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(1/35) Effect of mebendazole and praziquantel on glucosephosphate isomerase and glyceraldehydephosphate dehydrogenase in Echinococcus granulosus cyst wall harbored in mice.

AIM: To study effects of antihydatid drugs on glucosephosphate isomerase (GPI) and glyceraldehydephosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) in Echinococcus granulosus cyst wall. METHODS: Mice infected with the parasite for 8-10 months were treated i.g. with mebendazole (Meb) or praziquantel (Pra). The activities of GPI and GAPDH in the cysts were measured by the formation of NADH or NADPH. RESULTS: GPI activity in the cyst wall was 197 +/- 103 U, while that of GAPDH was 25 +/- 13 U. When infected mice were treated i.g. with Meb 25-50 mg.kg-1.d-1 for 7-14 d, no apparent effect on the GAPDH activity in the cyst was found. In mice treated i.g. with praziquantel (Pra) 500 mg.kg-1.d-1 for 14 d, the GAPDH activity in the cyst wall was inhibited by 26.5%. As to GPI activity only the group treated i.g. with Meb 25 mg.kg-1.d-1 for 14 d showed 33.2% inhibition of the enzyme in the collapsed cyst wall. CONCLUSION: GPI and GAPDH are not the major targets attacked by the antihydatid drug.  (+info)

(2/35) Long-lasting sonographic and histopathological findings in cured clonorchiasis of rabbits.

To ascertain residual sonographic and histopathological findings of clonorchiasis after treatment, the present study evaluated sonographic findings in rabbits which were infected with 500 metacercariae of C. sinensis every 6 months for 18 months after treatment with praziquantel. The sonographic findings were analyzed in terms of intrahepatic bile duct dilatation and periductal echogenicity, and histopathological findings were observed after the last sonographic examination. Compared with the sonographic findings before treatment, dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts became mild to some degree in four of the seven cases and increased periductal echogenicity resolved in four of them. The histopathological specimens after 18 months showed that periductal inflammation has almost resolved but moderate dilatation of the intrahepatic ducts and mucosal hyperplasia persisted. The periductal fibrosis minimally resolved. The long-lasting sonographic findings in cured clonorchiasis make sonography less specific.  (+info)

(3/35) Case studies in international medicine.

Family physicians in the United States are increasingly called on to manage the complex clinical problems of newly arrived immigrants and refugees. Case studies and discussions are provided in this article to update physicians on the diagnosis and management of potentially unfamiliar ailments, including strongyloidiasis, hookworm infection, cysticercosis, clonorchiasis and tropical pancreatitis. Albendazole and ivermectin, two important drugs in the treatment of some worm infections, are now available in the United States.  (+info)

(4/35) Bioavailability of praziquantel increases with concomitant administration of food.

In the present study we found that after a single oral dose of 1,800 mg of praziquantel, following a high-lipid diet and a high-carbohydrate diet, the maximum levels in plasma increased 243 and 515% and the area under the plasma concentration curve from 0 to 8 h increased 180 and 271%, respectively.  (+info)

(5/35) In vitro effects of albendazole sulfoxide and praziquantel against Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysts.

We investigated the minimum exposure times of prazicuantel (PZQ) and albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO) required for their activities against Taenia cysts in vitro as well as the 50 and 99% effective concentrations. The results showed that although the effects of both drugs are time and concentration dependent, ABZSO acts much slower and is less potent than PZQ.  (+info)

(6/35) Fasciola hepatica infestation as a very rare cause of extrahepatic cholestasis.

Fasciola hepatica, an endemic parasite in Turkey, is still a very rare cause of cholestasis worldwide. Through ingestion of contaminated water plants like watercress, humans can become the definitive host of this parasite. Cholestatic symptoms may be sudden but in some cases they may be preceded by a long period of fever, eosinophilia and vague gastrointestinal symptoms. We report a woman with cholangitis symptoms of sudden onset which was proved to be due to Fasciola hepatica infestation by an endoscopic retrograde cholangiography.  (+info)

(7/35) The research on biotransformation of praziquantel.

Praziquantel (PZQ), a broad spectrum antihelmintic drug, is extensively metabolized in the liver, yielding mainly monohydroxylated and dihydroxylated phase-I-metabolites. However, the exact chemical structures of the most metabolites are still unknown. In the presented research, three types of PZQ biotransformations were performed: biotransformation with the whole cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with cytochrome c from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and with microsomes isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To describe the obtained metabolites TLC, RP-TLC, and HPLC were used.  (+info)

(8/35) Artesunate and artemether are effective fasciolicides in the rat model and in vitro.

OBJECTIVES: To study the fasciocidal properties of artesunate and artemether in the rat model and in vitro. METHODS: Adult Fasciola hepatica were exposed in vitro to 1, 10 and 100 microg/mL of artesunate, artemether and dihydroartemisinin for 72 h. Female Wistar rats were administered a single oral dose of artesunate and artemether (100-400 mg/kg) commencing 3 or 10-14 weeks post-infection and worm burden reductions were assessed against infected but untreated control rats. F. hepatica were also observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after recovery from bile ducts of rats given a single oral dose of 200 mg/kg artesunate 24 and 72 h post-treatment. RESULTS: F. hepatica exposed for 72 h to 10 microg/mL of artesunate, artemether and dihydroartemisinin in vitro showed poor mobility, swelling of the worm body, roughness, damage of the tegument and blebbing. Exposure to drug concentrations of 100 microg/mL resulted in the death of all F. hepatica by 72 h. One hundred per cent worm burden reductions were achieved in rats infected with adult F. hepatica after treatment with artesunate and artemether at 400 and 200 mg/kg, respectively. Administration of artesunate and artemether at a dose of 200 mg/kg to rats harbouring juvenile F. hepatica resulted in worm burden reductions of 46% and 82%, respectively. F. hepatica recovered from rats' bile ducts 24 h after administration of 200 mg/kg artesunate showed normal activity and SEM observations revealed that there was no visible damage. Seventy-two hours post-treatment F. hepatica displayed very poor mobility and there was focal swelling of the tegument and spines. CONCLUSIONS: Artesunate and artemether exhibit promising fasciocidal activities, with the latter showing better tolerability by the hosts.  (+info)