(1/2721) Adenoviral gene transfer into the normal and injured spinal cord: enhanced transgene stability by combined administration of temperature-sensitive virus and transient immune blockade.

This study characterized gene transfer into both normal and injured adult rat dorsal spinal cord using first (E1-/E3-) or second (E1-/E2A125/E3-, temperature-sensitive; ts) generation of replication-defective adenoviral (Ad) vectors. A novel immunosuppressive regimen aimed at blocking CD4/CD45 lymphocytic receptors was tested for improving transgene persistence. In addition, the effect of gene transfer on nociception was also evaluated. Seven days after treatment, numerous LacZ-positive cells were observed after transfection with either viral vector. By 21 days after transfection, beta-galactosidase staining was reduced and suggestive of ongoing cytopathology in both Ad-treated groups, despite the fact that the immunogenicity of LacZ/Adts appeared less when compared with that elicited by the LacZ/Ad vector. In contrast, immunosuppressed animals showed a significant (P < or = 0.05) increase in the number of LacZ-positive cells not displaying cytopathology. In these animals, a concomitant reduction in numbers of macrophages/microglia and CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes was observed. Only animals that received LacZ/Adts and immunosuppression showed transgene expression after 60 days. Similar results were observed in animals in which the L4-L5 dorsal roots were lesioned before transfection. Gene transfer into the dorsal spinal cord did not affect nociception, independent of the adenovirus vector. These results indicate that immune blockade of the CD4/CD45 lymphocytic receptors enhanced transgene stability in adult animals with normal or injured spinal cords and that persistent transgene expression in the spinal cord does not interfere with normal neural function.  (+info)

(2/2721) Oval cell numbers in human chronic liver diseases are directly related to disease severity.

The risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma is significantly increased in patients with genetic hemochromatosis, alcoholic liver disease, or chronic hepatitis C infection. The precise mechanisms underlying the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in these conditions are not well understood. Stem cells within the liver, termed oval cells, are involved in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma in animal models and may be important in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in human chronic liver diseases. The aims of this study were to determine whether oval cells could be detected in the liver of patients with genetic hemochromatosis, alcoholic liver disease, or chronic hepatitis C, and whether there is a relationship between the severity of the liver disease and the number of oval cells. Oval cells were detected using histology and immunohistochemistry in liver biopsies from patients with genetic hemochromatosis, alcoholic liver disease, or chronic hepatitis C. Oval cells were not observed in normal liver controls. Oval cell numbers increased significantly with the progression of disease severity from mild to severe in each of the diseases studied. We conclude that oval cells are frequently found in subjects with genetic hemochromatosis, alcoholic liver disease, or chronic hepatitis C. There is an association between severity of liver disease and increase in the number of oval cells consistent with the hypothesis that oval cell proliferation is associated with increased risk for development of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic liver disease.  (+info)

(3/2721) Peripheral autoantigen induces regulatory T cells that prevent autoimmunity.

Previous studies have shown that autoimmune thyroiditis can be induced in normal laboratory rats after thymectomy and split dose gamma-irradiation. Development of disease can be prevented by reconstitution of PVG rats shortly after their final irradiation with either peripheral CD4(+)CD45RC- T cells or CD4(+)CD8(-) thymocytes from syngeneic donors. Although the activity of both populations is known to depend on the activities of endogenously produced interleukin 4 and transforming growth factor beta, implying a common mechanism, the issue of antigen specificity of the cells involved has not yet been addressed. In this study, we show that the regulatory T cells that prevent autoimmune thyroiditis are generated in vivo only when the relevant autoantigen is also present. Peripheral CD4(+) T cells, from rats whose thyroids were ablated in utero by treatment with 131I, were unable to prevent disease development upon adoptive transfer into thymectomized and irradiated recipients. This regulatory deficit is specific for thyroid autoimmunity, since CD4(+) T cells from 131I-treated PVG.RT1(u) rats were as effective as those from normal donors at preventing diabetes in thymectomized and irradiated PVG.RT1(u) rats. Significantly, in contrast to the peripheral CD4(+) T cells, CD4(+)CD8(-) thymocytes from 131I-treated PVG donors were still able to prevent thyroiditis upon adoptive transfer. Taken together, these data indicate that it is the peripheral autoantigen itself that stimulates the generation of the appropriate regulatory cells from thymic emigrant precursors.  (+info)

(4/2721) Selective recruitment of CCR4-bearing Th2 cells toward antigen-presenting cells by the CC chemokines thymus and activation-regulated chemokine and macrophage-derived chemokine.

Helper T cells are classified into Th1 and Th2 subsets based on their profiles of cytokine production. Th1 cells are involved in cell-mediated immunity, whereas Th2 cells induce humoral responses. Selective recruitment of these two subsets depends on specific adhesion molecules and specific chemoattractants. Here, we demonstrate that the T cell-directed CC chemokine thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) was abundantly produced by monocytes treated with granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or IL-3, especially in the presence of IL-4 and by dendritic cells derived from monocytes cultured with GM-CSF + IL-4. The receptor for TARC and another macrophage/dendritic cell-derived CC chemokine macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) is CCR4, a G protein-coupled receptor. CCR4 was found to be expressed on approximately 20% of adult peripheral blood effector/memory CD4+ T cells. T cells attracted by TARC and MDC generated cell lines predominantly producing Th2-type cytokines, IL-4 and IL-5. Fractionated CCR4+ cells but not CCR4- cells also selectively gave rise to Th2-type cell lines. When naive CD4+ T cells from adult peripheral blood were polarized in vitro, Th2-type cells selectively expressed CCR4 and vigorously migrated toward TARC and MDC. Taken together, CCR4 is selectively expressed on Th2-type T cells and antigen-presenting cells may recruit Th2 cells expressing CCR4 by producing TARC and MDC in Th2-dominant conditions.  (+info)

(5/2721) CD45 can act as a negative regulator for the transition from early to late CD4+ CD8+ thymocytes.

