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(1/584) Subtypes of family history and conduct disorder: effects on P300 during the stroop test.

The goal of the present study was to identify neurophysiological differences associated with a family history of substance dependence, and its subtypes (paternal alcohol, cocaine, or opiate dependence), and with conduct disorder, and its subtypes (aggression, deceitfulness/theft, and rules violations). P300 event-related brain potentials were recorded from 210 males and females, aged 15-20 years while they performed the Stroop color-word compatibility test. Analyses revealed no significant effects of familial substance dependence on P300. However, an elevated number of conduct disorder problems was associated with a statistically significant reduction in P300 amplitude. The P300 amplitude reduction was related to the severity of the "rules violation" subtype, but was unrelated to aggression or deceitfulness and theft. It is concluded that conduct disorder can explain many of the P300 findings previously attributed to a family history of alcohol dependence. Furthermore, it appears that conduct disorder may be a heterogenous classification comprised of neurophysiologically different subtypes.  (+info)

(2/584) Mice with reduced NMDA receptor expression display behaviors related to schizophrenia.

N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) represent a subclass of glutamate receptors that play a critical role in neuronal development and physiology. We report here the generation of mice expressing only 5% of normal levels of the essential NMDAR1 (NR1) subunit. Unlike NR1 null mice, these mice survive to adulthood and display behavioral abnormalities, including increased motor activity and stereotypy and deficits in social and sexual interactions. These behavioral alterations are similar to those observed in pharmacologically induced animal models of schizophrenia and can be ameliorated by treatment with haloperidol or clozapine, antipsychotic drugs that antagonize dopaminergic and serotonergic receptors. These findings support a model in which reduced NMDA receptor activity results in schizophrenic-like behavior and reveals how pharmacological manipulation of monoaminergic pathways can affect this phenotype.  (+info)

(3/584) Parent-infant interactions among families with alcoholic fathers.

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between fathers' alcoholism and the quality of parent-infant interactions during free play. A related goal was to study the potential mediating or moderating role of comorbid parental psychopathology, such as depression and antisocial behavior, difficult infant temperament, and parental aggression. The sample consisted of 204 families with 12-month-old infants (104 alcoholic and 100 control families), recruited from New York State birth records. Results indicated that fathers' alcoholism was associated with a number of other risk factors (depression, antisocial behavior, and family aggression). Fathers' alcoholism was also associated with more negative father-infant interactions as indicated by lower paternal sensitivity, positive affect, verbalizations, higher negative affect, and lower infant responsiveness among alcoholic fathers. As expected, fathers' depression mediated the relationship between fathers' alcoholism and sensitivity, while maternal depression mediated the association between maternal alcohol problems and maternal sensitivity. Parents' psychopathology did not moderate the association between alcoholism and parent-infant interactions. The results from the present study suggest that the origins of risk for later maladjustment among children of alcoholic fathers are apparent as early as infancy and highlight the role of comorbid parental risk factors.  (+info)

(4/584) Clinical correlates of cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence in alcohol-dependent men and women. The Collaborative Study Group on the Genetics of Alcoholism.

This paper examines the clinical characteristics associated with tobacco use and nicotine dependence in a large sample of alcohol-dependent subjects. The goal was to determine if the characteristics of the alcohol use history were associated with the smoking status, even after controlling for additional characteristics, such as the antisocial personality disorder, other drug dependence and gender. As part of the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism, a semi-structured interview, including a detailed history of alcohol and tobacco use, was administered to 1005 alcohol-dependent men and women, made up of 658 (65.5%) current smokers, 167 (16.6%) former smokers, and 180 (17.9%) non-smokers. Among former smokers, 50.3%, and among current smokers, 72.8% had ever been nicotine-dependent (DSM-III-R). Current smokers and nicotine-dependent subjects had a greater severity of alcohol dependence, even as evaluated through logistic regression analyses in which gender and associated diagnoses were considered. The data also enabled us to study the relationships among depression, nicotine dependence, and alcohol dependence, with most of the correlation occurring for substance-induced, not independent, mood disorders.  (+info)

(5/584) Impaired social response reversal. A case of 'acquired sociopathy'.

