(1/766) Distinct clinical and laboratory activity of two recombinant interleukin-2 preparations.

Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a potent lymphokine that activates natural killer cells, T cells, and other cells of the immune system. Several distinct recombinant human IL-2 preparations have shown antitumor activity, particularly for renal cell cancer and melanoma. Somewhat distinct immune and clinical effects have been noted when different IL-2 preparations have been tested clinically; however, the regimens and doses used were not identical. To compare these more directly, we have evaluated two clinical recombinant IL-2 preparations in vitro and in vivo using similar regimens and similar IUs of IL-2. We used the Food and Drug Administration-approved, commercially available Chiron IL-2 and the Hoffmann LaRoche (HLR) IL-2 supplied by the National Cancer Institute. Using equivalent IUs of IL-2, we noted quantitative differences in vitro and in vivo in the IL-2 activity of these two preparations. In patients receiving comparable IUs of the two preparations, HLR IL-2 induced the release of more soluble IL-2 receptor alpha into the serum than Chiron IL-2. In addition, more toxicities were noted in patients receiving 1.5 x 10(6) IU of HLR IL-2 than were seen in patients treated with 1.5 x 10(6) or even 4.5 x 10(6) IU of Chiron IL-2. These toxicities included fever, nausea and vomiting, and hepatic toxicity. In vitro proliferative assays using IL-2-dependent human and murine cell lines indicated that the IU of HLR IL-2 was more effective than Chiron IL-2 at inducing tritiated thymidine incorporation. Using flow cytometry, we also found quantitative differences in the ability of these two preparations to bind to IL-2 receptors. These findings indicate that approximately 3-6 IU of Chiron IL-2 are required to induce the same biological effect as 1 IU of HLR IL-2.  (+info)

(2/766) Long-term fetal microchimerism in peripheral blood mononuclear cell subsets in healthy women and women with scleroderma.

Fetal CD34(+) CD38(+) cells have recently been found to persist in maternal peripheral blood for many years after pregnancy. CD34(+) CD38(+) cells are progenitor cells that can differentiate into mature immune-competent cells. We asked whether long-term fetal microchimerism occurs in T lymphocyte, B lymphocyte, monocyte, and natural-killer cell populations of previously pregnant women. We targeted women with sons and used polymerase chain reaction for a Y-chromosome-specific sequence to test DNA extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and from CD3, CD19, CD14, and CD56/16 sorted subsets. We also asked whether persistent microchimerism might contribute to subsequent autoimmune disease in the mother and included women with the autoimmune disease scleroderma. Scleroderma has a peak incidence in women after childbearing years and has clinical similarities to chronic graft-versus-host disease that occurs after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation, known to involve chimerism. Sixty-eight parous women were studied for male DNA in PBMC and 20 for PBMC subsets. Microchimerism was found in PBMC from 33% (16 of 48) of healthy women and 60% (12 of 20) women with scleroderma, P =.046. Microchimerism was found in some women in CD3, CD19, CD14, and CD56/16 subsets including up to 38 years after pregnancy. Microchimerism in PBMC subsets was not appreciably more frequent in scleroderma patients than in healthy controls. Overall, microchimerism was found in CD3, CD19, and CD14 subsets in approximately one third of women and in CD56/16 in one half of women. HLA typing of mothers and sons indicated that HLA compatibility was not a requirement for persistent microchimerism in PBMC subsets. Fetal microchimerism in the face of HLA disparity implies that specific maternal immunoregulatory pathways exist that permit persistence but prevent effector function of these cells in normal women. Although microchimerism in PBMC was more frequent in women with scleroderma than healthy controls additional studies will be necessary to determine whether microchimerism plays a role in the pathogenesis of this or other autoimmune diseases.  (+info)

(3/766) Phenotypic analysis and proliferative responses of human endometrial granulated lymphocytes during the menstrual cycle.

