Expression of the activation antigen CD97 and its ligand CD55 in rheumatoid synovial tissue.
OBJECTIVE: Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) express decay-accelerating factor (CD55) at high levels. Recently, it was found that CD55 is a specific cellular ligand for the 7-span transmembrane receptor CD97. The objective of this study was to define the expression of this receptor-ligand pair in synovial tissue (ST) to provide more insight into the interaction between FLS and surrounding cells. METHODS: Antibodies against CD97 and CD55 were used for immunohistologic analysis of synovial biopsy specimens from 16 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 15 patients with osteoarthritis (OA). In addition, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system was used to determine the expression of soluble CD97 (sCD97) in synovial fluid (SF) from 30 patients with RA, 13 with OA, and 10 with reactive arthritis (ReA). RESULTS: In both RA and OA ST sections, strong expression of CD55 was confirmed on FLS in the intimal lining layer, where it was also found that all macrophages expressed CD97. The percentage of macrophages that expressed CD97 was lower in the synovial sublining (P = 0.005). The mean levels of sCD97 in SF were significantly higher in RA patients than in patients with OA or ReA (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that FLS are able to interact with macrophages via the CD97/CD55 receptor-ligand system. In this respect, the CD97/CD55 pair may account for the specific architecture of the intimal lining layer and may be of primary importance in maintaining and amplifying synovial inflammation. The specific increase in sCD97 levels in RA SF might be related to the presence of activated proteolytic systems or to the increase in synovial mass, rather than a consequence of local receptor-ligand interaction. (+info)
Decay accelerating factor (CD55): a target for cancer vaccines?
The 791Tgp72 antigen has been used successfully as a target for tumor imaging and T-cell immunotherapy. We have characterized this antigen using the monoclonal antibody 791T/36 as a 72/66 kDa doublet. NH2-terminal protein sequencing of the two bands revealed identity with the complement regulatory protein CD55. Antibodies recognizing different domains of CD55 were also shown to bind to the purified 791Tgp72, although sequence analysis of the cDNA cloned from 791T tumor cells showed 100% homology with CD55 and transfection of the cDNA into antigen-negative CHO cells resulted in binding of 791T/36. This identifies the tumor antigen 791Tgp72 as CD55. This protein protects cells from complement attack; however, it can also transduce signals in lymphocytes and is a ligand for CD97, expressed by activated T cells. These results suggest that CD55 plays a role in signaling between the innate and adaptive immune responses. It is therefore a very intriguing target, because absence of the molecule makes the tumor cells susceptible to complement, whereas protective overexpression results in the antigen being a target for T-cell immunotherapy. (+info)
Complement activation and expression of membrane regulators in the middle ear mucosa in otitis media with effusion.
The aetiopathogenesis of chronic otitis media with effusion (OME) in children is not yet fully understood. OME is characterized by metaplasia of the epithelium and accumulation of sticky, glue-like effusion in the middle ear containing different mediators of inflammation, including activation fragments of the complement system. Here we examined whether the fluid phase complement activation is reflected in the middle ear mucosa and how the mucosa is protected against the cytolytic activity of complement. Mucosal biopsies from 18 middle ears of children with a history of chronic OME were taken. The biopsies were analysed by immunofluorescence microscopy after staining for complement fragments iC3b/C3c, C3d and C9, and regulators membrane cofactor protein (MCP; CD46), decay-accelerating factor (DAF; CD55) and protectin (CD59). There was a strong staining for iC3b/C3c, and a weaker one for C3d and C9 on the surface of the middle ear epithelial cells of OME patients but not in controls without OME. MCP was expressed on the hyperplastic three to four outer cell layers of the epithelium, while CD59 was expressed throughout the middle ear mucosa. The results suggest a strong ongoing complement activation and consequent inflammation in the middle ear cavity. Unrestricted complement damage of the epithelial lining is prevented by the strong expression of MCP and CD59. (+info)
Identification of a human anti-CD55 single-chain Fv by subtractive panning of a phage library using tumor and nontumor cell lines.
A large naive human single-chain (sc) Fv phage library was used to search for tumor-associated antigens by panning with a lung adenocarcinoma cell line, 1264, and counter-selecting with a nontumor bronchial epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B. After three rounds of subtractive panning, 239 of 673 clones analyzed bound selectively to 1264 tumor cells in a phage ELISA. Diversity analysis of these tumor-selective clones by BstNI fingerprinting and nucleotide sequencing revealed 14 distinct scFv fragments. Four clones bound selectively to 1264 over BEAS-2B cells when analyzed by a more discriminating flow cytometric assay using scFv. Moreover, these clones showed only limited cross-reactivity to several primary human cell lines. One clone, LU30, also cross-reacted strongly with the lung adenocarcinoma line, A549. The LU30 antigen was identified as decay-accelerating factor (CD55) by expression cloning from a 1264 cDNA library. The mean number of decay-accelerating factor molecules on the surface of 1264 and BEAS cells used for panning and counter-selection was estimated as 75,000 +/- 5,000 and 13,000 +/- 10,000, respectively. Thus, phage library panning combined with expression cloning permits identification of antibodies and their cognate antigens for proteins that are differentially expressed on the surface of distinct cell populations. (+info)
Decay-accelerating factor and cytoskeleton redistribution pattern in HeLa cells infected with recombinant Escherichia coli strains expressing Dr family of adhesins.
