(1/1497) Expression and cellular localization of the CC chemokines PARC and ELC in human atherosclerotic plaques.
Local immune responses are thought to play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. Histological studies have shown that human atherosclerotic lesions contain T lymphocytes throughout all stages of development, many of which are in an activated state. A number of novel CC chemokines have been described recently, which are potent chemoattractants for lymphocytes: PARC (pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine), ELC (EBI1-ligand chemokine), LARC (liver and activation-regulated chemokine), and SLC (secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine). Using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization, we have found gene expression for PARC and ELC but not for LARC or SLC in human atherosclerotic plaques. Immunohistochemical staining of serial plaque sections with specific cell markers revealed highly different expression patterns of PARC and ELC. PARC mRNA was restricted to CD68+ macrophages (n = 14 of 18), whereas ELC mRNA was widely expressed by macrophages and intimal smooth muscle cells (SMC) in nearly all of the lesions examined (n = 12 of 14). ELC mRNA was also found to be expressed in the medial SMC wall of highly calcified plaques (n = 4). Very low levels of ELC mRNA expression could also be detected in normal mammary arteries but no mRNA expression for PARC was detected in these vessels (n = 4). In vitro, ELC mRNA was found to be up-regulated in aortic SMC stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-a and interferon-gamma but not in SMC stimulated with serum. Both PARC and ELC mRNA were expressed by monocyte-derived macrophages but not monocytes. The expression patterns of PARC and ELC mRNA in human atherosclerotic lesions suggest a potential role for these two recently described CC chemokines in attracting T lymphocytes into atherosclerotic lesions. (+info)
(2/1497) Phagocytosis stimulates alternative glycosylation of macrosialin (mouse CD68), a macrophage-specific endosomal protein.
Macrosialin (mouse CD68), a macrophage-specific member of the lysosomal-associated membrane protein family, displays N-linked glycosylation and a heavily sialylated, mucin-like domain. We show that phagocytosis of zymosan by inflammatory peritoneal macrophages potently alters glycan processing of macrosialin in vitro. The phagocytic glycoform is not induced by other forms of endocytosis and depends on particle internalization. Zymosan uptake does not influence macrosialin protein synthesis, but increases the specific incorporation of D-[2-3H]mannose, D-[6-3H]galactose, N-acetyl-D-[1-3H]glucosamine and L-[5,6-3H]fucose by 2-15-fold. The phagocytic glycoform displays increased binding of agglutinins from peanut, Amaranthus caudatus and Galanthus nivalis, whereas binding of the sialic-acid-specific Maakia amurensis agglutinin is slightly reduced. Digestion by N-Glycanase abolishes the incorporation of [3H]mannose label and Galanthus nivalis agglutinin binding activity, but preserves the incorporation of galactose and N-acetylglucosamine and specific lectin binding. We also show that phagocytosis increases the complexity and length of O-linked chains. The data presented highlight the importance of differential glycosylation in the biology of macrosialin, phagosomes and macrophages in general. (+info)
(3/1497) Immunohistochemical analysis of arterial wall cellular infiltration in Buerger's disease (endarteritis obliterans).
PURPOSE: The diagnosis of Buerger's disease has depended on clinical symptoms and angiographic findings, whereas pathologic findings are considered to be of secondary importance. Arteries from patients with Buerger's tissue were analyzed histologically, including immunophenotyping of the infiltrating cells, to elucidate the nature of Buerger's disease as a vasculitis. METHODS: Thirty-three specimens from nine patients, in whom Buerger's disease was diagnosed on the basis of our clinical and angiographic criteria between 1980 and 1995 at Nagoya University Hospital, were studied. Immunohistochemical studies were performed on paraffin-embedded tissue with a labeled streptoavidin-biotin method. RESULTS: The general architecture of vessel walls was well preserved regardless of the stage of disease, and cell infiltration was observed mainly in the thrombus and the intima. Among infiltrating cells, CD3(+) T cells greatly outnumbered CD20(+) B cells. CD68(+) macrophages or S-100(+) dendritic cells were detected, especially in the intima during acute and subacute stages. All cases except one showed infiltration by the human leukocyte antigen-D region (HLA-DR) antigen-bearing macrophages and dendritic cells in the intima. Immunoglobulins G, A, and M (IgG, IgA, IgM) and complement factors 3d and 4c (C3d, C4c) were deposited along the internal elastic lamina. CONCLUSION: Buerger's disease is strictly an endarteritis that is introduced by T-cell mediated cellular immunity and by B-cell mediated humoral immunity associated with activation of macrophages or dendritic cells in the intima. (+info)
(4/1497) Increased poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of nuclear proteins in Alzheimer's disease.
