(1/601) CD5 negatively regulates the T-cell antigen receptor signal transduction pathway: involvement of SH2-containing phosphotyrosine phosphatase SHP-1.
The negative regulation of T- or B-cell antigen receptor signaling by CD5 was proposed based on studies of thymocytes and peritoneal B-1a cells from CD5-deficient mice. Here, we show that CD5 is constitutively associated with phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity in Jurkat T cells. CD5 was found associated with the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain containing hematopoietic phosphotyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 in both Jurkat cells and normal phytohemagglutinin-expanded T lymphoblasts. This interaction was increased upon T-cell receptor (TCR)-CD3 cell stimulation. CD5 co-cross-linking with the TCR-CD3 complex down-regulated the TCR-CD3-increased Ca2+ mobilization in Jurkat cells. In addition, stimulation of Jurkat cells or normal phytohemagglutinin-expanded T lymphoblasts through TCR-CD3 induced rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of several protein substrates, which was substantially diminished after CD5 cross-linking. The CD5-regulated substrates included CD3zeta, ZAP-70, Syk, and phospholipase Cgammal but not the Src family tyrosine kinase p56(lck). By mutation of all four CD5 intracellular tyrosine residues to phenylalanine, we found the membrane-proximal tyrosine at position 378, which is located in an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory (ITIM)-like motif, crucial for SHP-1 association. The F378 point mutation ablated both SHP-1 binding and the down-regulating activity of CD5 during TCR-CD3 stimulation. These results suggest a critical role of the CD5 ITIM-like motif, which by binding to SHP-1 mediates the down-regulatory activity of this receptor. (+info)
(2/601) An alternatively spliced form of CD79b gene may account for altered B-cell receptor expression in B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Several functional anomalies of B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) cells may be explained by abnormalities of the B-cell receptor (BCR), a multimeric complex formed by the sIg homodimer and the noncovalently bound heterodimer Igalpha/Igbeta (CD79a/CD79b). Because the expression of the extracellular Ig-like domain of CD79b has been reported to be absent in the cells of most CLL cases, we have investigated the molecular mechanisms that may account for this defect. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from 50 patients and two cell lines (MEC1, MEC2) obtained from the PBL of one of them were studied. MEC1, MEC2, and 75% of CLL cases did not express detectable levels of the extracellular Ig-like domain of CD79b, which was nevertheless present in greater than 80% CD19(+) cells from normal donors. In healthy subjects the expression of CD79b was equally distributed in CD5(+) and CD5(-) B-cell subsets. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of CD79b RNA from all patients and from MEC1 and MEC2 cell lines consistently yielded two fragments of different size (709 bp and 397 bp). The 709-bp band corresponds to CD79b entire transcript; the 397-bp band corresponds to an alternatively spliced form lacking exon 3 that encodes the extracellular Ig-like domain. Both fragments were also visible in normal PBL. The expression of the 397-bp fragment was increased in normal activated B cells, while no difference was seen between CD5(+) and CD5(-) B cells. To obtain a more accurate estimate of the relative proportions of the two spliced forms, a radioactive PCR was performed in 13 normal and 22 B-CLL samples and the results analyzed using a digital imager. The mean value of the CD79b to the CD79b internally deleted ratio was 0.64 +/- 0.20 SD in normal donors and 0.44 +/- 0.27 SD in B-CLL (P =.01). Direct sequencing of 397-bp RT-PCR products and of genomic DNA corresponding to exon 3 from MEC1, MEC2, their parental cells, and five fresh B-CLL samples did not show any causal mutation. Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of exon 3 performed in 18 additional B-CLL cases showed a single abnormal shift corresponding to a TGT --> TGC polymorphic change at amino acid 122. We propose a role for the alternative splicing of CD79b gene in causing the reduced expression of BCR on the surface of B-CLL cells. As normal B cells also present this variant, the mechanism of CD79b posttranscriptional regulation might reflect the activation stage of the normal B cell from which B-CLL derives. (+info)
(3/601) Experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis and CD5+ B-lymphocyte expression.
Myasthenia gravis is one of the typical organ specific autoimmune disease and the CD5+ B-lymphocytes are known to be associated with the secretion of autoimmune antibodies. The authors performed the study to establish an animal model of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) by immunizing the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) and to understand CD5+ B-lymphocyte changes in peripheral blood of EAMGs. Lewis rats weighing 150-200 g were injected subcutaneously three times with 50 microg AChR purified from the electric organ of Torpedo marmorata and Freund's adjuvant. The EAMG induction was assessed by evaluating clinical manifestations. The CD5+ B-lymphocyte was double stained using monoclonal PE conjugated anti-CD5+ and FITC conjugated anti-rat CD45R antibodies and calculated using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS). In three out of ten Lewis rats injected with purified AChR, the EAMG models were established. The animals showed definite clinical weakness responded to neostigmine; they had difficulty in climbing the slope, or easily fell down from a vertical cage. The range of CD5+ B-lymphocytes of peripheral blood in the EAMG models was 10.2%-17.5%, which was higher than in controls. In conclusion, the EAMG models were successfully established and the CD5+ B-lymphocyte expression in peripheral blood increased in EAMGs. This provided indirect evidence of the autoimmune pathomechanism of human myasthenia gravis. (+info)
(4/601) CD5 positive breast carcinoma in a patient with untreated chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: molecular studies of chromosome 13q.