The in vivo function of the unusual population of CD56+ CD16- endometrial granulated lymphocytes (eGLs) in human endometrium is unknown; their increased numbers in the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle suggests that they may play a role in the immunobiology of nonpregnant endometrium. In the present study, the phenotype and proliferative responses of eGLs at various phases of the menstrual cycle were compared with those in early pregnancy. Endometrial GLs were highly purified (> 98% CD56+) using immunomagnetic separation, and the expression of cell surface antigens was examined in smears using a double immunohistochemical labeling technique. Proliferative responses to mitogens and interleukin 2 (IL-2) were assessed in hanging drops in 60-well Terasaki plates. There was low to no expression of CD3, CD8, CD16, HML-1, L-selectin, and CD25 (IL-2 receptor alpha) on CD56+ cells isolated from nonpregnant and pregnant endometrium. The expression of CD2, CD49a, and CD122 (IL-2 receptor beta, IL-2Rbeta), however, increased from the proliferative to the late secretory phase of the menstrual cycle. In contrast, CD11a, CD69, and CD49d expression was high and did not vary with menstrual cycle phase; CD49d levels were significantly reduced in early pregnancy. Unlike early-pregnancy eGLs, none of the CD56+ eGL cultures throughout the menstrual cycle displayed phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-induced lymphoproliferation. In contrast, eGLs from nonpregnant endometrium in the presence of 5 or 100 U/ml IL-2 after 48- and 120-h incubation showed significant proliferative responses, as did eGL cultures from early pregnancy. A significantly reduced number of proliferative phase eGL cultures proliferated in response to IL-2 compared to secretory phase and early-pregnancy eGL cultures. The IL-2-induced proliferative responses of CD56+ eGLs were associated with increased IL-2Rbeta (CD122) expression. These findings demonstrate 1) differential eGL expression of CD2, CD49a, and CD122 during the menstrual cycle; 2) differential IL-2-induced eGL proliferative responses during the menstrual cycle; and 3) differences between eGLs from nonpregnant and pregnant endometrium in CD49d expression and their ability to respond to PHA.  (+info)

(4/766) Expression of killer inhibitory receptors on cytotoxic cells from HIV-1-infected individuals.

Dysfunction of cytotoxic activity of T and natural killer (NK) lymphocytes is a main immunological feature in patients with AIDS, but its basis are not well understood. It has been recently described that T and NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity can be regulated by HLA killer inhibitory receptors (KIR). In this work, we have determined on cytotoxic T cells and NK cells from HIV-1-infected individuals the expression of the following KIR molecules: p58, p70, and ILT2 (immunoglobulin-like family KIR) as well as CD94 and NKG2A (C-lectin-type family KIR). With some exceptions, no significant changes were found on the expression of immunoglobulin-like KIR in either CD8+ or CD56+ cells. Interestingly, the percentages of CD8+ and CD56+ cells expressing CD94 were significantly increased in these individuals. We also show that, in vitro, IL-10 up-regulates CD94 expression on CD8+ and CD56+ cells obtained from normal individuals, suggesting that the augmented expression observed in HIV-infected individuals could be related to the high levels of IL-10 previously described in HIV-1-infected individuals.  (+info)

(5/766) Differential cytokine and chemokine gene expression by human NK cells following activation with IL-18 or IL-15 in combination with IL-12: implications for the innate immune response.

NK cells constitutively express monocyte-derived cytokine (monokine) receptors and secrete cytokines and chemokines following monokine stimulation, and are therefore a critical component of the innate immune response to infection. Here we compared the effects of three monokines (IL-18, IL-15, and IL-12) on human NK cell cytokine and chemokine production. IL-18, IL-15, or IL-12 alone did not stimulate significant cytokine or chemokine production in resting NK cells. The combination of IL-18 and IL-12 induced extremely high amounts of IFN-gamma protein (225 +/- 52 ng/ml) and a 1393 +/- 643-fold increase in IFN-gamma gene expression over those in resting NK cells. IL-15 and IL-12 induced less IFN-gamma protein (24 +/- 10 ng/ml; p < 0.007) and only a 45 +/- 19-fold increase in IFN-gamma gene expression over those in resting NK cells. The CD56bright NK cell subset produced significantly more IFN-gamma following IL-18 and IL-12 compared with CD56dim NK cells (p < 0.008). However, the combination of IL-15 and IL-12 was significantly more potent than that of IL-18 and IL-12 for NK cell production of IL-10, macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha, macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta, and TNF-alpha at the protein and transcript levels. Granulocyte-macrophage CSF was optimally induced by IL-15 and IL-18. Resting CD56+ NK cells expressed IL-18R transcript that was up-regulated by IL-12 or IL-15. Our results show that distinct cytokine and chemokine patterns are induced in NK cells in response to different costimulatory signals from these three monokines. This suggests that NK cell cytokine production may be governed in part by the monokine milieu induced during the early proinflammatory response to infection and by the subset of NK cells present at the site of inflammation.  (+info)

