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(1/1355) Cell surface sialic acid and the regulation of immune cell interactions: the neuraminidase effect reconsidered.

It has been known for over a decade that sialidase (neuraminidase) treatment could substantially enhance the capacity of resting B cells to stimulate the proliferation of allogeneic and antigen specific, syngeneic T cells. Thus, cell-surface sialic acid was implicated as a potential modulator of immune cell interaction. However, little progress has been made in either identifying explicit roles for sialic acid in this system or in hypothesizing mechanisms to explain the "neuraminidase effect." Here we show for the first time that cell surface sialic acid on medium incubated B cells blocks access to costimulatory molecules on the B cell surface, and that this is the most likely explanation for the neuraminidase effect. Further, we show that it is likely to be upregulation of ICAM-1 and its subsequent engagement of LFA-1 rather than loss of cell surface sialic acid that in part regulates access to CD86 and other costimulatory molecules. However, we cannot exclude a role for CD86-bound sialic acid on the B cell in modulating binding to T cell CD28. Because sialidase treatment of resting B cells but not resting T cells enables T cell activation, we suggest that sialidase treatment may still be an analogue for an authentic step in B cell activation, and show that for highly activated B cells (activated with polyclonal anti-IgM plus INF-gamma) there is specific loss 2, 6-linked sialic acid. Potential roles for sialic acid in modulating B cell/T cell collaboration are discussed.  (+info)

(2/1355) The role of interleukin 12 in the development of atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice.

The cytokine profile of atherosclerotic aortas from apoE-deficient mice was assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The results clearly showed that the expression of mRNA for IL-12p40 was evident in aortas from 3-month-old apoE-deficient mice. The mRNA for IL-10 was detected in aorta from these mice at the age of 6 months, indicating that expression of IL-12 is earlier than that of IL-10 in these animals. Concurrent with IL-12p40, the mRNA for the T-cell cytokine IFN-gamma, but not IL-4, was detected in aortas of mice at young and old ages. Both in situ hybridization and immunostaining further demonstrated the localization of IL-12 in macrophages of atherosclerotic lesions. Immunohistochemistry also demonstrated the expression of costimulatory molecules B7-1 and B7-2 in macrophages, suggesting that activation of T lymphocytes by macrophages may occur via surface antigens in lesions. When the immunoglobulin isotype of the antioxidized LDL antibodies in sera of apoE-deficient mice was determined, it revealed that both IgM and IgG were present. Furthermore, IgG2a is predominant and comprises approximately 50% of the antioxidized LDL IgG in sera from young mice (3 months), but decreased to lower levels (35%) in older mice (6 months). Daily administration of IL-12 led to an increase in serum levels of antioxidized LDL antibodies and accelerated atherosclerosis in young apoE-deficient mice compared with control mice injected with PBS alone. Taken together, these data suggest that IL-12 plays an active role in regulating the immune response during the early phase of atherosclerosis in apoE-deficient mice.  (+info)

(3/1355) B7-2 expressed on EL4 lymphoma suppresses antitumor immunity by an interleukin 4-dependent mechanism.

For T cells to become functionally activated they require at least two signals. The B7 costimulatory molecules B7-1 and B7-2 provide the "second signal" pivotal for T cell activation. In this report, we studied the relative roles of B7-1 and B7-2 molecules in the induction of antitumor immunity to the T cell thymoma, EL4. We generated EL4 tumor cells that expressed B7-1, B7-2, and B7-1+B7-2 by transfecting murine cDNAs. Our results demonstrate that EL4-B7-1 cells are completely rejected in syngeneic mice. Unlike EL4-B7-1 cells, we find that EL4-B7-2 cells are not rejected but progressively grow in the mice. A B7-1- and B7-2-EL4 double transfectant was generated by introducing B7-2 cDNA into the EL4-B7-1 tumor line that regressed in vivo. The EL4-B7-1+B7-2 double transfectant was not rejected when implanted into syngeneic mice but progressively grew to produce tumors. The double transfectant EL4 cells could costimulate T cell proliferation that could be blocked by anti-B7-1 antibodies, anti-B7-2 antibodies, or hCTLA4 immunoglobulin, showing that the B7-1 and B7-2 molecules expressed on the EL4 cells were functional. In vivo, treatment of mice implanted with double-transfected EL4 cells with anti-B7-2 monoclonal antibody resulted in tumor rejection. Furthermore, the EL4-B7-2 and EL4-B7-1+B7-2 cells, but not the wild-type EL4 cells, were rejected in interleukin 4 (IL-4) knockout mice. Our data suggests that B7-2 expressed on some T cell tumors inhibits development of antitumor immunity, and IL-4 appears to play a critical role in abrogation of the antitumor immune response.  (+info)