The differentiation process from CD4-CD8- double-negative (DN) thymocytes to CD4+CD8+ double-positive (DP) stage is accompanied by vigorous proliferation. The resulting DP cells contain a sizable proportion of large cycling cells, but most DP cells are small resting cells. To explore the molecular mechanisms which regulate cell proliferation of DP thymocytes prior to further development, we used TCR-transgenic (Tg) mice with non-selecting MHC (Tg-Neut), which contain almost exclusively DP thymocytes that are not subject to either positive or negative selection. In Tg-Neut, the thymus contained DP cells of relatively large size, which showed higher extracellular signal-regulated kinase activity and enhanced responsiveness to mitogen compared to small DP cells. This indicates that all the large DP cells in the thymus are not positively selected and that they possess proliferative potential. When Tg-Neut mice were backcrossed with CD45 knockout mice (CD454-/- Tg-Neut), the thymus showed an increase of large DP cells and cycling cells, but a decrease of apoptotic cells. Furthermore, Bcl-2 expression and Jun N-terminal kinase activity, which are associated with resistance to apoptosis, were enhanced. These observations suggest that thymocyte proliferation in the DP stage is suppressed by a CD45-related process with regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and Bcl-2 unless DP cells receive TCR-mediated signals.  (+info)

(6/2721) Early ontogeny of monocytes and macrophages in the pig.

Prenatal development of cord blood monocytes and tissue macrophages was studied in pig foetuses by immunophenotyping and functional assays. The function of peripheral blood monocytes was compared in germ-free and conventional piglets. First macrophages were identified by electron microscopy in foetal liver on the 25th day of gestation. Monoclonal antibodies against porcine CD45 and SWC3 antigens were used for flow cytometric identification of myelomonocytic cells in cell suspensions prepared from the yolk sac, foetal liver, spleen and cord blood. Leukocytes expressing the common myelomonocytic antigen SWC3 were found in all organs studied since the earliest stages of development. Opsonized zymosan ingestion assay was used to determine the phagocytic capacity of foetal mononuclear phagocytes isolated from cord blood, liver and spleen. In the foetal liver, avid phagocytosis of apoptic cells had been found to occur before cells were able to ingest zymosan in vitro. The first cells capable of ingesting zymosan particles were found on the 40th day of gestation in umbilical blood and 17 days later in foetal spleen and liver. Their relative proportion increased with age. Cord blood monocytes and peripheral blood monocytes in germ-free piglets had low oxidatory burst activity as shown by iodonitrophenyl tetrazolium reduction assay. A remarkable increase of oxidatory burst activity was observed in conventional piglets, probably due to activation of immune mechanisms by the microflora colonizing gastrointestinal tract.  (+info)

(7/2721) Phosphorylation of CD45 by casein kinase 2. Modulation of activity and mutational analysis.

CD45 is a receptor-type protein-tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) that is required for antigen-specific stimulation and proliferation in lymphocytes. This study was designed to determine the nature of specific kinases in lymphocytes that phosphorylate CD45 and to determine the effect of phosphorylation on CD45 PTP activity. A major cytoplasmic lymphocyte kinase that phosphorylated CD45 was identified as casein kinase 2 (CK2) by use of an in-gel kinase assay in combination with immunoprecipitation, immunodepletion, and specific inhibition. Mutational analysis of CK2 consensus sites showed that the target for CK2 was in an acidic insert of 19 amino acids in the D2 domain, and Ser to Ala mutations at amino acids 965, 968, 969, and 973 abrogated CK2 phosphorylation of CD45. CK2 phosphorylation increased CD45 activity 3-fold toward phosphorylated myelin basic protein, and this increase was reversible by PP2A treatment. Mutation of Ser to Glu at the CK2 sites had the same effect as phosphorylation and also tripled the Vmax of CD45. CD45 isolated in vivo was highly phosphorylated and could not be phosphorylated by CK2 without prior dephosphorylation with phosphatase PP2A. We conclude that CK2 is a major lymphocyte kinase that is responsible for in vivo phosphorylation of CD45, and phosphorylation at specific CK2 sites regulates CD45 PTP activity.  (+info)

(8/2721) Differential effects of manipulating signaling in early T cell development in intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes and thymocytes.

A pre-TCR-CD3 signal is required for the efficient maturation of CD4- CD8- thymocytes to the CD4+ CD8+ stage. This study addressed whether a similar signal is required for maturation of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) that may develop extrathymically. We have shown previously that IEL from mice deficient for CD3- associated zeta chains include an immature population of CD3- CD8alphaalpha+ cells expressing cytoplasmic TCR beta chains but lacking detectable surface TCRalphabeta, CD16 and B220. Here we stimulated the appearance of such IEL in epsilon+/- zeta-/- mice by expression of an activated Lck transgene or in vivo treatment with anti-CD3epsilon. Anti-CD3epsilon treatment of RAG-deficient animals also yielded CD16- B220- IEL. In contrast, expression of a TCRbeta transgene in rag-1(-/-) mice did not stimulate the appearance of CD3- CD8alphaalpha+ CD16- B220- cells. Taken together these data indicate that although anti-CD3epsilon treatment and LckF505 assist in catalyzing a CD16+ B220+ --> CD16- B220- transition, these manipulations are not equivalent to a pre-TCR signal in IEL lymphocytes.  (+info)