(1/12) Transesophageal echocardiographic description of the mechanisms of aortic regurgitation in acute type A aortic dissection: implications for aortic valve repair.
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to use transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) to define the mechanisms of aortic regurgitation (AR) in acute type A aortic dissection so as to assist the surgeon in identifying patients with mechanisms of AR suitable for valve preservation. BACKGROUND: Significant AR frequently complicates acute type A aortic dissection necessitating either aortic valve repair or replacement at the time of aortic surgery. Although direct surgical inspection can identify intrinsically normal leaflets suitable for repair, it is preferable for the surgeon to correlate aortic valve function with the anatomy prior to thoracotomy. METHODS: We studied 50 consecutive patients with acute type A aortic dissection in whom preoperative TEE findings were considered by the surgeons in planning aortic valve surgery. Six patients did not undergo surgery (noncandidacy or refusal) and one patient had had a prior aortic valve replacement and therefore was excluded from the analysis. RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients had no or minimal AR and 22 had moderate or severe AR. In all, there were 16 with intrinsically normal leaflets who had AR due to one or more correctable aortic valve lesion: incomplete leaflet closure due to leaflet tethering in a dilated aortic root in 7; leaflet prolapse due to disrupted leaflet attachments in 8; and dissection flap prolapse through the aortic valve orifice in 5. Of these 16 patients, 15 had successful aortic valve repair whereas just 1 underwent aortic valve replacement after a complicated intraoperative course (unrelated to the aortic valve). Nine patients underwent aortic valve replacement for nonrepairable abnormalities, including Marfan's syndrome in four, bicuspid aortic valve in four, and aortitis in one. In patients undergoing aortic valve repair, follow-up transthoracic echocardiography at a median of three months revealed no or minimal residual AR, and clinical follow-up at a median of 23 months showed that none required aortic valve replacement. CONCLUSIONS: When significant AR complicates acute type A aortic dissection, TEE can define the severity and mechanisms of AR and can assist the surgeon in identifying patients in whom valve repair is likely to be successful. (+info)
(2/12) Imbalance of cusp width and aortic regurgitation associated with aortic cusp prolapse in ventricular septal defect.
The Doppler echocardiograms of the aortic valve and associated aortic regurgitation (AR) were reviewed in 72 patients with a ventricular septal defect (VSD). Group I comprised 13 patients without any deformity of the aortic cusp for > or = 10 years, group 2 included 35 patients who did not develop AR for > or = 10 years after right coronary cusp prolapse (RCCP) was first detected, group 3 comprised 11 patients with RCCP and AR in whom the AR remained subclinical for > or = 10 years, and group 4 was 13 patients who underwent surgical treatment because of moderate to severe AR. The cusp imbalance index [width of right (R) or non- (N) coronary cusp/width of left coronary cusp (L)] was compared among the 4 groups. R/L or N/L was larger in group 4 than in groups 1-3; R/L exceeded 1.30 in all the patients in group 4, whereas it was less than 1.30 in all the atients in groups 1-3. Two patients in group 4 with non-coronary cusp prolapse had an N/L greater than 1.50. No other patients in any group had an N/L larger than 1.20. An imbalance of cusp width may predict possible progressive deterioration of AR. (+info)
(3/12) Clinical significance of iodine-123-15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-R, S-methylpentadecanoic acid myocardial scintigraphy in patients with aortic valve disease.
The present study sought to determine whether myocardial fatty acid metabolism as assessed with iodine-123-labeled 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) scintigraphy is impaired in patients with aortic valve disease (AVD) and whether the degree of the metabolic abnormality reflects the severity of AVD. BMIPP scintigraphy was performed in 12 patients with aortic stenosis (AS), 14 patients with aortic regurgitation (AR), and 9 healthy volunteers, and from that the heart-mediastinum uptake ratio (H/M ratio) corrected by the left ventricular (LV) mass (U/Mass ratio) and the myocardial washout rate (WR) were obtained. The H/M ratio tended to be higher in patients than in healthy volunteers (3.3 +/- 0.7 for AS, 3.5 +/- 0.5 for AR, 3.0 +/- 0.3 for healthy volunteers), and the WR was significantly higher in patients than in healthy volunteers (42.8 +/- 9.1% for AS, 35.7 +/- 6.5% for AR, 19.6 +/- 9.1% for healthy volunteers, p<0.01). In the AS patients, the U/Mass ratio showed significant negative correlations (r=-0.79 to -0.90, all p<0.01) and the WR showed significant positive correlations (r=0.61 to 0.82, all p<0.01) with transaortic pressure gradient, LV wall thickness, and LV mass. Similarly, in AR patients these BMIPP parameters showed proportional changes to the LV volumes and LV mass (r=-0.79 to -0.83, all p<0.01 for U/Mass ratio, r=0.55 to 0.70, p<0.05 to <0.01 for WR). In the 9 patients who underwent aortic valve replacement, the BMIPP parameters tended to normalize with increasing U/Mass ratio (0.90 +/- 0.41 x 10(-2)/g to 1.34 +/- 0.59 x 10(-2)/g, p<0.05) and decreasing WR (41.9 +/- 8.8% to 35.4 +/- 9.2%, p<0.01) after surgery. Myocardial fatty acid metabolism as assessed with BMIPP scintigraphy was impaired in patients with aortic valve disease and the U/Mass ratio and WR reflect the severity. These parameters may be useful for the noninvasive assessment of the myocardial metabolic abnormalities caused by hemodynamic overload. (+info)
(4/12) Eccentric aortic regurgitation in patients with right coronary cusp prolapse complicating a ventricular septal defect.