(4/1355) Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 modulates beta-chemokines and directly costimulates T cells in vivo.

The potential roles of adhesion molecules in the expansion of T cell-mediated immune responses in the periphery were examined using DNA immunogen constructs as model antigens. We coimmunized cDNA expression cassettes encoding the adhesion molecules intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), lymphocyte function associated-3 (LFA-3), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) along with DNA immunogens, and we analyzed the resulting antigen-specific immune responses. We observed that antigen-specific T-cell responses can be enhanced by the coexpression of DNA immunogen and adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and LFA-3. Coexpression of ICAM-1 or LFA-3 molecules along with DNA immunogens resulted in a significant enhancement of T-helper cell proliferative responses. In addition, coimmunization with pCICAM-1 (and more moderately with pCLFA-3) resulted in a dramatic enhancement of CD8-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses. Although VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 are similar in size, VCAM-1 coimmunization did not have any measurable effect on cell-mediated responses. These results suggest that ICAM-1 and LFA-3 provide direct T-cell costimulation. These observations are further supported by the finding that coinjection with ICAM-1 dramatically enhanced the level of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and beta-chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), MIP-1beta, and regulated on activation normal T-cell expression and secreted (RANTES) produced by stimulated T cells. Through comparative studies, we observed that ICAM-1/LFA-1 T-cell costimulatory pathways are independent of CD86/CD28 pathways and that they may synergistically expand T-cell responses in vivo.  (+info)

(5/1355) In vivo UVA-1 and UVB irradiation differentially perturbs the antigen-presenting function of human epidermal Langerhans cells.

Ultraviolet B (UVB, 290-320 nm) radiation is known to suppress the immune function of epidermal Langerhans cells. We have recently described that in vitro UVB irradiation perturbs the antigen-presenting cell function of Langerhans cells by inhibiting their expression of functional B7 costimulatory molecules (B7-1, B7-2). The aim of this study was to determine wavelength-specific UV effects on Langerhans cells function in vivo, specifically UVB and UVA-1. To address this issue, volunteers were irradiated on the sun protected volar aspects of their forearms with 3 x minimal erythema dose of UVB (Philips TL-12) and UVA-1 (UVASUN 5000 Mutzhaas). Langerhans cells were isolated from suction blister roofs immediately following irradiation. Langerhans cells isolated from UVB- but not from UVA-1-irradiated skin failed to activate naive resting allogeneic T cells (mixed epidermal cell leukocyte reaction) or primed tetanus toxoid reactive autologous T cells. Langerhans cells isolated from sham-irradiated or UVA-1-irradiated skin strongly upregulated B7-2 molecules during short-term tissue culture. By contrast, Langerhans cells from UVB-irradiated skin did not upregulate B7-2 molecules. Furthermore, exogenous stimulation of the B7 pathway by anti-CD28 stimulatory monoclonal antibodies restored the capacity of UVB-irradiated Langerhans cells to activate both alloreactive and tetanus toxoid-reactive T cells, implying suppressed antigen-presenting cell activities and perturbed B7 expression of Langerhans cells isolated from UVB-irradiated skin are related. Those studies demonstrate that in vivo UVB, but not UVA-1, interferes with the activation-dependent upregulation of B7 molecules on Langerhans cells, which in turn is of functional relevance for the perturbed antigen-presenting cell function of Langerhans cells within UVB- but not UVA-1-irradiated skin.  (+info)

(6/1355) Evidence of cell-mediated cardiac myocyte injury involved in the heart failure of a patient with progressive systemic sclerosis.

