(1/26) Testin induction: the role of cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate/protein kinase A signaling in the regulation of basal and lonidamine-induced testin expression by rat sertoli cells.

Results of previous in vitro and in vivo studies have illustrated that the expression of testin by Sertoli cells is tightly associated with the disruption of Sertoli-germ cell junctions. In the present study, treatment of rats with cadmium chloride (CdCl(2)), which disrupted the inter-Sertoli tight junctions, failed to induce any changes in testicular testin expression. In contrast, lonidamine, an antispermatogenic drug that rearranges the Sertoli cell membrane microfilament structure causing a disruption of Sertoli-germ cell adhesion junctions, induced a drastic increase in testicular testin expression when administered orally. Lonidamine-induced Sertoli cell testin expression involved both ongoing RNA and de novo protein synthesis. Basal testin expression remained stable during the 27-h incubation with actinomycin D but required de novo protein synthesis in vitro. An inhibitor of protein kinase A, Rp-cAMPS, caused a 50% inhibition of Sertoli cell testin expression at 10 microM within 24 h. A biphasic response was noted in testin expression when forskolin was included in the Sertoli cell culture, and high concentrations of cAMP analogues (1 mM) rapidly reduced testin expression. However, lonidamine can abolish the inhibitory effect of cAMP analogues on Sertoli cell testin expression. These results illustrate that the induction of testin expression may involve several signal transduction pathways.  (+info)

(2/26) The contribution of Asian scientists to global research in andrology.

AIM: To present a personal account of the involvement of the World Health Organization (WHO) in the collaborative development in Asia of those areas of andrology concerned with male contraception and reproductive health. METHODS: The andrology training through workshops and institution support undertaken by the WHO Human Reproduction Programme (HRP) and how they contributed to the strengthening of andrology research in Asia are summarised. RESULTS: The author' s experience and the Asian scientific contributions to the global research in the following areas are reviewed: the safety of vasectomy and the development of new methods of vas occlusion; gossypol and its failure to become a safe, reversible male antifertility drug; Tripterygium and whether its pure extracts will pass through the appropriate toxicology and phased clinical studies to become acceptable contraceptive drugs; hormonal methods of contraception for men. CONCLUSION: The WHO policy of research capacity building through training and institution strengthening, together with the collaboration of Asian andrologists, has created strong National institutions now able to direct their own programmes of research in clinical and scientific andrology.  (+info)

(3/26) Hormonal contraception in the male.

The hormonal approach to male contraception is based on the suppression of gonadotrophin secretion with secondary suppression of spermatogenesis. This can be achieved by administration of testosterone or other androgen alone, but combined administration with a progestogen or GnRH analogue allows the dose of testosterone to be reduced to physiological replacement doses. This approach has been investigated for many years but without identification of a regimen which results in sufficient suppression of spermatogenesis to provide ensured contraception in all men, safely and conveniently. The reasons for this are discussed, and recent developments towards a regimen that fulfills all these criteria are described. Crucial to development of any new product is that it will be used: surveys of both men and women indicate firmly positive attitudes towards a 'male pill'. There are, therefore, grounds for cautious optimism that the next decade may see the introduction of the first novel male contraceptive for several hundred years.  (+info)

(4/26) Reversible inhibition of spermatogenesis in rats using a new male contraceptive, 1-(2,4-dichlorobenzyl)-indazole-3-carbohydrazide.

