Resistance of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria cells to the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-binding toxin aerolysin.
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a clonal stem cell disorder caused by a somatic mutation of the PIGA gene. The product of this gene is required for the biosynthesis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors; therefore, the phenotypic hallmark of PNH cells is an absence or marked deficiency of all GPI-anchored proteins. Aerolysin is a toxin secreted by the bacterial pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila and is capable of killing target cells by forming channels in their membranes after binding to GPI-anchored receptors. We found that PNH blood cells (erythrocytes, lymphocytes, and granulocytes), but not blood cells from normals or other hematologic disorders, are resistant to the cytotoxic effects of aerolysin. The percentage of lysis of PNH cells after aerolysin exposure paralleled the percentage of CD59(+) cells in the samples measured by flow cytometry. The kinetics of red blood cell lysis correlated with the type of PNH erythrocytes. PNH type III cells were completely resistant to aerolysin, whereas PNH type II cells displayed intermediate sensitivity. Importantly, the use of aerolysin allowed us to detect PNH populations that could not be detected by standard flow cytometry. Resistance of PNH cells to aerolysin allows for a simple, inexpensive assay for PNH that is sensitive and specific. Aerolysin should also be useful in studying PNH biology. (+info)
Identification of the individual residues that determine human CD59 species selective activity.
Formation of the cytolytic membrane attack complex of complement on host cells is inhibited by the membrane-bound glycoprotein, CD59. The inhibitory activity of CD59 is species restricted, and human CD59 is not effective against rat complement. Previous functional analysis of chimeric human/rat CD59 proteins indicated that the residues responsible for the species selective function of human CD59 map to a region contained between positions 40 and 66 in the primary structure. By comparative analysis of rat and human CD59 models and by mutational analysis of candidate residues, we now identify the individual residues within the 40-66 region that confer species selective function on human CD59. All nonconserved residues within the 40-66 sequence were substituted from human to rat residues in a series of chimeric human/rat CD59 mutant proteins. Functional analysis revealed that the individual human to rat residue substitutions F47A, T51L, R55E, and K65Q each produced a mutant human CD59 protein with enhanced rat complement inhibitory activity with the single F47A substitution having the most significant effect. Interestingly, the side chains of the residues at positions 47, 51, and 55 are all located on the short single helix (residues 47-55) of CD59 and form an exposed continuous strip parallel to the helix axis. A single human CD59 mutant protein containing rat residue substitutions at all three helix residues produced a protein with species selective activity comparable to that of rat CD59. We further found that synthetic peptides spanning the human CD59 helix sequence were able to inhibit the binding of human CD59 to human C8, but had little effect on the binding of rat CD59 to rat C8. (+info)
Complement activation and expression of membrane regulators in the middle ear mucosa in otitis media with effusion.
The aetiopathogenesis of chronic otitis media with effusion (OME) in children is not yet fully understood. OME is characterized by metaplasia of the epithelium and accumulation of sticky, glue-like effusion in the middle ear containing different mediators of inflammation, including activation fragments of the complement system. Here we examined whether the fluid phase complement activation is reflected in the middle ear mucosa and how the mucosa is protected against the cytolytic activity of complement. Mucosal biopsies from 18 middle ears of children with a history of chronic OME were taken. The biopsies were analysed by immunofluorescence microscopy after staining for complement fragments iC3b/C3c, C3d and C9, and regulators membrane cofactor protein (MCP; CD46), decay-accelerating factor (DAF; CD55) and protectin (CD59). There was a strong staining for iC3b/C3c, and a weaker one for C3d and C9 on the surface of the middle ear epithelial cells of OME patients but not in controls without OME. MCP was expressed on the hyperplastic three to four outer cell layers of the epithelium, while CD59 was expressed throughout the middle ear mucosa. The results suggest a strong ongoing complement activation and consequent inflammation in the middle ear cavity. Unrestricted complement damage of the epithelial lining is prevented by the strong expression of MCP and CD59. (+info)
Induction of decay-accelerating factor by cytokines or the membrane-attack complex protects vascular endothelial cells against complement deposition.
Vascular endothelium is continuously exposed to complement-mediated challenge, and this is enhanced during inflammation. Although the complement-regulatory proteins decay-accelerating factor (DAF), CD59, and membrane cofactor protein (MCP) protect endothelial cells (ECs) against complement-mediated injury, the control of their expression and relative contributions to vascular protection is unclear. We explored the hypothesis that mechanisms exist which induce upregulation of complement-regulatory proteins on ECs to maintain vascular function in inflammation. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and interferon gamma (IFNgamma) each increased DAF expression but not CD59 or MCP expression, and a combination of these cytokines was more potent than either alone. Cytokine-induced expression depended on increased DAF mRNA and de novo protein synthesis and was maximal by 72 hours. In addition, assembly of the membrane-attack complex (MAC) on ECs induced a 3-fold increase in DAF expression, and this was enhanced by cytokines. DAF upregulation was not inhibited by protein kinase C (PKC) antagonists. The increase in DAF was functionally relevant since it reduced complement 3 (C3) deposition by 40%, and this was inhibited by an anti-DAF monoclonal antibody. These observations indicate that upregulation of DAF expression by cytokines or MAC may represent an important feedback mechanism to maintain the integrity of the microvasculature during subacute and chronic inflammatory processes involving complement activation. (+info)
Synovial PMN show a coordinated up-regulation of CD66 molecules.