A 54-year-old woman with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) was admitted to hospital because of dyspnea and chest pain. Echocardiogram revealed diffuse hypokinesis of the left ventricle (ejection fraction 24%). Methylprednisolone, heparin, and diuretics were administered, without benefit. Anemia, thrombocytopenia, and renal dysfunction rapidly progressed, and she died of heart failure on the 14th hospital day. Immunohistochemical study of the myocardial tissue showed mild to moderate cell infiltration, mainly consisting of natural killer (NK) cells, macrophages, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), and T helper cells. Perforin, a cytolytic factor, was expressed in the infiltrating CTLs and NK cells, indicating that these cells were activated killer cells. Furthermore, human leukocyte antigen classes I and II, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, as well as costimulatory molecules B7-1, B7-2, and CD40, all of which are known not to be expressed in cardiac myocytes under normal conditions, were moderately to strongly expressed in cardiac myocytes. There was no detectable level of enterovirus genomes in the polymerase chain reaction products from the myocardial tissue of this patient. These findings strongly suggest that the infiltrating killer cells recognized cardiac myocytes as target cells and directly damaged them by releasing perforin. Enhanced expression of these antigens may have played an important role in the activation and cytotoxicity of the infiltrating killer cells. Absence of enterovirus genomes in the myocardial tissue may suggest that this autoimmune process is primarily induced by PSS.  (+info)

(7/1355) Synovial fluid transforming growth factor beta inhibits dendritic cell-T lymphocyte interactions in patients with chronic arthritis.

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether rheumatoid synovial fluid (SF) inhibits dendritic cell (DC) expression of the CD80 and CD86 costimulator molecules and contributes to SF T lymphocyte hyporesponsiveness. METHODS: Cell-free rheumatoid SF was tested for its effect on DC-stimulated autologous/allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions and for its effect on DC surface antigen expression, as assessed by flow cytometry. Blocking monoclonal antibodies were used to identify the SF cytokines that inhibited DC-T lymphocyte interactions. RESULTS: Low concentrations of SF (2.5%) could inhibit DC-mediated autologous and allogeneic T lymphocyte proliferation. This inhibitory effect could be reversed by neutralizing transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) and interleukin-2 (IL-2), but not by IL-12, in the SF. Hyaluronic acid, IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor alpha were not associated with SF inhibition. In vitro culture alone and crosslinking with the CD40 ligand up-regulated DC CD80/CD86 expression and costimulator function, and this was not affected by inclusion of SF. In the presence of SF, DC clustered with autologous T lymphocytes showed decreased CD80 and CD86 expression, and variable CD80/CD86 decreases were observed on DC clustered with allogeneic T lymphocytes. CONCLUSIONS: TGFbeta in SF appears to suppress T lymphocyte function, which may affect both signaling to DC and the induction of DC costimulator function.  (+info)

(8/1355) Phenotypic analysis of lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis.

BACKGROUND: The granulomatous inflammation in sarcoidosis is driven by the interplay between T cells and macrophages. To gain a better understanding of this process the expression by these cells of cell surface activation markers, co-stimulatory molecules, and adhesion molecules was analysed. METHODS: CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes from peripheral blood (PBL) or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as paired peripheral blood monocytes and alveolar macrophages from 27 patients with sarcoidosis were analysed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: CD26, CD54, CD69, CD95, and gp240 were all overexpressed in T cells from BAL fluid compared with those from PBL in both the CD4+ and CD8+ subsets, while CD57 was overexpressed only in BAL CD4+ cells. In contrast, CD28 tended to be underexpressed in the BAL T cells. Monocyte/macrophage markers included CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, CD14, CD16, CD54, CD71, CD80 and CD86 and HLA class II. CD11a expression in alveolar macrophages (and peripheral blood monocytes) was increased in patients with active disease and correlated positively with the percentage of BAL lymphocytes. Expression of CD80 in macrophages correlated with the BAL CD4/CD8 ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate substantial activation of both CD4+ and CD8+ lung T cells in sarcoidosis. There were also increased numbers of BAL lymphocytes whose phenotypic characteristics have earlier been associated with clonally expanded, replicatively senescent cells of the Th1 type.  (+info)