The oral male contraceptive agent 1-(2,4-dichlorobenzyl)-indazole-3-carbohydrazide (AF2364) is a new analogue of indazole-carboxylic acid. AF2364 was orally administered to rats at 50 mg/kg body weight once weekly for five consecutive weeks. The effects on fertility efficacy, hormonal profile, organ weights, tissue morphology, and serum microchemistry were examined. Complete infertility was noted in rats 29 days after the initial dose of AF2364 and continued until 90 days. Fertility resumed in 25% of the group after 104 days and had resumed in 75% of the rats by the last mating at 197 days. Morphological examination of the testis showed rapid exfoliation of elongated spermatids and the generation of large multinucleated cells 6 days after the first treatment, with depletion of most germ cells after 40 days. Normal spermatogenesis was noted in 95% of the tubules in the animals that were fertile at 210 days. Morphological analysis of the epididymal compartments revealed reduced lumen size, whereas the prostate exhibited an increase in the glandular lumen with a reduction in epithelium height. No morphological changes were detected in the kidney, liver, and cerebrum by light microscopy. Kidney and liver function, as evaluated by serum chemistry, were not affected by the drug treatment. AF2364 did not alter the levels of FSH, and only minimal changes were noted for LH and testosterone, suggesting that the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis was not affected. These results illustrate the potential of AF2364 as a male contraceptive.  (+info)

(5/26) Lupron depot prevention of antispermatogenic/antifertility activity of the indenopyridine, CDB-4022, in the rat.

The goals of this study were to determine the CDB-4022 dose-response relationship for induction of acute decreases in testicular weight and germ cell depopulation in rats; establish the threshold dose of CDB-4022 required to induce infertility; and investigate whether CDB-4022-induced testicular damage could be prevented by a GnRH agonist (Lupron Depot). Reduction of testis weight and germ cell depopulation were observed 7 days after a single oral dose of 1 mg CDB-4022/kg, whereas 0.5 mg/kg had no observable effect. These effects were maximal at 12.5 or 25 mg CDB-4022/kg. After a single oral dose of either 2.5 or 5 mg/kg, CDB-4022 induced infertility in five of five treated rats by Week 5, whereas only one of five males was rendered infertile at a dose of 1 mg/kg. Proven fertile male rats (6/group) were treated with vehicle, CDB-4022 alone (2.5 mg/kg on Day 0), CDB-4022 plus Lupron Depot (on Weeks -1, 2, 5, and 8), or Lupron Depot alone. Control males demonstrated normal fertility throughout a 32-wk cohabitation period. Five of six rats were rendered transiently infertile with Lupron Depot alone, but all recovered fertility. CDB-4022 treatment resulted in infertility in all six rats, and only one of six regained fertility. Combined treatment also caused infertility in all six rats, but four of six recovered fertility (P = 0.08 compared to CDB-4022 alone). Testicular weight was decreased in the three treatment groups compared to vehicle controls; testicular weights were ranked from highest to lowest as follows: vehicle > Lupron Depot > Lupron Depot + CDB-4022 > CDB-4022. The tubule differentiation index of Lupron Depot-treated rats (96 +/- 4%) was not different from vehicle-treated rats (100%). CDB-4022 treatment decreased the number of differentiating tubules (15 +/- 8%). Lupron Depot plus CDB-4022 treatment resulted in a greater number of differentiating tubules (53 +/- 12%) than CDB-4022 alone, but this was still lower than vehicle- or Lupron Depot-treated rats. These data indicate that 2.5 mg/kg of CDB-4022 was the oral threshold dose that caused testicular damage rendering the majority of adult male rats permanently infertile within the study interval; 12.5 mg/kg of CDB-4022 induced maximal testicular damage. Suppression of gonadotropins and/or testosterone production by treatment with Lupron Depot before and after CDB-4022 prevented the CDB-4022-induced irreversible testicular damage.  (+info)

(6/26) Expression of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator in rat spermatids: implication for the site of action of antispermatogenic agents.

