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(1/315) CD9 is expressed in extravillous trophoblasts in association with integrin alpha3 and integrin alpha5.

The CD9 molecule is a 24-27 kDa cell surface glycoprotein, which may be related to Schwann cell migration and adhesion. In this study, we examined the expression of CD9 in human extravillous trophoblasts, which invade into the endometrium during implantation and placentation. CD9 was detected immunohistochemically on the extravillous trophoblasts in the cell columns of first trimester placentae, but not on villous trophoblasts. In the second and third trimester, CD9 was highly expressed on the extravillous trophoblasts in the basal plate of placentae, and in the chorion laeve in the fetal membrane of term placentae. The molecular mass of CD9 in the chorion laeve was shown to be 27 kDa by Western blotting. The mRNA of CD9 was also detected in the chorion laeve by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Proteins were purified from chorion laeve by affinity chromatography with anti-integrin alpha3 and alpha5 monoclonal antibodies and Western blotting, revealed that CD9 was associated with both integrins. These findings indicate that CD9 is a differentiation-related molecule present in the extravillous trophoblasts. Since it is associated with integrin alpha5 which has been proposed to regulate trophoblast invasion, CD9 may be implicated in trophoblast invasion at the feto-maternal interface.  (+info)

(2/315) CD9 is involved in invasion of human trophoblast-like choriocarcinoma cell line, BeWo cells.

The CD9 molecule is expressed on human extravillous trophoblasts, which invade the endometrium during implantation and placentation. To elucidate the role of CD9 in trophoblastic function, we investigated the expression of CD9 protein and mRNA in BeWo cells, a human trophoblast-like choriocarcinoma cell line, using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). When BeWo cells were cultured with anti-CD9 monoclonal antibodies (mAb), their invasion through the extracellular matrices was significantly enhanced in a dose-dependent manner. Cell proliferation and human chorionic gonadotrophin production were unaffected. On the other hand, culture in the presence of mAb against integrins alpha3, alpha5 and beta1, which partially block the interaction with the extracellular matrices, inhibited BeWo cell invasion. Anti-CD9 monoclonal antibody had a stimulatory effect on BeWo cell invasion in the presence of anti-integrin alpha3 antibody. In contrast, it had no effect in the presence of mAb against integrins alpha5 and beta1, which were also highly expressed on BeWo cells. These findings suggest that CD9 has a function connected with the invasive properties of BeWo cells, which is partially mediated by integrin alpha5beta1. This may relate to the involvement of CD9 in trophoblastic invasion.  (+info)

(3/315) Motility-related protein (MRP-1/CD9) and KAI1/CD82 expression inversely correlate with lymph node metastasis in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

Although the mechanisms of action of the transmembrane superfamilies, motility-related protein-1 (MRP-1/CD9) and KAI1/CD82, are not well known, they are reported to suppress the metastasis of several kinds of cancers. The suppression of cell motility by MRP-1/CD9 may cause suppression of the metastasis. As we could not find any reports concerning the expression of MRP-1/CD9 and KAI1/CD82 in oesophageal cancers we investigated their expression in oesophageal specimens. We conducted immunohistochemical staining for MRP1/CD9 against 108 cases of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma using anti-MRP-1/CD9 monoclonal antibody M31-15, and for KAI1/CD82 against 104 cases using anti-KAI1/CD82 monoclonal antibody C33. To investigate the gradual expression of MRP-1/CD9 and KAI1/CD82, 24 oesophageal dysplasias were immunohistochemically stained using the same method and then investigated. The expression of both MRP-1/CD9 and KAI1/CD82 were positive on the cell membranes of normal oesophageal epithelial cells, but reduced or negative in the cancer cells. Reduced MRP-1/CD9 expressions significantly correlated to tumour depth (P = 0.0009). We found a significantly greater number of reduced or negative expression of MRP-1/CD9 and KAI1/CD82 in lymph node metastatic cases (P = 0.0003 and P= 0.0129, respectively), but not in distant metastatic cases. The 5-year survival rate of MRP-1/CD9-negative and reduced patients was significantly worse than those of positive patients (n = 108, curative cases, RO). Few cases remained KAI1/CD82-positive (9.6%; 10/104) in oesophageal cancer. Twenty (83.3%) and twenty-two (91.7%) cases out of 24 dysplasias were defined as KAI1/CD82-positive and MRP1/CD9-positive, respectively. The decrease in MRP-1/CD9 and KAI1/CD82 expression may facilitate lymph node metastasis in oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas. Knowing the status of the expression of MRP-1/CD9 appears helpful in predicting the prognosis for each patient.  (+info)