Experimental studies indicate that overactivation of the DNA repair protein poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in response to oxidative damage to DNA can cause cell death due to depletion of NAD+. Oxidative damage to DNA and other macromolecules has been reported to be increased in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease. In the present study we sought evidence of PARP activation in Alzheimer's disease by immunostaining sections of frontal and temporal lobe from autopsy material of 20 patients and 10 controls, both for PARP itself and for its end-product, poly(ADP-ribose). All of the brains had previously been subjected to detailed neuropathological examination to confirm the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease or, in the controls, to exclude Alzheimer's disease-type pathology. Double immunolabelling for poly(ADP-ribose) and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), glial fibrillary-acidic protein (GFAP), CD68, A beta-protein or tau was used to assess the identity of the cells with poly(ADP-ribose) accumulation and their relationship to plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Both PARP- and poly(ADP-ribose)-immunolabelled cells were detected in a much higher proportion of Alzheimer's disease (20 out of 20) brains than of control brains (5 out of 10) (P = 0.0018). Double-immunolabelling for poly(ADP-ribose) and markers of neuronal, astrocytic and microglial differentiation (MAP2, GFAP and CD68, respectively) showed many of the cells containing poly(ADP-ribose) to be neurons. Most of these were small pyramidal neurons in cortical laminae 3 and 5. A few of the cells containing poly(ADP-ribose) were astrocytes. No poly(ADP-ribose) accumulation was detected in microglia. Double-immunolabelling for poly(ADP-ribose) and tau or A beta-protein indicated that the cells with accumulation of poly(ADP-ribose) did not contain tangles and relatively few occurred within plaques. Our findings indicate that there is enhanced PARP activity in Alzheimer's disease and suggest that pharmacological interventions aimed at inhibiting PARP may have a role in slowing the progression of the disease. (+info)
(5/1497) Identification of the block in targeted retroviral-mediated gene transfer.
A chimeric retroviral vector (33E67) containing a CD33-specific single-chain antibody was generated in an attempt to target cells displaying the CD33 surface antigen. The chimeric envelope protein was translated, processed, and incorporated into viral particles as efficiently as wild-type envelope protein. The viral particles carrying the 33E67 envelope protein could bind efficiently to the CD33 receptor on target cells and were internalized, but no gene transfer occurred. A unique experimental approach was used to examine the basis for this postbinding block. Our data indicate that the chimeric envelope protein itself cannot participate in the fusion process, the most reasonable explanation being that this chimeric protein cannot undergo the appropriate conformational change that is thought to be triggered by receptor binding, a suggested prerequisite to subsequent fusion and core entry. These results indicate that the block to gene transfer in this system, and probably in most of the current chimeric retroviral vectors to date, is the inability of the chimeric envelope protein to undergo this obligatory conformational change. (+info)
(6/1497) CD40 expression on graft infiltrates and parenchymal CD154 (CD40L) induction in human chronic renal allograft rejection.