To analyze the clinical significance of eccentric aortic regurgitation (AR) complicating the right coronary cusp prolapse associated with a ventricular septal defect (VSD), the Doppler echocardiograms of 129 patients were reviewed. In 102 patients, AR was classified as mild and in 27 patients it was classified as moderate. Eccentric AR was defined as the jet distributing in an eccentric direction. In 15 patients of the moderate group, AR was already moderate at the initial examination and of these, the AR was eccentric in 14 and central in 1. In 12 patients who initially had mild AR, it became moderate during follow-up. In 7 patients with mild, central AR, 6 worsened to central moderate AR and 1 evolved to eccentric moderate AR. Eccentric mild AR patients all developed eccentric moderate AR. Within the mild AR group, 5 of 9 patients with eccentric AR progressed from mild to moderate, whereas only 7 of 105 patients with central AR did so (p<0.01). In conclusion, eccentric AR may be an advanced finding of the AR associated with right coronary cusp prolapse in some patients, but in others eccentric AR is highly likely to progress and is malignant. (+info)
(5/12) Severity indices of right coronary cusp prolapse and aortic regurgitation complicating ventricular septal defect in the outlet septum: which defect should be closed?
BACKGROUND: The factors that may determine the evolution of right coronary cusp prolapse (RCCP) and regurgitation (AR) associated with a ventricular septal defect in the outlet septum (outlet VSD) have not been clarified. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Doppler echocardiograms of 316 patients were grouped according to both the development of RCCP, and the values of the right coronary cusp deformity index (RCCD) and the right coronary cusp imbalance index (R/L). All detected AR was = slight, and not progressive in patients with both RCCD <0.30 and R/L <1.30. Moderate AR was detected in patients with either RCCD >/=0.30 or R/L >/=0.30. Rupture of the sinus of Valsalva was identified in patients with RCCD >/=0.30. A significantly large number of patients with both RCCD >/=0.30 and R/L >/=1.30 (p<0.01), and a few patients with either RCCD >/=0.30 or R/L >/=0.30 underwent aortic valvuloplasty or replacement. Operative outcome for AR = slight was good. CONCLUSIONS: There is no need to close an outlet VSD with RCCP when the RCCD <0.30 and R/L <1.30 as long as the AR remains trivial, but such defects should be closed when the RCCD is >/=0.30 or R/L >/=1.30. (+info)
(6/12) Repair of trileaflet aortic valve prolapse: mid-term outcome in patients with normal aortic root morphology.
We described our mid-term results in repairing prolapsing aortic cusps in 21 patients with aortic regurgitation and normal aortic root morphology. Aortic regurgitation was moderate-severe in five patients and severe in 16 patients. Prolapse involved the left cusp in four patients (19%), the right cusp in 10 patients (47%) and the non-coronary cusp in 7 (33%) patients. Correction of the prolapsing cusp was achieved by either free edge plication, triangular resection or resuspension with polytetrafluoroethylene sutures, frequently associated to a subcommissural annuloplasty. There was no hospital death. At discharge transthoracic echocardiography, 18 patients (85%) showed no residual aortic regurgitation and three patients (14%) had trivial aortic regurgitation with a central jet. Mean clinical follow-up was 27.2+/-17.1 months (range: 10-72 months). Overall survival was 90.5%. At follow-up transthoracic echocardiography, fourteen patients (73%) were free from aortic regurgitation and five patients (26%) had mild aortic regurgitation without clinical signs of congestive heart failure. Correction of valve prolapse appears a reasonable extension of the original techniques of valve-preserving surgery. (+info)
(7/12) Valve-sparing aortic root replacement with repair of leaflet prolapse after Ross operation.
The need for reoperation remains a principal limitation of the Ross procedure and most commonly includes replacement of the neo-aortic valve. Valve-preserving aortic root replacement has recently evolved into an increasingly accepted treatment modality for patients with neo-aortic valve regurgitation. Leaflet prolapse, however, may be present, making composite replacement the most frequent choice. Alternatively, valve preservation may be combined with correction of leaflet prolapse. We describe the use of a valve-sparing procedure with correction of leaflet prolapse in a patient with progressive dilatation of the pulmonary autograft and severe regurgitation of the neo-aortic valve. (+info)
(8/12) Acute aortic valve prolapse in Marfan's syndrome.
A 22 year old man with Marfan's syndrome died suddenly following acute aortic valve prolapse. Although aortic root involvement in Marfan's syndrome is common, we have found no previous description of this particular complication in the literature. (+info)