received similar doses and days of amphotericin B treatment. Of the patients who received combination therapy, nine (82%) were cured or improved, and of those who received only amphotericin B, five (50%) were cured or improved. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that itraconazole and amphotericin B given together are not clinically antagonistic and that the promise of combination therapy for aspergillosis should be evaluated further in a randomized clinical trial. (+info)
Intensive care for very elderly patients: outcome and risk factors for in-hospital mortality.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate outcome and risk factors, particularly the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scoring system, for in-hospital mortality in very elderly patients after admission to an intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: Retrospective chart review of patients > or =85 years admitted to the ICU. We recorded age, sex, previous medical history, primary diagnosis, date of admission and discharge or death, APACHE II score on admission, use of mechanical ventilation and inotropics, and complications during ICU admission. RESULTS: 104 patients > or =85 years (1.3% of all ICU admissions) were studied. The ICU and in-hospital mortality rates for these patients were 22 and 36% respectively. Factors correlated with a greater in-hospital mortality were: an admission diagnosis of acute respiratory failure (chi2; P = 0.007), the use of mechanical ventilation (chi2; P = 0.00005) and inotropes (chi2; P = 0.00001), complications during ICU admission (chi2; P = 0.004), in particular acute renal failure (chi2; P = 0.005), and an APACHE II score > or =25 (chi2; P = 0.001). The APACHE II scoring system and the use of inotropes were independently correlated with mortality. CONCLUSION: ICU and in-hospital mortality are higher in very elderly patients, particularly in those with an APACHE II score > or =25. The most important predictors of mortality are the use of inotropes and the severity of the acute illness. (+info)
Markers of systemic inflammation predicting organ failure in community-acquired septic shock.
To obtain predictors of organ failure (OF), we studied markers of systemic inflammation [circulating levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R), soluble E-selectin and C-reactive protein, and neutrophil and monocyte CD11b expression] and routine blood cell counts in 20 patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome and positive blood culture. Eight patients with shock due to community-acquired infection developed OF, whereas 11 normotensive patients and one patient with shock did not (NOF group). The first blood sample was collected within 48 h after taking the blood culture (T1). OF patients, as compared with NOF patients, had at T1 a lower monocyte count, a lower platelet count, higher levels of CD11b expression on both neutrophils and monocytes, and higher concentrations of IL-6, IL-8 and sIL-2R. C-reactive protein and soluble E-selectin concentrations did not differ between groups. No parameter alone identified all patients that subsequently developed OF. However, a sepsis-related inflammation severity score (SISS), developed on the basis of the presence or absence of shock and on the levels of markers at T1, identified each patient that developed OF. The maximum SISS value was 7. The range of SISS values in OF patients was 2-5, and that in NOF patients was 0-1. In conclusion, high levels of CD11b expression, depressed platelet and monocyte counts, and high concentrations of IL-6, IL-8 and sIL-2R predict OF in patients with community-acquired septic shock, and the combination of these markers may provide the means to identify sepsis patients who will develop OF. (+info)
Serum interleukin 10 and interleukin 11 in patients with acute pancreatitis.
BACKGROUND: Proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines are involved in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. AIMS: To measure the serial serum levels of interleukin 10 and interleukin 11 in patients with acute pancreatitis and analyse the relation of these anti-inflammatory cytokines to disease severity. METHODS: In 50 patients with acute pancreatitis, the serum concentrations of interleukin 10 and interleukin 11 were determined on days one, two, three, four, and seven after admission. Serum C reactive protein levels were evaluated on days one and two. Severity of pancreatitis was determined according to the Atlanta criteria. RESULTS: Serum concentrations of interleukin 10 on days one to seven were significantly higher in patients with severe pancreatitis than in those with mild pancreatitis. Patients with severe attacks had significantly elevated serum interleukin 11 concentrations on days two to four compared with those with mild attacks, but not on days one and seven. With cut off levels of 30 pg/ml for interleukin 10, 10.5 pg/ml for interleukin 11, and 115 mg/l for C reactive protein, the accuracy rates for detecting severe pancreatitis were 84%, 64%, and 78% respectively on day one and 82%, 74%, and 84% respectively on day two. CONCLUSIONS: Serum interleukin 10 and interleukin 11 concentrations reflect the severity of acute pancreatitis. Interleukin 10 is a useful variable for early prediction of the prognosis of acute pancreatitis. (+info)