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(1/159) CD28-independent costimulation of T cells by OX40 ligand and CD70 on activated B cells.

OX40 and its ligand (OX40L) have been implicated in T cell-dependent humoral immune responses. To further characterize the role of OX40/OX40L in T-B cell interaction, we newly generated an anti-mouse OX40L mAb (RM134L) that can inhibit the costimulatory activity of OX40L transfectants for anti-CD3-stimulated T cell proliferation. Flow cytometric analyses using RM134L and an anti-mouse OX40 mAb indicated that OX40 was inducible on splenic T cells by stimulation with immobilized anti-CD3 mAb in a CD28-independent manner, while OX40L was not expressed on resting or activated T cells. OX40L was inducible on splenic B cells by stimulation with anti-IgM Ab plus anti-CD40 mAb, but not by either alone. These activated B cells exhibited a potent costimulatory activity for anti-CD3-stimulated T cell proliferation and IL-2 production. Anti-CD80 and anti-CD86 mAbs partially inhibited the costimulatory activity, and further inhibition was obtained by their combination with RM134L and/or anti-CD70 mAb. We also found the anti-IgM Ab- plus anti-CD40 mAb-stimulated B cells exhibited a potent costimulatory activity for proliferation of and IL-2 production by anti-CD3-stimulated CD28- T cells from CD28-deficient mice, which was substantially inhibited by RM134L and/or anti-CD70 mAb. These results indicated that OX40L and CD70 expressed on surface Ig- and CD40-stimulated B cells can provide CD28-independent costimulatory signals to T cells.  (+info)

(2/159) Constitutive expression and role of the TNF family ligands in apoptotic killing of tumor cells by human NK cells.

Natural killer cells mediate spontaneously secretory/necrotic killing against rare leukemia cell lines and a nonsecretory/apoptotic killing against a large variety of tumor cell lines. The molecules involved in nonsecretory/apoptotic killing are largely undefined. In the present study, freshly isolated, nonactivated, human NK cells were shown to express TNF, lymphotoxin (LT)-alpha, LT-beta, Fas ligand (L), CD27L, CD30L, OX40L, 4-1BBL, and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), but not CD40L or nerve growth factor. Complementary receptors were demonstrated to be expressed on the cell surface of solid tumor cell lines susceptible to apoptotic killing mediated by NK cells. Individually applied, antagonists of TNF, LT-alpha1beta2, or FasL fully inhibited NK cell-mediated apoptotic killing of tumor cells. On the other hand, recombinant TNF, LT-alpha1beta2, or FasL applied individually or as pairs were not cytotoxic. In contrast, a mixture of the three ligands mediated significant apoptosis in tumor cells. These findings demonstrate that human NK cells constitutively express several of the TNF family ligands and induce apoptosis in tumor cells by simultaneous engagement of at least three of these cytotoxic molecules.  (+info)

(3/159) Critical contribution of OX40 ligand to T helper cell type 2 differentiation in experimental leishmaniasis.

Infection of inbred mouse strains with Leishmania major is a well characterized model for analysis of T helper (Th)1 and Th2 cell development in vivo. In this study, to address the role of costimulatory molecules CD27, CD30, 4-1BB, and OX40, which belong to the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, in the development of Th1 and Th2 cells in vivo, we administered monoclonal antibody (mAb) against their ligands, CD70, CD30 ligand (L), 4-1BBL, and OX40L, to mice infected with L. major. Whereas anti-CD70, anti-CD30L, and anti-4-1BBL mAb exhibited no effect in either susceptible BALB/c or resistant C57BL/6 mice, the administration of anti-OX40L mAb abrogated progressive disease in BALB/c mice. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that OX40 was expressed on CD4(+) T cells and OX40L was expressed on CD11c(+) dendritic cells in the popliteal lymph nodes of L. major-infected BALB/c mice. In vitro stimulation of these CD4(+) T cells showed that anti-OX40L mAb treatment resulted in substantially reduced production of Th2 cytokines. Moreover, this change in cytokine levels was associated with reduced levels of anti-L. major immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 and serum IgE. These results indicate that anti-OX40L mAb abrogated progressive leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice by suppressing the development of Th2 responses, substantiating a critical role of OX40-OX40L interaction in Th2 development in vivo.  (+info)

(4/159) CD27-mediated activation of murine NK cells.

CD27, a member of the TNF receptor superfamily, has been implicated in T cell activation, T cell development, and T cell-dependent Ab production by B cells. In the present study we examined the expression and function of CD27 on murine NK cells. Murine NK cells constitutively expressed CD27 on their surface. Stimulation with immobilized anti-CD27 mAb or murine CD27 ligand (CD70) transfectans solely could induce proliferation and IFN-gamma production of freshly isolated NK cells and enhanced the proliferation and IFN-gamma production of anti-NK1.1-sutimulated NK cells. Although NK cell cytotoxicity was not triggered by anti-CD27 mAb or against CD70 transfectants, prestimulation via CD27 enhanced the cytotoxic activity of NK cells in an IFN-gamma-dependent manner. These results suggest that CD27-mediated activation may be involved in the NK cell-mediated innate immunity against virus-infected or transformed cells expressing CD70.  (+info)

(5/159) CD134L engagement enhances human B cell Ig production: CD154/CD40, CD70/CD27, and CD134/CD134L interactions coordinately regulate T cell-dependent B cell responses.

