(1/936) Purification and characterization of ADP-ribosyl cyclase from Euglena gracilis.
ADP-ribosyl cyclase, which catalyzes the conversion from NAD+ to cyclic adenosine diphosphoribose (cADPR), is proposed to participate in cell cycle regulation in Euglena gracilis. This enzyme, which was found as a membrane-bound protein, was purified almost the homogeneity after solubilization with deoxycholate, and found to be a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of 40 kDa. Its Km value for NAD+ was estimated to be 0.4 mM, and cADPR, a product of the enzyme, inhibited the enzyme competitively with respect to NAD+ whereas another product, nicotinamide, showed noncompetitive (mixed-type) inhibition. In contrast to mammalian CD38 and BST-1, Euglena ADP-ribosyl cyclase lacked cADPR hydrolase activity. (+info)
(2/936) Characterization of viral dynamics in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy: relationships to host factors, cellular restoration, and virologic end points.
Biphasic plasma viral decays were modeled in 48 patients treated with ritonavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine. Estimated first- and second-phase decay rates were d1 as 0.47/day and d2 as 0.04/day. Interpatient differences in both decay rates were significant. The d1 was directly correlated with baseline CD4+, CD4+CD28+, and CD8+CD28+ T lymphocyte counts (P<.05) and inversely correlated with baseline virus load (P=.044) and the magnitude of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte recovery (P<.01). The d2 was directly correlated with baseline percentage of CD8+ T lymphocytes (P=.023), the CD8+CD38+ cell number (P=.024), and the level of IgG that binds to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 gp120 (P=.02). Viral decay rates were not predictive of treatment failure or durability of viral suppression. These exploratory findings are consistent with a model in which immunologic factors contribute to elimination of HIV-infected cells and suggest a dynamic interplay between regulation of HIV expression and lymphocyte activation and recovery. (+info)
(3/936) Shorter survival in advanced human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection is more closely associated with T lymphocyte activation than with plasma virus burden or virus chemokine coreceptor usage.
To define predictors of survival time in late human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease, long- and short-duration survivors were studied after their CD4+ T cells fell to =50/mm3. Immune activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, as measured by elevated cell surface expression of CD38 antigen, was strongly associated with shorter subsequent survival (P=.002). The naive CD45RA+CD62L+ T cell reserve was low in all subjects and did not predict survival (P=.34 for CD4+ and.08 for CD8+ cells). Higher virus burden correlated with CD8+ but not CD4+ cell activation and, after correcting for multiple comparisons, was not associated with shorter survival (P=.02). All of the patients' viruses used CCR5, CXCR4, or both, and coreceptor usage did not predict survival (P=. 27). Through mechanisms apparently unrelated to higher virus burden, immune activation is a major determinant of survival in advanced HIV-1 disease. (+info)
(4/936) IL-5 induces IgG1 isotype switch recombination in mouse CD38-activated sIgD-positive B lymphocytes.
Mouse B cells express CD38, whose ligation by anti-CD38 Ab induces their proliferation and protection from apoptosis. We previously showed that stimulation of mouse splenic B cells with IL-5 together with CS/2, an anti-mouse CD38 mAb, induces production of IgG1 and IgM. Here we examined the role of IL-5 and CS/2 in the expression of germline gamma1 transcripts and the generation of reciprocal products forming DNA circles as byproducts of mu-gamma1 switch recombination. By itself, CS/2 induced significant expression of germline gamma1 transcripts in splenic naive B cells, whereas IL-5 neither induced nor enhanced germline gamma1 expression. Increased cellular content of reciprocal product, which is characteristic of mu-gamma1 recombination, was not observed after culturing B cells with CS/2, but increased reciprocal product, along with high levels of lgG1 secretion, was found when B cells were cultured with CS/2 plus IL-5. Although IL-4 did not, by itself, induce mu-gamma1 recombination in B cells stimulated with CS/2, in conjunction with CS/2 plus IL-5, IL-4 dramatically enhanced sterile gamma1 transcription and IgG1 production. These results demonstrate that CD38 ligation induces only germline gamma1 transcription and that IL-5 promotes both mu-gamma1 switch recombination and lgG1 secretion in an IL-4-independent manner. (+info)
(5/936) Stable transduction of quiescent CD34(+)CD38(-) human hematopoietic cells by HIV-1-based lentiviral vectors.