Changes in the expression of various activation-dependent surface markers have been reported for polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) isolated from synovial fluid of patients with inflammatory joint diseases. We extend these findings to the expression of CD66 molecules and several other surface markers. Three members of the CD66 family, namely CD66a, CD66b, and CD66c, showed an up to fourfold up-regulation on synovial fluid PMN compared with peripheral blood PMN (PBG) of the same patients; CD59 was increased twofold, the expression of CD16 did not change, whereas CD62L was reduced by more than 50% on synovial fluid PMN. It is interesting that CD66a, CD66b, and CD66c showed a coordinated expression on PBG of patients and controls and a coordinated up-regulation on synovial neutrophils. In contrast, after in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood PMN with phorbol myristate acetate, CD66c was much less up-regulated compared with CD66a and CD66b. All samples of synovial fluid PMN exhibited an additional increase in the expression of CD66a, CD66b, and CD66c when stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate in vitro. Prostaglandins are known to inhibit various responses of neutrophils to inflammatory stimuli. We could show that prostaglandins inhibit N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-induced up-regulation of CD66 on peripheral blood PMN in a concentration-dependent manner. (+info)
Biochemical background of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is an acquired disorder characterized by paroxysms of intravascular hemolysis. A considerable part of erythrocytes in patient blood is susceptible to autologous complement activation because of the deficiency of CD59, which is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein and inhibits the formation of the membrane attack complex (MAC) of complement. The deficiency of CD59 is derived from the inability of GPI-anchor synthesis. Although more than 10 proteins are involved in the GPI-anchor synthesis, the mutation of only one protein, PIG-A, causes the defect in about 200 patients with PNH who have been analyzed. The reason why only PIG-A causes the deficiency of GPI anchor is due to the location of its gene on X chromosome. The clonal stem cell mutated with PIG-A gene in the bone marrow loses the capability of the synthesis of GPI-anchor. The mutation of PIG-A gene alone, however, seems to be insufficient to account for the survival of the PIG-A-deficient cells in the bone marrow. Thus, a fraction of the mutant stem cells probably gain a survival advantage by some additional changes, either additional mutations or changes in immunological circumstances. The release of the surviving cells into blood stream results in a clinical syndrome with PNH. (+info)
Development of adenovirus vectors encoding rat complement regulators for use in therapy in rodent models of inflammatory diseases.
C activation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous inflammatory human diseases and disease models. A therapy based on C inhibition might therefore be of benefit to reduce inflammation and ameliorate disease. C inhibition in vivo can be accomplished by the delivery of soluble recombinant C regulators either systemically or directly to a target site, but effects are transitory. We have developed a strategy for the efficient delivery of the membrane-bound rat C inhibitors, CD59, Crry, and decay-accelerating factor (DAF), using replication-deficient adenovirus vectors with the intention of treating rat models of disease in which C is implicated. The adenovirus recombinants(RAd), RAdCD59, RAdCrry, and RAdDAF, respectively, have been tested for expression and function of the transgene in vitro. Infection of human fetal foreskin fibroblasts resulted in high levels of expression of each of the rat inhibitors. The constructs were also tested for inhibition of rat C-mediated cell lysis and C3b deposition. In a cell lysis assay, each inhibited to varying degrees of efficiency in the order RAdCD59 = RAdDAF > RAdCrry. In a C3b deposition assay, RAdDAF caused a greater reduction in C3b deposition than RAdCrry and RAdCD59 was ineffective. These agents, individually or in combination, provide the tools for testing the effects of prolonged inhibition of C at a target site on the progress of experimental models of disease. (+info)
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone-induced depletion of G(q)alpha/G(11)alpha proteins from detergent-insensitive membrane domains.
The role of detergent-insensitive membrane domains (DIMs) in desensitisation of the G protein-coupled receptor-mediated hormone response was studied in clone E2M11 of HEK293 cells which stably express high levels of both thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) receptors and G(11)alpha G protein. DIMs were prepared by flotation in equilibrium sucrose density gradients and characterised by a panel of membrane markers representing peripheral, glycosylphosphatidylinositol-bound as well as integral membrane proteins (caveolin, CD29, CD55, CD59, CD147, the alpha subunit of Na, K-ATPase) and enzyme activities (alkaline phosphatase, adenylyl cyclase). Caveolin-containing DIMs represented only a small fraction of the overall pool of G(q)alpha/G(11)alpha-rich domains. Prolonged stimulation of E2M11 cells with TRH resulted in dramatic depletion of G(q)alpha/G(11)alpha from all DIMs, which was paralleled by a concomitant G(q)alpha/G(11)alpha increase in the high-density gradient fractions containing the bulk-phase membrane constituents soluble in 1% Triton X-100. Distribution of membrane markers was unchanged under these conditions. Membrane domains thus represent a substantial structural determinant of the G protein pool relevant to desensitisation of hormone action. (+info)