(4/315) Stromal cell CD9 regulates differentiation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells.

CD9 belongs to the transmembrane 4 superfamily, and has been shown to influence cell proliferation, motility, and adhesion. We show here that ligation of CD9 modifies proliferation and/or differentiation of hematopoietic stem/progenitors. Pluripotent EML-C1 hematopoietic cells were cocultured with MS-5 stromal cells in the presence of KMC8.8, an anti-CD9 antibody. Numbers of recovered EML-C1 cells were slightly reduced and the antibody caused the hematopoietic cells to migrate beneath the adherent stromal cell layer. Of particular interest, EML-C1 cells recovered from CD9-ligated cultures had undifferentiated properties. Separate pretreatment of the two cell types with antibody showed that stromal-cell CD9 mediated these responses. Spontaneous expression of erythroid marker was completely blocked and there was a shift towards undifferentiated clonogenic progenitors. Immunoprecipitation studies showed that stromal-cell CD9 associates with the beta1 subunit of integrin, as well as a novel 100 kD protein. Antibody cross-linking of cell surface CD9 increased the amount of 100 kD protein that was subsequently coprecipitated with CD9. These observations show that stromal-cell CD9 influences physical interactions with hematopoietic cells and may be one factor that determines the degree of stem cell differentiation.  (+info)

(5/315) Apoptosis of erythroid precursors under stimulation with thrombopoietin: contribution to megakaryocytic lineage choice.

Although the effect of thrombopoietin (TPO) on megakaryocyte production is well established, its role in the commitment of multipotential hematopoietic progenitors to the megakaryocytic lineage remains to be determined. In the present study, we attempted to clarify the determination process of megakaryocytic lineage as a terminal differentiation pathway under stimulation with TPO. Day 7 cultured cells grown by TPO derived from cord blood CD34+ cells were divided into four subpopulations on the basis of CD34 and CD41 expression. The CD34-/CD41- cells showed the labeling pattern of anti-CD42b and anti-CD9 antibodies closer to that of the CD34+/CD41- cells than the CD34+/CD41+ cells. Replating experiments revealed that approximately 40% of the CD34-/CD41- cells proliferated in response to a combination of growth factors, and more than 80% of them were pure erythroid precursors. However, this subpopulation failed to grow/survive and fell into apoptosis in the presence of TPO alone. In contrast, the CD34+/CD41+ cells, which predominantly contained megakaryocytic precursors, exerted a low but significant proliferative potential in the presence of TPO. The insufficient response to TPO of the CD34-/CD41- cells may result from the apparently low expression of c-MpI, as determined by flow cytometric analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Therefore, these results suggest that the apoptosis of hematopoietic precursors other than megakaryocytic precursors is related to the determination of the terminal differentiation under the influence of TPO.  (+info)

(6/315) CD9 is expressed on the cell surface of human granulosa cells and associated with integrin alpha6beta1.

