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(1/260) Formation of HNK-1 determinants and the glycosaminoglycan tetrasaccharide linkage region by UDP-GlcUA:Galactose beta1, 3-glucuronosyltransferases.

While expression-cloning enzymes involved in heparan sulfate biosynthesis, we isolated a cDNA that encodes a protein 65% identical to the UDP-GlcUA:glycoprotein beta1, 3-glucuronosyltransferase (GlcUAT-P) involved in forming HNK-1 carbohydrate epitopes (3OSO3GlcUAbeta1,3Gal-) on glycoproteins. The cDNA contains an open reading frame coding for a protein of 335 amino acids with a predicted type II transmembrane protein orientation. Cotransfection of the cDNA with HNK-1 3-O-sulfotransferase produced HNK-1 carbohydrate epitopes in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and COS-7 cells. In vitro, a soluble recombinant form of the enzyme transferred GlcUA in beta-linkage to Galbeta1,3/4GlcNAcbeta-O-naphthalenemethanol, which resembles the core oligosaccharide on which the HNK-1 epitope is assembled. However, the enzyme greatly preferred Galbeta1, 3Galbeta-O-naphthalenemethanol, a disaccharide component found in the linkage region tetrasaccharide in chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate. During the course of this study, a human cDNA clone was described that was thought to encode UDP-GlcUA:Galbeta1,3Gal-R glucuronosyltransferase (GlcUAT-I), involved in the formation of the linkage region of glycosaminoglycans (Kitagawa, H., Tone, Y., Tamura, J., Neumann, K. W., Ogawa, T., Oka, S., Kawasaki, T., and Sugahara, K. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 6615-6618). The deduced amino acid sequences of the CHO and human cDNAs are 95% identical, suggesting that they are in fact homologues of the same gene. Transfection of a CHO cell mutant defective in GlcUAT-I with the hamster cDNA restored glycosaminoglycan assembly in vivo, confirming its identity. Interestingly, transfection of the mutant with GlcUAT-P also restored glycosaminoglycan synthesis. Thus, both GlcUAT-P and GlcUAT-I have overlapping substrate specificities. However, the expression of the two genes was entirely different, with GlcUAT-I expressed in all tissues tested and GlcUAT-P expressed only in brain. These findings suggest that, in neural tissues, GlcUAT-P may participate in both HNK-1 and glycosaminoglycan production.  (+info)

(2/260) Phenotypic analysis of lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis.

BACKGROUND: The granulomatous inflammation in sarcoidosis is driven by the interplay between T cells and macrophages. To gain a better understanding of this process the expression by these cells of cell surface activation markers, co-stimulatory molecules, and adhesion molecules was analysed. METHODS: CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes from peripheral blood (PBL) or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as paired peripheral blood monocytes and alveolar macrophages from 27 patients with sarcoidosis were analysed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: CD26, CD54, CD69, CD95, and gp240 were all overexpressed in T cells from BAL fluid compared with those from PBL in both the CD4+ and CD8+ subsets, while CD57 was overexpressed only in BAL CD4+ cells. In contrast, CD28 tended to be underexpressed in the BAL T cells. Monocyte/macrophage markers included CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, CD14, CD16, CD54, CD71, CD80 and CD86 and HLA class II. CD11a expression in alveolar macrophages (and peripheral blood monocytes) was increased in patients with active disease and correlated positively with the percentage of BAL lymphocytes. Expression of CD80 in macrophages correlated with the BAL CD4/CD8 ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate substantial activation of both CD4+ and CD8+ lung T cells in sarcoidosis. There were also increased numbers of BAL lymphocytes whose phenotypic characteristics have earlier been associated with clonally expanded, replicatively senescent cells of the Th1 type.  (+info)

(3/260) Thrombospondin-1 and neural crest cell migration.

