The posterior nasal nerve plays an important role on cardiopulmonary reflexes to nasal application of capsaicin, distilled water and l-menthol in anesthetized dogs.
The sensory innervation of the cardiopulmonary reflexes to nasal application of capsaicin (CAPS), distilled water (DW) and l-menthol (LM) was studied in anesthetized dogs breathing through tracheostomy. A marked cardiopulmonary reflex was observed by CAPS and DW into the nasal cavity, while a prolongation of expiration was induced by LM. All these reflexes were significantly decreased by bilateral section of the posterior nasal nerve (PNN) and completely abolished by topical nasal anesthesia with lidocaine. Responses of the whole nerve activity of the PNN to these substances corresponded to the magnitude of the reflexes. These results indicate that PNN afferents play an important role on the reflex elicitation of the noxious, water and cold stimuli from the nasal cavity. (+info)
An experimental itch model in monkeys: characterization of intrathecal morphine-induced scratching and antinociception.
BACKGROUND: The most common side effect of spinal opioid administration is pruritus, which has been treated with a variety of agents with variable success. Currently, there are few animal models developed to study this side effect. The aim of this study was to establish a nonhuman primate model to pharmacologically characterize the effects of intrathecal administration of morphine. METHODS: Eight adult rhesus monkeys were used. Scratching responses were videotaped and counted by observers who were blinded to experimental conditions. Antinociception was measured by a warm-water (50 degrees C) tail-withdrawal assay. The dose-response of intrathecal morphine (1-320 microg) for both scratching and antinociception in all subjects was established. An opioid antagonist, nalmefene, was administered either intravenously or subcutaneously to assess its efficacy against intrathecal morphine. RESULTS: Intrathecal morphine (1-32 microg) increased scratching in a dose-dependent manner. Higher doses of intrathecal morphine (10-100 microg) produced thermal antinociception in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, nalmefene (10-32 microg/kg intravenously) attenuated maximum scratching responses among subjects. Pretreatment with nalmefene (32 microg/kg subcutaneously) produced approximately 10-fold rightward shifts of intrathecal morphine dose-response curves for both behavioral effects. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that intrathecal morphine-induced scratching and antinociception are mediated by opioid receptors. The magnitude of nalmefene antagonism of intrathecal morphine is consistent with microL opioid receptor mediation. This experimental itch model is useful for evaluating different agents that may suppress scratching without interfering with antinociception. It may also facilitate the clarification of mechanisms underlying these phenomena. (+info)
Interaction of trimeprazine with cyclodextrins in aqueous solution.
The synergistic effect of pH and complexation with cyclodextrins on some properties of phenothiazine derivative--trimeprazine (TM) was investigated. Inclusion complexes of TM with beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) and its substituted derivatives (DM-beta-CD, HP-beta-CD, beta-CDsulf) were obtained in phosphate buffer solution of different pH (6.8; 5.9; 5.0) using spectral and phase solubility methods Irrespective of the method of determination the apparent stability constant of TM-beta-CD system was the greatest and, in the case of the spectral method, its value increased with decreasing pH. The results obtained by the method of solubility diagrams indicate that increase in solubility of the basic form of TM, following decrease of pH, resulted rather from its transformation to a better soluble, protonated form than its inclusion into CD cavity. The thermodynamic parameters estimated from linear Van't Hoff plot suggest that the van der Waals forces were operating in the TM-beta-CD system. The effect of pH and the presence of cyclodextrins on photostability of TM was also investigated. The photochemical decomposition of TM in the absence and in the presence of CD proceeds according to the first order reaction. The charged form of TM was more stable than free base of this drug and hence the stability of TM increases first of all as result of a decrease in pH and then owing to the presence of CD. The data of 13C NMR analysis indicate that the aromatic portion of TM molecule tends to the interior of CD. (+info)
Possible estuary-associated syndrome: symptoms, vision, and treatment.
The human illness designated as possible estuarine-associated syndrome (PEAS) by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been associated with exposure to estuaries inhabited by toxin-forming dinoflagellates, including members of the fish-killing toxic Pfiesteria complex (TPC), Pfiesteria piscicida and Pfiesteria shumwayae. Humans may be exposed through direct contact with estuarine water or by inhalation of aerosolized or volatilized toxin(s). The five cases reported here demonstrate the full spectrum of symptoms experienced during acute and chronic stages of this suspected neurotoxin-mediated illness. The nonspecific symptoms most commonly reported are cough, secretory diarrhea, headache, fatigue, memory impairment, rash, difficulty in concentrating, light sensitivity, burning skin upon water contact, muscle ache, and abdominal pain. Less frequently encountered symptoms are upper airway obstruction, shortness of breath, confusion, red or tearing eyes, weakness, and vertigo. Some patients experience as few as four of these symptoms. The discovery that an indicator of visual pattern-detection ability, visual contrast sensitivity (VCS), is sharply reduced in affected individuals has provided an objective indicator that is useful in diagnosing and monitoring PEAS. VCS deficits are present in both acute and chronic PEAS, and VCS recovers during cholestyramine treatment coincident with symptom abatement. Although PEAS cannot yet be definitively associated with TPC exposure, resolution with cholestyramine treatment suggests a neurotoxin-mediated illness. (+info)
Sensory experiences in humans and single-unit activity in cats evoked by polymodal stimulation of the cornea.
