Predicting delayed anxiety and depression in patients with gastrointestinal cancer.
The aim of this study was to examine the possibility of predicting anxiety and depression 6 months after a cancer diagnosis on the basis of measures of anxiety, depression, coping and subjective distress associated with the diagnosis and to explore the possibility of identifying individual patients with high levels of delayed anxiety and depression associated with the diagnosis. A consecutive series of 159 patients with gastrointestinal cancer were interviewed in connection with the diagnosis, 3 months (non-cured patients only) and 6 months later. The interviews utilized structured questionnaires assessing anxiety and depression [Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale], coping [Mental Adjustment to Cancer (MAC) scale] and subjective distress [Impact of Event (IES) scale]. Patient anxiety and depression close to the diagnosis were found to explain approximately 35% of the variance in anxiety and depression that was found 6 months later. The addition of coping and subjective distress measures did little to improve that prediction. A model using (standardized) cut-off scores of moderate to high anxiety, depression (HAD) and intrusive thoughts (IES subscale) close to the diagnosis to identify patients at risk for delayed anxiety and depression achieved a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 98%. Levels of anxiety and depression at diagnosis predicted a similar status 6 months later. The results also indicated that the HAD scale in combination with the IES intrusion subscale may be used as a tool for detecting patients at risk of delayed anxiety and depression. (+info)
Increased postwar symptoms and psychological morbidity among U.S. Navy Gulf War veterans.
To investigate reports on war-related morbidity, 527 active-duty Gulf War veterans and 970 nondeployed veterans from 14 Seabee commands were studied in 1994 with a questionnaire, sera collection, handgrip strength, and pulmonary function testing. The questionnaire assessed postwar symptoms, war exposures, and screened for chronic fatigue syndrome, post-traumatic stress disorder, and psychological symptoms suggesting neurosis (Hopkins Symptom Checklist). Sera were tested with four nonspecific reactant assays: C-reactive protein, transferrin, ferritin, and haptoglobin. Gulf War veterans reported a higher prevalence for 35 of 41 symptoms, scored higher on psychological symptom scales, were more likely to screen for post-traumatic stress disorder, had lower handgrip strength, and had higher serum ferritin assay results. Numerous comparisons of these morbidity outcomes with 30 self-reported exposures demonstrated many associations, but no unique exposure or group of exposures were implicated. Morbidity data are consistent with other postwar observations, but the etiology for morbidity findings remains uncertain. (+info)
Stillbirth as risk factor for depression and anxiety in the subsequent pregnancy: cohort study.
OBJECTIVE: To assess women's symptoms of depression and anxiety during pregnancy and the postpartum year in the pregnancy after stillbirth; to assess relevance of time since loss. DESIGN: Cohort study with four assessments: in third trimester and 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after birth. SETTING: Outpatient departments of three district general hospitals; subjects' homes. SUBJECTS: 60 women whose previous pregnancy ended in stillbirth after 18 weeks' gestation; 60 matched controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Depression and anxiety measured by Edinburgh postnatal depression scale, Beck depression inventory, and Spielberger state-trait anxiety scale. RESULTS: In the third trimester women whose previous pregnancy had ended in stillbirth were significantly more depressed than control women (10.8 v 8.2; P=0.004) and had greater state anxiety (39.8 v 32. 8, P=0.003) The difference was accounted for by those women who conceived less than 12 months after the stillbirth, who were also more depressed at 1 year. Results in those who conceived 12 months or more after stillbirth were similar to those in their controls at all points and showed lower trait anxiety 1 year post partum. One year after the birth 8% of control women and 19% of subjects scored high for depression (P=0.39), with most of the depression among the more recently bereaved (28% v 11%; P=0.18). In the women who had experienced stillbirth, depression in the third trimester was highly predictive of depression 1 year after subsequent birth (P+info)
Frontal lobe syndrome reassessed: comparison of patients with lateral or medial frontal brain damage.
