(1/488) Structural and functional studies of the measles virus hemagglutinin: identification of a novel site required for CD46 interaction.
The entry of measles virus (MV) into human cells is mediated by the initial attachment of the viral hemagglutinin (HA) to the complement regulatory protein CD46. Two subdomains, one each within CD46 short consensus repeats (SCRs) 1 and 2, are responsible for this interaction. However, little is known about the regions within MV HA needed for a high-affinity CD46 interaction. To better define the HA-CD46 interaction, we took three approaches: chimeric domain swapping, peptide scanning, and alanine scanning mutagenesis. Chimeras of MV HA and the closely related rinderpest virus (RPV) HA were generated and tested for cell surface expression and the ability to hemadsorb CD46+ red blood cells (RBC). Exchanges with the N terminus of RPV were tolerated as MV HA could be replaced with RPV HA up to amino-acid position 154. However, both larger swaps with RPV and a small RPV HA replacement at the C terminus aborted cell-surface expression. Peptide scanning with 51 overlapping peptides derived from three MV HA regions showed one peptide, corresponding to MV HA amino acids 468-487, blocked hemagglutination of African green monkey (AGM) RBCs and inhibited MV infection of Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) expressing human CD46. Alanine scanning mutants mapped sites on the MV HA that were not required for trafficking to the cell surface or function in hemagglutination as well as a novel site required for CD46 interaction, amino acids 473-477. (+info)
(2/488) Epitope mapping of 10 monoclonal antibodies against the pig analogue of human membrane cofactor protein (MCP).
Pig membrane cofactor protein (MCP; CD46) is a 50 000-60 000 MW glycoprotein that is expressed on a wide variety of cells, including erythrocytes. Pig MCP has cofactor activity for factor I-mediated cleavage of C3b and is an efficient regulator of the classical and alternative pathway of human and pig complement. A panel of 10 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) was collected from two different laboratories; all of these mAbs were raised against pig leucocytes and all recognized the same complex banding pattern on sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of erythrocyte membranes. All were shown to be reactive with pig MCP and were divided into four groups of mutually competitive antibodies based on competition studies for membrane-bound MCP and for soluble MCP, the latter by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis. The antigenic properties of membrane-bound and soluble MCP were similar, although some interesting differences were revealed. None of the 10 mAbs were cross-reactive with human MCP and only one showed cross-reactivity with leucocytes from a panel of large mammals - a weak cross-reactivity with a subset of dog leucocytes. All antibodies in one of the epitope groups and some in a second epitope group were able to block the functional activity of pig MCP, as measured by inhibition of MCP-catalysed C3 degradation by factor I. (+info)
(3/488) Human CD46 enhances nitric oxide production in mouse macrophages in response to measles virus infection in the presence of gamma interferon: dependence on the CD46 cytoplasmic domains.
CD46 is a transmembrane complement regulatory protein widely expressed on nucleated human cells. Laboratory-adapted strains of measles virus (MV) bind to the extracellular domains of CD46 to enter human cells. The cytoplasmic portion of CD46 consists of a common juxtamembrane region and different distal sequences called Cyt1 and Cyt2. The biological functions of these cytoplasmic sequences are unknown. In this study, we show that expression of human CD46 with the Cyt1 cytoplasmic domain in mouse macrophages enhances production of nitric oxide (NO) in response to MV infection in the presence of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma). Human CD46 does not increase the basal levels of NO production in mouse macrophages and does not augment NO production induced by double-stranded polyribonucleotides. Replacing the cytoplasmic domain of human CD46 with Cyt2 reduces MV and IFN-gamma-induced NO production in mouse macrophages. Deleting the entire cytoplasmic domains of human CD46 does not prevent MV infection but markedly attenuates NO production in response to MV and IFN-gamma. Mouse macrophages expressing a tailless human CD46 mutant are more susceptible to MV infection and produce 2 to 3 orders of magnitude more infectious virus than mouse macrophages expressing human CD46 with intact cytoplasmic domains. These results reveal a novel function of CD46 dependent on the cytoplasmic domains (especially Cyt1), which augments NO production in macrophages. These findings may have significant implications for roles of CD46 in innate immunity and MV pathogenesis. (+info)
(4/488) Infection of chicken embryonic fibroblasts by measles virus: adaptation at the virus entry level.
Measles virus (MV) has a tropism restricted to humans and primates and uses the human CD46 molecule as a cellular receptor. MV has been adapted to grow in chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEF) and gave rise to an attenuated live vaccine. Halle and Schwarz MV strains were compared in their ability to infect both simian Vero cells and CEF. Whereas both strains infected Vero cells, only the CEF-adapted Schwarz strain was able to efficiently infect CEF. Since the expression of the human MV receptor CD46 rendered the chicken embryonic cell line TCF more permissive to the infection by the Halle MV strain, the MV entry into CEF appeared to be a limiting step in the absence of prior MV adaptation. CEF lacked reactivity with anti-CD46 antibodies but were found to express another protein allowing MV binding as an alternative receptor to CD46. (+info)
(5/488) Detection of partial and complete acrosome reaction in human spermatozoa: which inducers and probes to use?