To establish whether cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is functionally expressed in the testis, we subjected spermatogenic cells from rat testes to analysis of CFTR mRNA, protein and channel activity. CFTR mRNA was detected in the testes of mature but not immature rats using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Western blot analysis performed with a CFTR specific antibody revealed immunoreactivity in the membrane extract of spermatogenic cells. Immunohistochemical studies localized CFTR in round and elongated spermatids, but not in the fully developed spermatozoa. Using a whole-cell patch clamp technique, we recorded an inward current activated by intracellular cAMP (100 micromol/l) in round spermatids. The current displayed a linear I / V relationship and was inhibited by diphenylamine-2-carboxylate (DPC), a chloride channel blocker. Transfection of the rat germ cell CFTR cDNA into human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells caused the expression of a cAMP-activated chloride current with CFTR characteristics. The current was completely blocked by the antispermatogenic agents 1-(2,4-dichlorobenzyl)-indazole-3-carboxylic acid, lonidamine (500 micromol/l) and 1-(2,4-dichlorobenzyl)-indazole-3-acrylic acid, AF2785 (250 micromol/l). These results taken together provide evidence that CFTR is differentially expressed in spermatids during spermiogenesis. We speculate that CFTR may interact with aquaporin to bring about cytoplasmic volume contraction which is an essential feature of spermiogenesis.  (+info)

(7/26) Disruption of spermatogenesis and Sertoli cell structure and function by the indenopyridine CDB-4022 in rats.

The present studies were undertaken to determine the testicular cell type(s) affected by the antispermatogenic indenopyridine CDB-4022. At the oral threshold dose (2.5 mg/kg), CDB-4022 induced infertility in all males. CDB-4022 did not alter (P > 0.05) Leydig cell function as assessed by circulating testosterone, seminal vesicle, and ventral prostate weights or body weight gain compared to controls. Conversely, CDB-4022 reduced (P < 0.05) testicular weight, spermatid head counts, and percentage of seminiferous tubules undergoing spermatogenesis. In a second study, adult male rats received a maximally effective oral dose of CDB-4022 (12.5 mg/kg), dipentylphthalate (DPP; 2200 mg/kg; a Sertoli cell toxicant), or vehicle and were necropsied 3, 6, or 12 h after dosing to determine acute effects. Serum inhibin B levels were suppressed (P < 0.05) by 6 h after CDB-4022 or DPP treatment, but epididymal androgen-binding protein (ABP) levels were not altered (P > 0.05), compared to controls. CDB-4022 and DPP increased (P < 0.05) the percentage of tubules with apoptotic germ cells, particularly differentiating spermatogonia and spermatocytes, by 12 h after dosing. Microscopic examination of the testis indicated a greater degree of vacuolation in Sertoli cells and initial signs of apical germ cell sloughing/shedding by 3 or 12 h after CDB-4022 or DPP treatment, respectively. In a third study, prepubertal male rats were treated with vehicle, 12.5 mg/kg of CDB-4022, or 2200 mg/kg of DPP, and the efferent ducts of the right testis were ligated 23 h before necropsy. Seminiferous tubule fluid secretion (difference in weight of testes), serum inhibin B levels, and ABP levels in the unligated epididymis were reduced (P < 0.05) at 24 and 48 h after dosing in CDB-4022- and DPP-treated rats compared to controls. Collectively, these data suggest that CDB-4022 disrupts spermatogenesis by inducing apoptosis in early stage germ cells via a direct action on the Sertoli cell.  (+info)

(8/26) Rabbit epididymal secretory proteins. II. Immunolocalization and sperm association of REP38.

Polyclonal antibody was used to partially characterize REP38, a major rabbit epididymal secretory protein. Western blot analyses and immunohistochemistry indicated that REP38 is only expressed in regions 5 and 6 of the epididymis (corpus epididy-midis) and is localized in the supranuclear region and microvilli of the principal cells in these regions. It was not expressed in other tissues of the body. In region 8 (cauda epididymidis), REP38 was detected in the luminal border and cytoplasm of scattered principal cells, indicating that it may be reabsorbed in this region. This protein accumulated on the sperm plasma membrane downstream of region 5 and was localized predominantly over the acrosomal and postacrosomal regions of the head and the middle piece. Although tightly bound to epididymal sperm, REP38 migrated to the equatorial segment under conditions in vivo that would promote capacitation. When tested in vitro, anti-REP38 IgG reduced the percentage of ova fertilized in a concentration-dependent manner, apparently by blocking sperm-egg fusion.  (+info)