Examination of mood and behaviour changes after frontal damage may contribute to understanding the functional role of distinct prefrontal areas in depression and anxiety. Depression and anxiety disorders, symptoms, and behaviour were compared in eight patients with single lateral and eight patients with single medial frontal lesions matched for age, sex, race, education, socioeconomic status, side, and aetiology of lesion 2 weeks and 3 months after brain injury. DSM IV major depressive and generalised anxiety disorders were more frequent in patients with lateral compared with medial lesions at 2 weeks but not at 3 months. At 3 months, however, patients with lateral damage showed greater severity of depressive symptoms, and greater impairment in both activities of daily living and social functioning. At initial evaluation depressed mood and slowness were more frequent, whereas at 3 months slowness, lack of energy, and social unease were more frequent in the lateral than the medial group. Patients with lateral lesions showed greater reduction of emotion and motivation (apathy) during both examinations. Medial frontal injury may fail to produce emotional dysregulation or may inhibit experience of mood changes, anxiety, or apathy. Lateral prefrontal damage may disrupt mood regulation and drive while leaving intact the ability to experience (negative) emotions. (+info)
Slapping and spanking in childhood and its association with lifetime prevalence of psychiatric disorders in a general population sample.
BACKGROUND: Little information is available in Canada about the prevalence of and outcomes associated with a history of slapping and spanking in childhood. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of a history of slapping or spanking in a general population sample and to assess the relation between such a history and the lifetime prevalence of psychiatric disorders. METHODS: In this general population survey, a probability sample of 9953 residents of Ontario aged 15 years and older who participated in the Ontario Health Supplement was used to examine the prevalence of a history of slapping and spanking. A subgroup of this sample (n = 4888), which comprised people aged 15 to 64 years who did not report a history of physical or sexual abuse during childhood, was used to assess the relation between a history of slapping or spanking and the lifetime prevalence of 4 categories of psychiatric disorder. The measures included a self-administered questionnaire with a question about frequency of slapping and spanking during childhood, as well as an interviewer-administered questionnaire to measure psychiatric disorder. RESULTS: The majority of respondents indicated that they had been slapped or spanked, or both, by an adult during childhood "sometimes" (33.4%) or "rarely" (40.9%); 5.5% reported that this occurred "often." The remainder (20.2%) reported "never" experiencing these behaviours. Among the respondents without a history of physical or sexual abuse during childhood, those who reported being slapped or spanked "often" or "sometimes" had significantly higher lifetime rates of anxiety disorders (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.96), alcohol abuse or dependence (adjusted OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.27-3.21) and one or more externalizing problems (adjusted OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.36-3.16), compared with those who reported "never" being slapped or spanked. There was also an association between a history of slapping or spanking and major depression, but it was not statistically significant (adjusted OR 1.64, 95% CI 0.96-2.80). INTERPRETATION: There appears to be a linear association between the frequency of slapping and spanking during childhood and a lifetime prevalence of anxiety disorder, alcohol abuse or dependence and externalizing problems. (+info)
Anxiety disorders in late life.
OBJECTIVE: To review the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and treatment of anxiety disorders in late life. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Epidemiologic and comorbidity data are derived from well designed random-sample community surveys. There are virtually no controlled data specific to treatment of anxiety in the elderly. Guidelines for treating anxiety disorders in late life, therefore, must be extrapolated from results of randomized controlled trials conducted in younger patients. MAIN MESSAGE: Generalized anxiety disorder and agoraphobia account for most cases of anxiety disorder in late life. Late-onset generalized anxiety is usually associated with depressive illness and, in this situation, the primary pharmacologic treatment is antidepressant medication. Most elderly people with agoraphobia do not give a history of panic attacks; exposure therapy is the preferred treatment for agoraphobia without panic. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians need to make more use of antidepressant medication and behavioural therapy and less use of benzodiazepines in treating anxiety disorders in late life. (+info)
Assisted bibliotherapy: effective, efficient treatment for moderate anxiety problems.
Specific psychological treatments of proven effectiveness for moderate anxiety disorders are not often easily accessible in general practice. In this study, selected patients were supported in learning skills to manage their symptoms. This approach was efficient, acceptable, and led to clinically significant symptom reduction for a high proportion of patients. This improvement was well sustained at three-month follow-up. (+info)
An analysis of 60 cases of culture bound syndromes.
Of 60 cases of culture bound syndromes seen in psychiatry OPD, Dhat syndrome was most common (76.7%), followed by possession syndrome (13.3%). Depression by the most common associated psychiatric disorder. As the data on culture bound syndromes in Indian subcontinent is less, this study calls for careful evaluation of these patients psychologically to detect and treat the associated psychiatric comorbidity appropriately. (+info)