CD134 is a member of the TNFR family expressed on activated T cells, whose ligand, CD134L, is found preferentially on activated B cells. We have previously reported that the CD70/CD27 interaction may be more important in the induction of plasma cell differentiation after the expansion phase induced by the CD154/CD40 interaction has occurred. When CD134-transfected cells were added to PBMCs stimulated with pokeweed mitogen, IgG production was enhanced in a dose-dependent fashion. Addition of CD134-transfected cells to B cells stimulated with Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I strain/IL-2 resulted in little if any enhancement of B cell IgG production and proliferation. We found that while CD134-transfected cells induced no IgG production by themselves, it greatly enhanced IgG production in the presence of CD40 stimulation or T cell cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-10. The addition of CD134-transfected cells showed only a slight increase in the number of plasma cells compared with that in the culture without them, indicating that an increased Ig production rate per cell is responsible for the observed enhancing effect of CD134L engagement rather than increase in plasma cell generation. These results strongly suggest different and sequential roles of the TNF/TNFR family molecules in human T cell-dependent B cell responses through cell-cell contacts and the cytokine network.  (+info)

(6/159) Apoptosis in coxsackievirus B3-caused diseases: interaction between the capsid protein VP2 and the proapoptotic protein siva.

Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is a common factor in human myocarditis. Apoptotic events are present in CVB3-induced disease, but it is unclear how CVB3 is involved in apoptosis and which viral proteins may induce the apoptotic pathway. In this report we demonstrate that the human and murine proapoptotic protein Siva specifically interact with the CVB3 capsid protein VP2. Furthermore, the transcription of Siva is strongly induced in tissue of CVB3-infected mice and is present in the same area which is positively stained for apoptosis, CD27, and CD70. It has been proposed that Siva is involved in the CD27/CD70-transduced apoptosis. Therefore, we suggest a molecular mechanism through which apoptotic events contributes to CVB3-caused pathogenesis.  (+info)

(7/159) The expression of CD70 and CD80 by gene-modified tumor cells induces an antitumor response depending on the MHC status.

The expression of costimulatory molecules such as CD70 or CD80 by gene-modified tumor cells has been shown to enhance the antitumor immune response based mainly on T lymphocytes. However, most human tumors show defects of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) expression, preventing them from being recognized by MHC-restricted T cells. To investigate if coexpression of CD70 and CD80 costimulatory molecules induces comparable antitumor responses in low and high MHC-expressing tumor cells, we used two low immunogenic murine tumor models, the B16.F10 melanoma and the TS/A mammary adenocarcinoma cell lines expressing, respectively, low and high levels of MHC class I molecules. Transfection of both CD70 and CD80 genes resulted in an increased capacity of gene-modified tumor cells to costimulate in vitro the proliferation and cytokine production of optimally activated lymphoid cells. Coexpression of CD70 and CD80 by the two tumor cell lines, TS/A and B16.F10, resulted in both cases in partial regression of subcutaneous tumors. Immunochemical analysis and studies in nude mice showed that, even in the B16.F10 model, T cells had a significant role in the antitumor response induced by combining CD70 and CD80. However, rejection of the CD70/CD80-transfected tumor cells appeared more effective in the MHC class I high TS/A model, leading to a protection against parental tumor cells. B16.F10 and TS/A transfectants were then tested with fibroblasts genetically modified to secrete interleukin-12 (IL-12) as a therapeutic vaccine in mice bearing parental tumors. In the two models tested, the injections of irradiated IL-12 and CD70/CD80 gene-modified cells generated an antitumor response to established tumors leading to the slowing down of the tumor growth rate. Although the mechanisms remain to be defined, these findings suggest that the combination of several immuno-modulatory molecules could provide additional strategies for cancer immuno-gene therapy, even for MHC expression-deficient tumors.  (+info)

(8/159) Enhancement of adenovirus vector entry into CD70-positive B-cell Lines by using a bispecific CD70-adenovirus fiber antibody.

Although many recombinant adenovirus vectors (rAd) have been developed, especially by using group C adenoviruses, to transfer and express genes, such rAd do not readily infect B-cell lines due to the lack of the coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor. Bispecific antibodies have been used in different cell systems to facilitate entry of rAd into otherwise nonpermissive cells. Bispecific antibody is synthesized by covalently linking two monoclonal antibodies with distinct specificities. It has been shown that lymphoproliferative tumors commonly express the cell surface protein CD70, while this receptor is normally expressed on only a small subset of highly activated B cells and T cells. We therefore investigated whether a bispecific antibody with specificities for the adenovirus fiber protein and CD70 can facilitate rAd entry and subsequent expression of rAd-encoded genes in CD70-positive B cells. We found high CD70 expression on Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), as well as some, but not all, Burkitt lymphoma (BL) lines. We show here that rAd encoding green fluorescent protein (Ad-GFP) infects EBV-transformed LCLs and a CD70-positive BL line 10- to 20-fold more efficiently in the presence of the CD70-fiber bispecific antibody. In contrast, the bispecific antibody does not enhance Ad-GFP infection in CD70-deficient BL cells. Using the CD70-fiber bispecific antibody, we increased the ability of rAd vectors encoding the EBV immediate-early proteins BZLF1 and BRLF1 to induce the lytic form of EBV infection in LCLs. These results indicate that the CD70-fiber bispecific antibody can enhance rAd infection of CD70-positive B cells and suggest the use of this vector to explore EBV-positive LCLs.  (+info)