We compared the efficiency of transduction by an HIV-1-based lentiviral vector to that by a Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV) retroviral vector, using stringent in vitro assays of primitive, quiescent human hematopoietic progenitor cells. Each construct contained the enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter gene. The lentiviral vector, but not the MLV vector, expressed GFP in nondivided CD34(+) cells (45.5% GFP+) and in CD34(+)CD38(-) cells in G0 (12.4% GFP+), 48 hr after transduction. However, GFP could also be detected short-term in CD34(+) cells transduced with a lentiviral vector that contained a mutated integrase gene. The level of stable transduction from integrated vector was determined after extended long-term bone marrow culture. Both MLV vectors and lentiviral vectors efficiently transduced cytokine-stimulated CD34(+) cells. The MLV vector did not transduce more primitive, quiescent CD34(+)CD38(-) cells (n = 8). In contrast, stable transduction of CD34(+)CD38(-) cells by the lentiviral vector was seen for over 15 weeks of extended long-term culture (9.2 +/- 5.2%, n = 7). GFP expression in clones from single CD34(+)CD38(-) cells confirmed efficient, stable lentiviral transduction in 29% of early and late-proliferating cells. In the absence of growth factors during transduction, only the lentiviral vector was able to transduce CD34(+) and CD34(+)CD38(-) cells (13.5 +/- 2.5%, n = 11 and 12.2 +/- 9.7%, n = 4, respectively). The lentiviral vector is clearly superior to the MLV vector for transduction of quiescent, primitive human hematopoietic progenitor cells and may provide therapeutically useful levels of gene transfer into human hematopoietic stem cells. (+info)
(6/936) The metamorphosis of a molecule: from soluble enzyme to the leukocyte receptor CD38.
Human CD38 is a 45-kDa type II membrane glycoprotein with an intricate pattern of expression in leukocytes, although evidence is accumulating of its quite widespread expression in cells of nonvascular origin. CD38 is a member of a nascent eukaryotic gene family encoding cytosolic and membrane-bound enzymes whose substrate is NAD, a coenzyme ubiquitously distributed in nature. Functionally, CD38 is an eclectic molecule with the ability not only to catalyze but also to signal, to mobilize calcium, and to adhere to itself, to hyaluronan, and to other ligands. Interaction with CD38 on various leukocyte subpopulations has profound though diverse consequences on their life-span, but these effects seem to be independent of the enzymatic activity of the molecule. CD38 challenges our expectations of a surface molecule and we must sift through its many guises to unmask its true nature. (+info)
(7/936) Evidence of a role for cyclic ADP-ribose in long-term synaptic depression in hippocampus.
Ca2+ released from presynaptic and postsynaptic intracellular stores plays important roles in activity-dependent synaptic plasticity, including long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic strength. At Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in the hippocampus, presynaptic ryanodine receptor-gated stores appear to mobilize some of the Ca2+ necessary to induce LTD. Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) has recently been proposed as an endogenous activator of ryanodine receptors in sea urchin eggs and several mammalian cell types. Here, we provide evidence that cADPR-mediated signaling pathways play a key role in inducing LTD. We show that biochemical production of cGMP increases cADPR concentration in hippocampal slices in vitro, and that blockade of cGMP-dependent protein kinase, cADPR receptors, or ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ stores each prevent the induction of LTD at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses. A lack of effect of postsynaptic infusion of either cADPR antagonist indicates a probable presynaptic site of action. (+info)
(8/936) Expression of CD28 and CD38 by CD8+ T lymphocytes in HIV-1 infection correlates with markers of disease severity and changes towards normalization under treatment. The Swiss HIV Cohort Study.
The relationship between blood CD8+ T lymphocyte subsets, as defined by CD28 and CD38 expression, and plasma viraemia and CD4+ T cells in HIV-1 infection was investigated. In a cross-sectional study of 46 patients with either no or stable anti-retroviral treatment, there was a strong negative correlation between the percentage of CD8+CD28- and the percentage of CD4+ T cells (r = -0.75, P < 0.0001), and a positive correlation between absolute numbers of CD8+CD28+ and CD4+ T cells (r = 0.56, P < 0.0001). In contrast, the expression of CD38 by CD8+ T lymphocytes correlated primarily with plasma viraemia (e.g. the percentage of CD38+ in CD8bright cells, r = 0.76, P < 0.0001). In the 6 months following triple therapy initiation in 32 subjects, there was a close correlation between changes (delta) in CD8+CD28+ or CD8+CD28- and in CD4+ T cells (e.g. delta % CD8+CD28+ versus delta % CD4+, r = 0.37, P = 0.0002; delta % CD8+CD28- versus delta % CD4+, r = -0.66, P < 0.0001). A marked decline of the number of CD8+ T cells expressing CD38 was also observed. These results suggest the existence of a T cell homeostasis mechanism operating in blood with CD4+ and CD8+CD28+ cells on the one hand, and with CD8+CD28- cells on the other. In addition, the percentage of CD38+ cells in CD8+ cells, generally considered an independent prognostic factor, could merely reflect plasma viral load. (+info)