The acrosome reaction (AR), an essential step for achieving mammalian fertilization, was recently introduced as a means of clinical evaluation of male fertility. However, most of the available techniques for acrosomal status assessment (except those employing electron microscopy) do not define whether the measurements represent partial or complete AR. We, therefore, performed a crossover investigation of the types of inducers and probes required for detecting partial or complete AR in human spermatozoa. The acrosomal status before and after stimulation with four AR inducers was evaluated after incubation for 3 h in capacitating conditions. We used a fluorescence-activated cell sorter with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated monoclonal antibody CD46 (FITC-CD46) targeting the inner acrosomal membrane for detecting a complete AR, and fluorescein isothiocyanate-Pisum sativum agglutinin (FITC-PSA) targeting the acrosomal content for detection of both partial and complete AR. Without stimulation or following stimulation with progesterone, follicular fluid (FF) or phorbol myristate ester (PMA), the AR could be detected with FITC-PSA but not with FITC-CD46. Following stimulation with the calcium ionophore A23187, the AR could be detected by both FITC-PSA and FITC-CD46. These results suggest that spontaneous AR as well as AR induced by progesterone, PMA and FF are partial. In contrast, the AR induced by A23187 is total, i.e. both partial and complete. These findings are valuable for both research and clinical purposes and are a step towards an international agreement on a standard test for human sperm AR, for which there is an urgent need. (+info)
(6/488) Progesterone promotes the acrosome reaction in capacitated human spermatozoa as judged by flow cytometry and CD46 staining.
The acrosome reaction is a necessary prerequisite for spermatozoa to acquire fertilizing ability. Several different moieties appear to promote the acrosome reaction through different pathways, including solubilized zona pellucidae, recombinant zona protein ZP3, follicular fluid, calcium ionophores, and mannosylated bovine serum albumin (BSA). Although many investigators have presented evidence that progesterone also promotes the acrosome reaction through the mediation of a non-genomic cell membrane receptor, this concept has been challenged. Other workers have suggested that progesterone does not promote an acrosome reaction in human spermatozoa, as judged by the detection of CD46, a complement regulatory protein present on the inner acrosome membrane, through flow cytometric analysis of large numbers of spermatozoa. Prior investigations were criticized by the limited numbers of spermatozoa enumerated visually, the use of non-specific staining techniques, and the failure to eliminate dead spermatozoa during the scoring of the acrosome reaction. We have repeated these experiments, using both a supravital dye to eliminate dead spermatozoa from flow cytometric analysis, and anti-CD46 monoclonal antibody to score acrosome-reacted spermatozoa. Care was taken to validate the adequacy of capacitation conditions, which were proven by the ability of spermatozoa to acrosome react in response to mannosylated BSA and to penetrate zona-free hamster eggs. Confocal microscopy was used to confirm that CD46 immunostaining was limited to the acrosomal region of the spermatozoon head. Our results indicate that progesterone does promote an acrosome reaction within capacitated spermatozoa. (+info)
(7/488) Crystal structure of two CD46 domains reveals an extended measles virus-binding surface.
Measles virus is a paramyxovirus which, like other members of the family such as respiratory syncytial virus, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The cell surface receptor for measles virus in humans is CD46, a complement cofactor. We report here the crystal structure at 3.1 A resolution of the measles virus-binding fragment of CD46. The structure reveals the architecture and spatial arrangement of two glycosylated short consensus repeats with a pronounced interdomain bend and some flexibility at the domain interface. Amino acids involved in measles virus binding define a large, glycan-free surface that extends from the top of the first to the bottom of the second repeat. The extended virus-binding surface of CD46 differs strikingly from those reported for the human virus receptor proteins CD4 and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), suggesting that the CD46 structure utilizes a novel mode of virus recognition. A highly hydrophobic and protruding loop at the base of the first repeat bears a critical virus-binding residue, thereby defining an important recognition epitope. Molecules that mimic the conformation of this loop potentially could be effective anti-viral agents by preventing binding of measles virus to CD46. (+info)
(8/488) Exogenous gene expression and protein targeting in lens fiber cells.
PURPOSE: To test the ability of lens fiber cells at various stages of differentiation to transcribe and translate microinjected DNA templates. METHODS: Expression plasmids encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) or a GFP-tagged membrane protein (human CD46) were microinjected into organ-cultured embryonic chicken lenses. Protein expression was visualized by confocal microscopy. RESULTS: GFP expression was detected within 12 hours of microinjection, evenly distributed throughout the cytoplasm of the injected cell. All nucleated fiber cells were competent to express GFP, whereas the anucleated central fiber cells were not. When GFP was fused to the C-terminal of CD46, the fusion protein was synthesized intact and properly inserted in the fiber cell plasma membrane. In contrast, N-terminal fusions were cleaved during synthesis, resulting in retention of the GFP tag in the endoplasmic reticulum. CONCLUSIONS: Microinjection of expression plasmids is an effective technique for introducing exogenous genes into individual fiber cells. With this approach, the results show that fiber cells are transcriptionally and translationally competent until the time of organelle loss, and that fiber cells deep within the lens are capable of synthesizing new plasma membrane proteins. The techniques described here should have broad application in studies of fiber cell differentiation and provide a useful complement to conventional transgenic approaches. (+info)