The CD9 molecule is a 24-27 kDa cell surface glycoprotein which is reported to be involved in cell adhesion and migration. Recently, CD9 was shown to be associated with beta1-related integrins. We have previously found that integrin alpha6beta1 is expressed on human granulosa cells (GC) and regulates luteinization of GC in concert with its ligand laminin. In this study, we examined the expression of CD9 in human ovary and the relationship between CD9 and integrin alpha6beta1 in GC. By immunohistochemistry, CD9 was detected on GC in a small antral follicle of <1 mm in diameter. In growing follicles, CD9 was moderately expressed on both GC and theca interna cells (TI). The expression intensity of CD9 on GC increased in preovulatory follicles. In the early luteal phase, CD9 was expressed in both luteinizing GC and TI. The expression intensity on large luteal cells decreased in the mid-luteal phase. In the corpus luteum (CL) of pregnancy, CD9 continued to be expressed on large luteal cells, but not on small luteal cells. By flow cytometry, CD9 was detected on the cell surface in approximately 90% of the isolated GC from patients undergoing in vitro fertilization. The molecular weight of CD9 in the isolated GC was shown to be 26.5 kDa by Western blotting. CD9 mRNA was also detected in the isolated GC and CL by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The proteins purified from GC by immunoaffinity chromatography using anti-integrin alpha6 monoclonal antibodies were shown by Western blotting to include CD9 as well as integrin beta1. These findings suggest that CD9 is a differentiation-related molecule of GC and TI and that it is associated with integrin alpha6beta1 on the cell surface of GC, suggesting that CD9 is implicated in the function of human GC in cooperation with integrin alpha6beta1.  (+info)

(7/315) A novel molecular staging protocol for non-small cell lung cancer.

A molecular staging protocol using reliable markers is of importance in predicting the prognosis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and for instituting their appropriate post-surgical treatment. We analysed tumor tissues from 187 NSCLC patients. The DNA and mRNA were extracted from frozen specimens, and then polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and direct sequencing were performed to investigate mutations of p53 from exons 5-8, and mutations of K-ras at exon 1. To determine MRP-1/CD9 gene and KA11/CD82 gene expression, which have been postulated to be metastasis suppressor genes, we have applied quantitative RT-PCR. A Cox multivariate regression analysis showed that nodal status, MRP-1/CD9 and K-ras status were significant factors for prognosis (P<0.0001, P=0.0083 and P=0.0004, respectively). Based on these results, we classified the patients into three groups according to their MRP-1/ CD9 and K-ras status. Patients with both MRP-1/CD9 positive and wild K-ras tumors were defined as group A, patients with either reduced MRP-1/CD9 or mutant K-ras tumors were defined as group B and patients with both reduced MRP-1/CD9 and mutant K-ras tumors were designated as group C. This new classification was significantly correlated with the tumor status and pathological stage (P=0.0098 and P=0.0017, respectively). The overall survival rate of the group A patients was significantly better than the group B patients (59.6% vs 27.9%, P=0.0001) and also that of group B patients was better than the group C patients (27.9% vs 20.0%, P=0.0378). This tendency was also found in patients with 110 node-negative NSCLCs (A vs B vs C=75.8% vs 34.9% vs 0.0%, P<0.0001). A Cox multivariate regression analysis in NSCLC patients demonstrated that an evaluation for both MRP-1/CD9 expression and K-ras mutations had a significant prognostic effect as well as nodal status (P<0.0001).  (+info)

(8/315) Motility inhibition and apoptosis are induced by metastasis-suppressing gene product CD82 and its analogue CD9, with concurrent glycosylation.

Metastasis-suppressing gene product CD82 and its analogue CD9 are considered to suppress the malignancy of various human cancers, although the rationale for this effect is unknown. The present study addresses phenotypic changes in Chinese hamster ovary mutant cell line ldlD deficient in UDP-Glc 4-epimerase and expressing CD82 or CD9 by cDNA transfection. Only CD82- or CD9-expressing cells grown in Gal-supplemented medium showed reduced motility and massive cell death, which are characteristic of apoptosis, after a latent period. Under this condition, endogenous GM3 synthesis was observed as a common factor, and N-glycosylation occurred at a high level in CD82 and to a lesser extent in CD9. Thus, the malignancy-suppressing effect of CD82 or CD9 is based partially on cell motility inhibition and apoptosis induction promoted by concurrent GM3 synthesis and N-glycosylation.  (+info)