Using a monoclonal antibody raised against human platelet thrombospondin, we found anti-thrombospondin immunoreactivity in the extracellular matrix of avian embryos, coincident with the ventral pathways followed by trunk neural crest cells. To confirm that the antibody recognized thrombospondin-1 and to determine the tissue of origin of the thrombospondin matrix, a thrombospondin-1 cRNA probe was used for whole mount in situ hybridization. This probe revealed thrombospondin-1 mRNAs in the developing myotome before and during neural crest cell migration. The effect of thrombospondin-1 on neural crest cell migration, morphology, and adhesion was assayed in vitro. Quail trunk neural crest cells cultured on 4 microg/ml of thrombospondin-1 migrate at 1.14 +/- 0.54 microm/min, which is significantly greater than the rate of cell migration on tissue culture plastic. Using a shaker-based adhesion assay, a significantly greater number of neural crest cells remain attached to dishes coated with 4 microg/ml of thrombospondin-1 than to tissue culture plastic alone. The number of neural crest cells that remain attached to 4 microg/ml of thrombospondin-1 is similar to the number that remain attached to dishes coated with 10 microg/ml of fibronectin. These observations indicate that neural crest cells migrate through a thrombospondin-filled extracellular matrix, and that thrombospondin-1 promotes neural crest cell migration and adhesion. Thus, thrombospondin-1 is the first somite-derived extracellular matrix molecule with properties consistent with a role in the promotion of migration into the anterior somite, as opposed to the repulsion of neural crest cells from the posterior half of the somite.  (+info)

(4/260) Molecular fingerprinting reveals non-overlapping T cell oligoclonality between an inflamed site and peripheral blood.

We have demonstrated a stable expansion of CD8+ T cells in the peripheral blood of a child with chronic arthritis. The expanded TCRBV family (TCRBV14) was enriched for CD57hiCD28- T cells. Sequencing of the TCRBV14 amplification products showed a TCR sequence which contributed 32% of the total TCR in the CD8+TCRBV14 population. Using the modified heteroduplex technique, the CD8+TCRBV14 cells showed a clonal pattern and these bands were restricted to the CD28- population. This method also detected multiple other clones within the CD8+ population but few in the CD4+ cells. The dominant TCRBV14+ clone was not detectable in synovial fluid T cells from two inflamed joints by CDR3 length analysis or heteroduplex probing, suggesting that this long-lived clone is excluded from inflammatory sites. Synovial fluid T cells showed an unexpected discordance of the CD28 and CD57 phenotype compared to peripheral blood mononuclear cells. T cells from both inflamed joints both showed marked oligoclonality in all TCR families and had almost identical heteroduplex patterns. Taken together these data suggest that some clones are actively excluded from inflamed sites in juvenile chronic arthritis, yet the pattern of restricted T cell expansion is shared between sites of inflammation.  (+info)

(5/260) Cloning and expression of a novel galactoside beta1, 3-glucuronyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of HNK-1 epitope.

We isolated a cDNA encoding a novel glucuronyltransferase, designated GlcAT-D, involved in the biosynthesis of the HNK-1 carbohydrate epitope from rat embryo cDNA by the degenerate polymerase chain reaction method. The new cDNA sequence revealed an open reading frame coding for a protein of 324 amino acids with type II transmembrane protein topology. The amino acid sequence of GlcAT-D displayed 50.0% identity to rat GlcAT-P, which is involved in the biosynthesis of the HNK-1 epitope on glycoproteins. Expression of GlcAT-D in COS-7 cells resulted in the formation of the HNK-1 epitope on the cell surface. The enzyme expressed in COS-7 cells transferred a glucuronic acid (GlcA) not only to asialo-orosomucoid, a glycoprotein bearing terminal N-acetyllactosamine structure, but also to paragloboside (lacto-N-neotetraosylceramide), a precursor of the HNK-1 epitope on glycolipids. Furthermore, substrate specificity analysis using a soluble chimeric form of GlcAT-D revealed that GlcAT-D transfers a GlcA not only to Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4Glc-pyridylamine++ + but also to Galbeta1-3GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4Glc-pyridylamine++ +. Enzymatic hydrolysis and Smith degradation of the reaction product indicated that GlcAT-D transfers a GlcA through a beta1,3-linkage to a terminal galactose. The GlcAT-D transcripts were detected in embryonic, postnatal, and adult rat brain. In situ hybridization analysis revealed that the expression pattern of GlcAT-D transcript in embryo is similar to that of GlcAT-P, but distinct expression of GlcAT-D was observed in the embryonic pallidum and retina. Regions that expressed GlcAT-D and/or GlcAT-P were always HNK-1-positive, indicating that both GlcATs are involved in the synthesis of the HNK-1 epitope in vivo.  (+info)

(6/260) Peripheral human CD8(+)CD28(+)T lymphocytes give rise to CD28(-)progeny, but IL-4 prevents loss of CD28 expression.