(6/766) Co-stimulation of human decidual natural killer cells by interleukin-2 and stromal cells.

At the late secretory phase of the menstrual cycle and in early pregnancy, the uterine mucosa is infiltrated by large numbers of natural killer (NK) cells with a distinctive phenotype (CD56bright CD16- CD3-) and large granular lymphocyte (LGL) morphology. Circulating CD56bright NK cells generally proliferate in the presence of interleukin-2 (IL-2), but it is clear that cofactors besides IL-2 are required for optimal response. In the bone marrow, this co-stimulating signal is provided by stromal cells. In the present study we observe that uterine CD56+ cells from early pregnancy decidua similarly proliferate vigorously when cultured with decidual stromal cells and a suboptimal dose of IL-2. This response is dependent on cell-cell contact, as no proliferation of decidual NK cells was observed when they were separated from stromal cells by a permeable cyclopore membrane. In addition, we have studied the expression of Bcl-2 by decidual CD56+ cells. Our results show that the microenvironment of the uterus is likely to have a significant influence on the proliferation and survival of uterine CD56+ cells.  (+info)

(7/766) Apoptosis of human endometrium mediated by perforin and granzyme B of NK cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

Endometrial stromal granulocytes (EGs) were found to be a major component of human endometrial stroma in the late secretory phase. However, the role of EGs in the mechanism of human endometrial menstruation has not been clarified. Immunohistochemistry of CD56, perforin, granzyme B, and vimentin, in situ detection of apoptosis by TUNEL (TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick and labeling) and electron microscopy were performed in endometrial tissue samples with normal menstrual cycles. We analyzed the number of immunostained cells in the functional layer of stroma and the number of apoptotic cells detected by TUNEL in the endometrial glandular cells. Double-staining revealed that CD56-positive endometrial stromal cells were simultaneously positive for both perforin and granzyme B, and negative for vimentin, which recognized stromal tissue. Vimentin was positive for the predecidual cells and negative for EGs. CD56-positive EGs involving perforin and granzyme B were progressively recruited during the secretory phases before menstruation. Apoptosis in endometrial glandular cells increased from the late secretory phase, which maximized at the menstrual period. This finding suggests that the cytotoxic granules released from EGs, which are derived from cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells, are initiators of the apoptotic pathway that induces endometrial menstruation.  (+info)

(8/766) A case of synchronous double primary lung cancer with neuroendocrine features.

We report a case of unique double primary lung cancers with neuroendocrine features in a 63-year-old male smoker. The mass in the left lower lobe (LLL) was a small cell/large cell carcinoma with spindle cell sarcomatous areas and organoid structure. The mass in the left upper lobe (LUL) was a tubular adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine features including organoid nests showing occasional rosette formation, nuclear palisading in the periphery of the nests and positive immunoreaction for CD56, chromogranin A and synaptophysin. The difference in histological structures between the two masses led us to diagnose double primary lung cancer. The combination of small cell lung carcinoma and spindle cell carcinoma is very uncommon. The relationship between LLL and LUL tumors remains unclear. Multiple lung cancers with neuroendocrine features have only rarely been reported in the literature. The patient in our case died of widespread cancer 2 years and 4 months after the surgery without adjuvant chemotherapy, a longer postoperative survival time than in cases of ordinary extensive small cell lung cancer. Multiple lung cancers with neuroendocrine features are extremely rare and similar cases have not been reported in the literature. Neuroendocrine differentiation has attracted widespread attention and, therefore, examining neuroendocrine features in lung cancers is important.  (+info)