Escherichia coli strains expressing Dr fimbriae are able to enter epithelial cells by interacting with a complement-regulatory protein, decay-accelerating factor. This model of bacterial internalization, with a well-characterized bacterial ligand and host receptor, provides a unique opportunity to investigate the early stages of invasion. We used immunofluorescence staining techniques to examine the distribution of receptor and cytoskeletal proteins in HeLa cells infected with E. coli recombinant strains that expressed Dr family of adhesins: Dr, Dr-II, F1845, AFA-I, and AFA-III. A major rearrangement of decay-accelerating factor was found at the adherence sites of recombinant strains expressing Dr, Dr-II, and F1845 adhesins. The changes in the distribution of receptor were significantly smaller on HeLa cells infected with E. coli bearing AFA-I or AFA-III afimbrial adhesins. Receptor aggregation was associated with the redistribution of cytoskeleton-associated proteins such as actin, alpha-actinin, ezrin, and occasionally tropomyosin. Purified Dr fimbriae coated on polystyrene beads were capable of triggering clustering of receptor and accumulating actin at the adhesion sites of beads to HeLa cells. Using scanning and transmission electron microscopic techniques, we have shown that beads coated with Dr fimbriae, as opposed to beads coated with bovine serum albumin, were enwrapped by cellular microvilli and ultimately internalized into HeLa cells. This indicates that interaction of Dr fimbriae with decay-accelerating factor is associated with redistribution of receptor and is sufficient to promote bacterial internalization. (+info)
Molecular and functional analysis of mouse decay accelerating factor (CD55).
Molecular cloning of mouse decay accelerating factor (DAF; CD55) predicted two forms of the molecule, one transmembrane (TM) and the other glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored; these are encoded by separate genes termed Daf-GPI and Daf-TM. In the present study several additional isoforms of mouse DAF, generated by alternative splicing from these genes, are described. Northern-blot analysis of RNA and reverse transcriptase-PCR from various tissues indicated that spleen and testis expressed high levels of DAF, which comprised several species. These species were cloned and sequence analysis revealed various novel forms in addition to those previously reported. Two novel forms were derived from the Daf-TM gene but the transmembrane sequence defined previously was replaced by a unique GPI-anchor addition sequence; one clone also had part of the serine/threonine/proline (STP) region deleted. A third clone, encoding a transmembrane protein, was also derived from this gene but the entire STP region was deleted. A fourth clone, derived from the Daf-GPI gene, contained a novel C-terminal sequence, suggestive of a secreted form of the protein. Two DAF cDNAs (TM and GPI-anchored) were stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. When these cells were attacked with mouse or rat complement and analysed for C3b deposition, DAF-transfected cells had greatly reduced C3b deposition compared with controls. Transfection with DAF also conferred protection from complement in a cell-lysis assay, and a soluble, recombinant form of mouse DAF inhibited complement in a haemolytic assay. (+info)
N-Glycans mediate the apical sorting of a GPI-anchored, raft-associated protein in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells.
Glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)- anchored proteins are preferentially transported to the apical cell surface of polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. It has been assumed that the GPI anchor itself acts as an apical determinant by its interaction with sphingolipid-cholesterol rafts. We modified the rat growth hormone (rGH), an unglycosylated, unpolarized secreted protein, into a GPI-anchored protein and analyzed its surface delivery in polarized MDCK cells. The addition of a GPI anchor to rGH did not lead to an increase in apical delivery of the protein. However, addition of N-glycans to GPI-anchored rGH resulted in predominant apical delivery, suggesting that N-glycans act as apical sorting signals on GPI-anchored proteins as they do on transmembrane and secretory proteins. In contrast to the GPI-anchored rGH, a transmembrane form of rGH which was not raft-associated accumulated intracellularly. Addition of N-glycans to this chimeric protein prevented intracellular accumulation and led to apical delivery. (+info)
Picornavirus receptor down-regulation by plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2.
Therapeutic interference with virus-cell surface receptor interactions represents a viable antiviral strategy. Here we demonstrate that cytoplasmic expression of the serine protease inhibitor (serpin), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2 (PAI-2), affords a high level of protection from lytic infection by multiple human picornaviruses. The antiviral action of PAI-2 was mediated primarily through transcriptional down-regulation of the following virus receptors: intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1, a cellular receptor for the major group of rhinoviruses), decay-accelerating factor (a cellular receptor for echoviruses and coxsackieviruses), and to a lesser extent the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor protein (a cellular receptor for group B coxsackieviruses and group C adenoviruses). Expression of related cell surface receptors, including membrane cofactor protein and the poliovirus receptor, remained unaffected. These findings suggest that PAI-2 and/or related serpins may form the basis of novel antiviral strategies against picornavirus infections and also therapeutic interventions against ICAM-1-mediated respiratory inflammation. (+info)