At birth, virtually all peripheral CD8(+) T cells express the CD28 co-stimulatory molecule, but healthy human adults accumulate CD28(-)CD8(+) T cells that often express the CD57 marker. While these CD28(-) subpopulations are known to exert effector-type functions, the generation, maintenance and regulation of CD28(-) (CD57(+) or CD57(-)) subpopulations remain unresolved. Here, we compared the differentiation of CD8(+)CD28(bright)CD57(-) T cells purified from healthy adults or neonates and propagated in IL-2, alone or with IL-4. With IL-2 alone, CD8(+)CD28(bright)CD57(-) T cell cultures yielded a prevailing CD28(-) subpopulation. The few persisting CD28(dim) and the major CD28(-) cells were characterized by similar telomere shortening at the plateau phase of cell growth. Cultures from adults donors generated four final CD8(+) phenotypes: a major CD28(-)CD57(+), and three minor CD28(-)CD57(-), CD28(dim)CD57(-) and CD28(dim)CD57(dim). These four end-stage CD8(+) subpopulations displayed a fairly similar representation of TCR V(beta) genes. In cultures initiated with umbilical cord blood, virtually all the original CD8(+)CD28(bright) T cells lost expression of CD28, but none acquired CD57 with IL-2 alone. IL-4 impacted on the differentiation pathways of the CD8(+)CD28(bright)CD57(-) T cells: the addition of IL-4 led both the neonatal and the adult lymphocytes to keep their expression of CD28. Thus, CD8(+)CD28(bright)CD57(-) T cells can give rise to four end-stage subpopulations, the balance of which is controlled by both the cytokine environment, IL-4 in particular, and the proportions of naive and memory CD8(+)CD28(+) T cells.  (+info)

(7/260) Large clonal expansions of human virus-specific memory cytotoxic T lymphocytes within the CD57+ CD28- CD8+ T-cell population.

The proportion of human peripheral blood CD8+ T cells that are CD57+ CD28- is low at birth but increases with age and in individuals infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). These CD57+ CD28- CD8+ T cells contain large oligoclonal T-cell expansions whose antigen specificity is unknown. We identified clonal expansions of virus-specific memory cytotoxic T-lymphocyte precursors (CTLp) in both healthy carriers of HCMV and in asymptomatic HIV-infected subjects. In each subject, from the T-cell receptor (TCR) beta-chain hypervariable sequence of each immunodominant CTL clone, we designed complementary oligonucleotide probes to quantify the size and phenotypic segregation of individual virus-specific CTL clones in highly purified populations of peripheral blood CD8+ T cells. We found large clonal expansions of virus-specific CTL clonotypes in CD57+ CD28- CD8+ T cells. Using limiting dilution analysis, we found functional peptide-specific CTLp at high frequency in CD57+ CD28- cells. Thus, memory CTL specific for persistent viruses account for many oligoclonal expansions within CD57+ CD28- CD8+ T cells.  (+info)

(8/260) CD8+, CD57+ T cells from healthy elderly subjects suppress neutrophil development in vitro: implications for the neutropenia of Felty's and large granular lymphocyte syndromes.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the ability of CD8+,CD57+ large granular lymphocytes (LGL) from normal individuals and from Felty's syndrome (FS) or LGL syndrome patients to suppress allogeneic neutrophil precursor development. METHODS: Six FS patients, 5 LGL syndrome patients, and 13 elderly controls were studied. CD8+,CD57+ T cells were cocultured with cord blood-derived stem cells, and percentage inhibition was calculated. Recombinant chemokines and Fas-stimulating molecules were used in separate cultures to address possible mechanisms of suppression. Proliferation after stimulation with interleukin-2 (IL-2) and anti-CD3 was assessed. RESULTS: Significant (79%) suppression of colony-forming unit-granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM) by the CD8+,CD57+ subset was shown by 1 FS patient. None of the CD8+,CD57+ cells from LGL syndrome patients had any effect. Six of 13 controls studied showed >40% inhibition of CFU-GM, and all but 2 showed at least some suppression. The suppressive effect was not mediated by Fas/Fas ligand interactions or by the chemokines macrophage inhibitory protein 1alpha or IL-8. LGL from both patients and controls were largely CD28- and had reduced proliferative capacity. CONCLUSION: In a subset of FS patients, expansion of CD8+,CD57+ T cells in the bone marrow may be responsible for neutropenia by suppressing neutrophil precursors. This effect is also seen with normal LGL, which are likely to have an important function in neutrophil homeostasis.  (+info)