1. The cornea of human subjects and of anaesthetised cats was stimulated with a jet of air of controlled flow, temperature and CO(2) concentration delivered by a gas aesthesiometer. 2. In humans, the intensity and magnitude of various components of the sensory experience (intensity of the sensation, degree of irritation, magnitude of burning and stinging pain, magnitude of the cold and warm components of the sensation) were measured using separate visual analog scales. In anaesthetised cats, the impulse response to the same stimuli was recorded from single mechanosensory, polymodal and cold-sensitive corneal fibres in the ciliary nerves. 3. Intensity-response curves for mechanical stimulation showed that all parameters of the sensation experienced by humans increased with the intensity of the stimulus. Mechanical stimuli recruited mainly phasic mechanosensory and polymodal afferents in the cat. 4. Acidic stimulation with gas mixtures of increasing CO(2) concentration evoked irritation, burning and to a lesser extent stinging pain of a magnitude roughly proportional to the intensity of the stimulus in humans. CO(2) primarily recruited polymodal afferents and weakly excited cold-sensitive fibres in the cat's cornea. 5. Heat stimuli evoked in humans a sensation profile similar to CO(2) but accompanied by a warmth component. In the cat's cornea, heat excited only polymodal fibres and silenced cold-sensitive corneal units. 6. Cold stimuli applied to the human cornea elicited a sensation of cooling that became irritant at the lowest temperatures. Corneal cold-sensitive fibres of the cat were activated in a manner proportional to the temperature drop, while polymodal nociceptor fibres were recruited only by the lowest temperatures. Topical menthol (0.2 mM) applied to humans evoked and later eliminated cold sensations produced by cold stimuli while the irritation sensation caused by low temperature stimuli still persisted. 7. Human subjects were able to identify masked mechanical, thermal and chemical stimuli applied to the cornea. 8. Irritation and cold sensations can therefore be evoked separately from the cornea by selective activation of mechanosensory, polymodal and cold corneal sensory afferents. Stimulation with different forms of energy usually leads to combined activation and/or inhibition of the different populations of sensory afferent fibres, evoking blended sensations that include irritation and thermal components in a variable degree. (+info)
Inhibition of itch-scratch response by fruits of Cnidium monnieri in mice.
We previously screened the anti-itching activities of 33 herbal medicines in substance P (SP)-induced itching model mice. One of the most potent antipruritogenic extracts, the methanol extract of fruits of Cnidium monnieri (Cnidii Fructus) was studied further. The chloroform-soluble fraction of the methanol extract markedly inhibited SP-induced scratching. Among 10 subfractions of the chloroform-soluble fraction, the CS-3 fraction had the most potent inhibitory effect on scratching. Each of 3 subfractions of CS-3 showed significant anti-scratching activities. However, inhibitory potencies were not different among the three and weaker than that of CS-3 itself at a same dose. These 3 subfractions of CS-3 mainly contained xanthotoxin, isopimpinellin, bergapten, imperatorin and osthol. Single administration of osthol did not inhibit SP-induced scratching, and imperatorin very weakly subsided scratching. These results suggest that the strong antipruritic action was focused on the CS-3 fraction of the C. monnieri methanol extract, and it might result from the combined effects of these coumarin derivatives, or by undetermined minor compounds. (+info)
Antipruritic effects of 1,4-naphthoquinones and related compounds.
The antipruritic effects of orally administered 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives and related compounds on compound 48/80-induced scratching behavior in mice were studied. 2-Hydroxy-3-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,4-naphthoquinone, ferulic acid, 2,2'-methylenebis(3-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone), and 2,2'-ethylidenebis(3-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) (impatienol) all exhibited significant antipruritic activity. However, 2-methoxy-3-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,4-naphthoquinone (balsaquinone), which was isolated from a natural source for the first time, did not show any activity. The present results indicate that these compounds are promising for treating allergic diseases with chronic and severe pruritus. (+info)
Hepatitis and liver dysfunction with rifampicin therapy for pruritus in primary biliary cirrhosis.
There is evidence to suggest that rifampicin is an effective second line therapy for controlling pruritus in patients with chronic cholestatic liver disease. It is most widely used as an antipruritic agent in the autoimmune cholestatic liver disease, primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Rifampicin has been reported as causing hepatitis in patients being treated for tuberculosis. Most reports of this have been confounded however by the concurrent use of other hepatotoxic antitubercular therapy. Here we report a single centre experience of the use of rifampicin in PBC, and describe three cases of significant hepatitis associated with rifampicin therapy. Two of these patients had significant impairment of liver synthetic function (necessitating liver transplantation in one case). These are the first reports of impaired hepatic synthetic function due to rifampicin monotherapy. Rifampicin caused significant hepatitis in 7.3% (95% confidence interval 2.5-19.4%) of patients treated for cholestatic liver disease in our centre. (+info)