A 67 year old woman presented with a right breast lump which proved to be a grade 2 invasive ductal carcinoma with axillary lymph node metastasis. She had a five year history of CD5 positive chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, which never required treatment. Immunoperoxidase stains for CD5, using the monoclonal antibody NCL-CD-54C7, showed that there was extensive infiltration of axillary lymph nodes with CD5 positive B lymphocytes. Strong staining for CD5 was also seen in the carcinoma cells within the breast and lymph node metastases. It has recently been suggested that there is a tumour suppresser locus in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia at 13q12.3 near or at the BRCA2 locus. Deletion of regions on chromosome 13q containing the BRCA2 and RB1 genes has also been reported in sporadic breast cancers. These observations suggest that there may be a link between these two diseases acting through chromosome 13, but amplification of several microsatellite repeat markers failed to show any loss of heterozygosity or repeat instability at either these or several other loci on chromosome 13. Examination of additional such cases is needed to perform a more comprehensive study of the significance of positive CD5 staining of breast carcinoma. (+info)
(5/601) Anti-phospholipid antibodies and CD5+ B cells in HIV infection.
This cross-sectional study evaluates the correlation between anti-phospholipid antibodies and CD5+ B cells in 110 patients infected with HIV-1. There were 89.1% of the patients who had IgG antibodies against cardiolipin and phosphatidylserine. The prevalence of IgM and IgA antibodies was < 22%. AIDS was associated with lower frequencies of IgM antibodies against cardiolipin (P = 0.05) and IgG-antibodies against cardiolipin and phosphatidylserine (P = 0.011). Drug users had higher IgM antibodies against phospholipids than patients from other risk groups (P = 0.02). A history of thromboembolic events was not accompanied by higher levels of anti-phospholipid antibodies (P > 0.2). No correlation between anti-phospholipid antibodies and CD5+ B cells was detected. Percentage part of CD5+ B lymphocytes was elevated in all patients and absolute CD4+ T lymphocyte counts and HIV p24 antigen were inversely correlated. In advanced disease a significant reduction of anti-phospholipid antibodies was contrasted with persistent elevation of CD5+ B lymphocytes. These observations may reflect immunological dysfunction involving apoptosis and endothelial damage rather than polyclonal B cell hyperstimulation. A possible explanation would be that in HIV infection an increased rate of spontaneous apoptosis in peripheral blood lymphocytes is accompanied by functional and structural changes of mitochondria. Therefore, structurally altered mitochondrial phospholipids could serve as antigen to induce specific humoral immune responses. (+info)
(6/601) Positive selection as a developmental progression initiated by alpha beta TCR signals that fix TCR specificity prior to lineage commitment.
During positive selection, immature thymocytes commit to either the CD4+ or CD8+ T cell lineage ("commitment") and convert from short-lived thymocytes into long-lived T cells ("rescue"). By formal precursor-progeny analysis, we now identify what is likely to be the initial positive selection step signaled by alpha beta TCR, which we have termed "induction". During induction, RAG mRNA expression is downregulated, but lineage commitment does not occur. Rather, lineage commitment (which depends upon the MHC class specificity of the alpha beta TCR) only occurs after downregulation of RAG expression and the consequent fixation of alpha beta TCR specificity. We propose that positive selection can be viewed as a sequence of increasingly selective developmental steps (induction-->commitment-->rescue) that are signaled by alpha beta TCR engagements of intrathymic ligands. (+info)
(7/601) Signaling through CD5 involves acidic sphingomyelinase, protein kinase C-zeta, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase.
The CD5 lymphocyte surface glycoprotein is a coreceptor involved in the modulation of Ag-specific receptor-mediated activation and differentiation signals. The molecular basis for its modulatory properties is not yet well understood. In the present study we describe early biochemical events triggered by CD5 stimulation, which include the phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC)-dependent activation of acidic sphingomyelinase (A-SMase) in normal and lymphoblastoid T and B cells. The functional coupling of PC-PLC and A-SMase is demonstrated by the abrogation of A-SMase activation by 1) xanthogenate tricyclodecan-9-yl (D609), a selective inhibitor of PC-PLC, and 2) replacement of several C-terminal serine residues (S458, S459, and S461) present in the cytoplasmic tail of CD5 that are known to be critical for PC-PLC activation. Additionally, we demonstrate that activation of protein kinase C-zeta (PKC-zeta) and members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade (MAPK kinase and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase), but not the NF-kappaB, are downstream events of the CD5 signaling pathway. A-SMase, PKC-zeta, and MAPK family members are key mediators of cell responses as diverse as proliferation, differentiation, and growth arrest and may contribute to CD5-mediated modulation of TCR or BCR signaling. (+info)
(8/601) ChT1, an Ig superfamily molecule required for T cell differentiation.
The thymus is colonized by circulating progenitor cells that differentiate into mature T cells under the influence of the thymic microenvironment. We report here the cloning and function of the avian thymocyte Ag ChT1, a member of the Ig superfamily with one V-like and one C2-like domain. ChT1-positive embryonic bone marrow cells coexpressing c-kit give rise to mature T cells upon intrathymic cell transfer. ChT1-specific Ab inhibits T cell differentiation in embryonic thymic organ cultures and in thymocyte precursor cocultures on stromal cells. Thus, we provide clear evidence that ChT1 is a novel Ag on early T cell progenitors that plays an important role in the early stages of T cell development. (+info)