BACKGROUND: CD40-CD154 (CD40L) costimulatory signaling plays a pivotal role in the effector mechanisms of transplant graft rejection. In animal models, CD40-CD154 blockade induces long-term graft acceptance concurrent with an absence of chronic rejection (CR) lesions. Given the critical importance of CD40-CD154 interactions in the development of chronic transplant allograft rejection, the relevance of in situ CD40 and CD154 expression was assessed in human chronic renal allograft rejection. METHODS: The expression of CD40, CD154, CD68, and T-cell receptor (TCR)alpha/beta was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Serial cryostat sections of snap-frozen core renal allograft biopsies were obtained from 30 renal transplant patients. Biopsy specimens received diagnoses of CR (N = 23) according to the Banff classification and were compared with controls (N = 7) consisting of stable allografts and normal kidney tissue. RESULTS: Striking CD40 staining of graft cellular infiltrates (P = 0.016) was observed in renal allografts with CR compared with controls. The CD40+ cellular infiltrates in CR were predominantly TCR alpha/beta + T cells and some CD68+ macrophages. These findings were contrasted by the low-level CD40 expression detected in glomeruli and tubules of CR and controls. However, glomerular induction of CD154 was observed in CR allografts (P = 0.028) as compared with controls. CD154 immunoreactivity was demonstrated on glomerular endothelial, epithelial, and mesangial cells. Moderate CD154 expression was detected on tubular epithelial cells, and only weak CD154 immunoreactivity was observed on the infiltrates in isolated CR cases. CONCLUSION: In human chronic renal allograft rejection, CD40 is expressed on graft-infiltrating cells of the T cell and macrophage compartments. CD154 expression is induced on glomerular and tubular epithelial cells during CR, demonstrating another novel source of CD154 expression. The data substantiate the potential contributory role of an interaction between CD40+ graft-destructive effector T cells and macrophages with CD154+ renal allograft parenchymal cells in the development of chronic renal allograft rejection. (+info)
(7/1497) The myeloid-specific sialic acid-binding receptor, CD33, associates with the protein-tyrosine phosphatases, SHP-1 and SHP-2.
The myeloid restricted membrane glycoprotein, CD33, is a member of the recently characterized "sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-related lectin" family. Although CD33 can mediate sialic acid-dependent cell interactions as a recombinant protein, its function in myeloid cells has yet to be determined. Since CD33 contains two potential immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs in its cytoplasmic tail, we investigated whether it might act as a signaling receptor in myeloid cells. Tyrosine phosphorylation of CD33 in myeloid cell lines was stimulated by cell surface cross-linking or by pervanadate, and inhibited by PP2, a specific inhibitor of Src family tyrosine kinases. Phosphorylated CD33 recruited both the protein-tyrosine phosphatases, SHP-1 and SHP-2. CD33 was dephosphorylated in vitro by the co-immunoprecipitated tyrosine phosphatases, suggesting that it might also be an in vivo substrate. The first CD33 phosphotyrosine motif is dominant in CD33-SHP-1/SHP-2 interactions, since mutating tyrosine 340 in a CD33-cytoplasmic tail fusion protein significantly reduced binding to SHP-1 and SHP-2 in THP-1 lysates, while mutation of tyrosine 358 had no effect. Furthermore, the NH2-terminal Src homology 2 domain of SHP-1 and SHP-2, believed to be essential for phosphatase activation, selectively bound a CD33 phosphopeptide containing tyrosine 340 but not one containing tyrosine 358. Finally, mutation of tyrosine 340 increased red blood cell binding by CD33 expressed in COS cells. Hence, CD33 signaling through selective recruitment of SHP-1/SHP-2 may modulate its ligand(s) binding activity. (+info)
(8/1497) Expression of the activation antigen CD97 and its ligand CD55 in rheumatoid synovial tissue.
OBJECTIVE: Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) express decay-accelerating factor (CD55) at high levels. Recently, it was found that CD55 is a specific cellular ligand for the 7-span transmembrane receptor CD97. The objective of this study was to define the expression of this receptor-ligand pair in synovial tissue (ST) to provide more insight into the interaction between FLS and surrounding cells. METHODS: Antibodies against CD97 and CD55 were used for immunohistologic analysis of synovial biopsy specimens from 16 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 15 patients with osteoarthritis (OA). In addition, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system was used to determine the expression of soluble CD97 (sCD97) in synovial fluid (SF) from 30 patients with RA, 13 with OA, and 10 with reactive arthritis (ReA). RESULTS: In both RA and OA ST sections, strong expression of CD55 was confirmed on FLS in the intimal lining layer, where it was also found that all macrophages expressed CD97. The percentage of macrophages that expressed CD97 was lower in the synovial sublining (P = 0.005). The mean levels of sCD97 in SF were significantly higher in RA patients than in patients with OA or ReA (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that FLS are able to interact with macrophages via the CD97/CD55 receptor-ligand system. In this respect, the CD97/CD55 pair may account for the specific architecture of the intimal lining layer and may be of primary importance in maintaining and amplifying synovial inflammation. The specific increase in sCD97 levels in RA SF might be related to the presence of activated proteolytic systems or to the increase in synovial mass, rather than a consequence of local receptor-ligand interaction. (+info)