In this study, we report a patient (J.S.) who, following trauma to the right frontal region, including the orbitofrontal cortex, presented with 'acquired sociopathy'. His behaviour was notably aberrant and marked by high levels of aggression and a callous disregard for others. A series of experimental investigations were conducted to address the cognitive dysfunction that might underpin his profoundly aberrant behaviour. His performance was contrasted with that of a second patient (C.L.A.), who also presented with a grave dysexecutive syndrome but no socially aberrant behaviour, and five inmates of Wormwood Scrubs prison with developmental psychopathy. While J.S. showed no reversal learning impairment, he presented with severe difficulty in emotional expression recognition, autonomic responding and social cognition. Unlike the comparison populations, J.S. showed impairment in: the recognition of, and autonomic responding to, angry and disgusted expressions; attributing the emotions of fear, anger and embarrassment to story protagonists; and the identification of violations of social behaviour. The findings are discussed with reference to models regarding the role of the orbitofrontal cortex in the control of aggression. It is suggested that J.S.'s impairment is due to a reduced ability to generate expectations of others' negative emotional reactions, in particular anger. In healthy individuals, these representations act to suppress behaviour that is inappropriate in specific social contexts. Moreover, it is proposed that the orbitofrontal cortex may be implicated specifically either in the generation of these expectations or the use of these expectations to suppress inappropriate behaviour.  (+info)

(6/584) Merging universal and indicated prevention programs: the Fast Track model. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group.

Fast Track is a multisite, multicomponent preventive intervention for young children at high risk for long-term antisocial behavior. Based on a comprehensive developmental model, this intervention includes a universal-level classroom program plus social-skill training, academic tutoring, parent training, and home visiting to improve competencies and reduce problems in a high-risk group of children selected in kindergarten. The theoretical principles and clinical strategies utilized in the Fast Track Project are described to illustrate the interplay between basic developmental research, the understanding of risk and protective factors, and a research-based model of preventive intervention that integrates universal and indicated models of prevention.  (+info)

(7/584) Peer rejection in childhood, involvement with antisocial peers in early adolescence, and the development of externalizing behavior problems.

A longitudinal, prospective design was used to examine the roles of peer rejection in middle childhood and antisocial peer involvement in early adolescence in the development of adolescent externalizing behavior problems. Both early starter and late starter pathways were considered. Classroom sociometric interviews from ages 6 through 9 years, adolescent reports of peers' behavior at age 13 years, and parent, teacher, and adolescent self-reports of externalizing behavior problems from age 5 through 14 years were available for 400 adolescents. Results indicate that experiencing peer rejection in elementary school and greater involvement with antisocial peers in early adolescence are correlated but that these peer relationship experiences may represent two different pathways to adolescent externalizing behavior problems. Peer rejection experiences, but not involvement with antisocial peers. predict later externalizing behavior problems when controlling for stability in externalizing behavior. Externalizing problems were most common when rejection was experienced repeatedly. Early externalizing problems did not appear to moderate the relation between peer rejection and later problem behavior. Discussion highlights multiple pathways connecting externalizing behavior problems from early childhood through adolescence with peer relationship experiences in middle childhood and early adolescence.  (+info)

(8/584) Antisocial personality disorder, alcohol, and aggression.

Epidemiologic studies and laboratory research consistently link alcohol use with aggression. Not all people, however, exhibit increased aggression under the influence of alcohol. Recent research suggests that people with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) may be more prone to alcohol-related aggression than people without ASPD. As a group, people with ASPD have higher rates of alcohol dependence and more alcohol-related problems than people without ASPD. Likewise, in laboratory studies, people with ASPD show greater increases in aggressive behavior after consuming alcohol than people without ASPD. The association between ASPD and alcohol-related aggression may result from biological factors, such as ASPD-related impairments in the functions of certain brain chemicals (e.g., serotonin) or in the activities of higher reasoning, or "executive," brain regions. Alternatively, the association between ASPD and alcohol-related aggression may stem from some as yet undetermined factor(s) that increase the risk for aggression in general.  (+info)