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(1/4274) Angiosarcomas express mixed endothelial phenotypes of blood and lymphatic capillaries: podoplanin as a specific marker for lymphatic endothelium.

Angiosarcomas apparently derive from blood vessel endothelial cells; however, occasionally their histological features suggest mixed origin from blood and lymphatic endothelia. In the absence of specific positive markers for lymphatic endothelia the precise distinction between these components has not been possible. Here we provide evidence by light and electron microscopic immunohistochemistry that podoplanin, a approximately 38-kd membrane glycoprotein of podocytes, is specifically expressed in the endothelium of lymphatic capillaries, but not in the blood vasculature. In normal skin and kidney, podoplanin colocalized with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3, the only other lymphatic marker presently available. Complementary immunostaining of blood vessels was obtained with established endothelial markers (CD31, CD34, factor VIII-related antigen, and Ulex europaeus I lectin) as well as podocalyxin, another podocytic protein that is also localized in endothelia of blood vessels. Podoplanin specifically immunolabeled endothelia of benign tumorous lesions of undisputed lymphatic origin (lymphangiomas, hygromas) and was detected there as a 38-kd protein by immunoblotting. As paradigms of malignant vascular tumors, poorly differentiated (G3) common angiosarcomas (n = 8), epitheloid angiosarcomas (n = 3), and intestinal Kaposi's sarcomas (n = 5) were examined for their podoplanin content in relation to conventional endothelial markers. The relative number of tumor cells expressing podoplanin was estimated and, although the number of cases in this preliminary study was limited to 16, an apparent spectrum of podoplanin expression emerged that can be divided into a low-expression group in which 0-10% of tumor cells contained podoplanin, a moderate-expression group with 30-60% and a high-expression group with 70-100%. Ten of eleven angiosarcomas and all Kaposi's sarcomas showed mixed expression of both lymphatic and blood vascular endothelial phenotypes. By double labeling, most podoplanin-positive tumor cells coexpressed endothelial markers of blood vessels, whereas few tumor cells were positive for individual markers only. From these results we conclude that (1) podoplanin is a selective marker of lymphatic endothelium; (2) G3 angiosarcomas display a quantitative spectrum of podoplanin-expressing tumor cells; (3) in most angiosarcomas, a varying subset of tumor cells coexpresses podoplanin and endothelial markers of blood vessels; and (4) all endothelial cells of Kaposi's sarcomas expressed the lymphatic marker podoplanin.  (+info)

(2/4274) Breast carcinoma: vascular density determined using CD105 antibody correlates with tumor prognosis.

Angiogenesis is essential for tumor growth and metastasis. There are conflicting reports as to whether microvessel density (IMD) in breast cancers is associated with prognosis. This could be due to the use of different antibodies to endothelial cell markers, variation in tissue pretreatment protocols, and nonstandardized counting methods. We have assessed the IMD in 106 breast carcinomas using a pan-endothelial marker, CD34, and a recently described mAb to CD105, which preferentially reacts with endothelial cell in angiogenic tissues. IMD values (separated as above or below median) for CD105 expression showed a statistically significant correlation with overall (P = 0.0029) and disease-free survival (P = 0.0362). In contrast, blood vessel counts using a panendothelial marker CD34 did not correlate with overall or disease-free survival (P = 0.2912 and P = 03153, respectively). When IMD values were subdivided into quartiles and assessed for their prognostic values, there was a statistically significant difference in the overall survival across CD105, but not CD34, values (P = 0.0017 and P = 0.7997, respectively) and also disease-free survival (P = 0.0431 and P = 0.5066, respectively). Further analysis of IMD values demonstrated that there were no deaths in the lowest quartile for CD105 and it differed from the other three quartiles. However, examination of clinical details of patients in the lowest quartile failed to reveal clustering of patients known to be associated with low-risk factors. Multivariate analysis confirmed that IMD values using CD105 were an independent prognostic factor. These results suggest that the ability to quantitatively distinguish between tumor neovascularization and preexisting vessels may be important in the assessment of tumor angiogenesis, but requires confirmation in a greater number of patients with a longer follow-up.  (+info)

(3/4274) Modulation of VLA-4 and L-selectin expression on normal CD34+ cells during mobilization with G-CSF.

We have evaluated the immunophenotype, functional activity and clonogenic potential of CD34+ cells from peripheral blood (PB) of normal donors before and after 4 and 6 days of G-CSF administration. The percentage and absolute number of CD34+ cells significantly increased at days 4 and 6 of G-CSF administration, compared to the steady-state level (P < 0.0001). Two-colour fluorescence analysis showed, at days 4 and 6, a lower proportion of CD34+/c-kit+ compared to the steady-state level (P < 0.0001), but a similar expression of CD13, CD33, CD38, HLA-DR and Thy-1 antigens on CD34+ cells. The expression of adhesion molecules on CD34+ cells revealed a significant reduction of CD11a (P = 0.009), CD18, CD49d and CD62L (P < 0.0001) at days 4 and 6, compared to the baseline level. Three-colour staining showed a reduction of the more immature compartment (34+/DR-/13-) and an increase of the more differentiated compartment (34+/DR+/13+). Downregulation of VLA-4 during mobilisation was seen almost exclusively on more committed cells (34+/13+); downregulation of CD62L, on the contrary, was observed on both early progenitors (34+/13-) and more committed cells (34+/13+). The expression of 34+/VLA-4+ decreased on both c-kit+ and c-kit- cells, while the expression of 34+/62L+ decreased on the c-kit+ cells only. In vivo administration of G-CSF reduced the adherence capacity of CD34+ cells to normal BM stroma; in vitro incubation with SCF or IL-3 enhanced the expression of CD49d on CD34+ cells, while GM-CSF reduced the expression of CD62L. SCF was the only cytokine able to induce a significant increase of CD34+ cell adherence to preformed stroma. Pre-incubation with the blocking beta2 integrin monoclonal antibody caused a reduction of CD34+ cell adherence. In conclusion, the decrease of CD49d expression on mobilized CD34+ cells correlates with a poor adhesion to BM stroma; CD34+ cells incubated in vitro with SCF showed, conversely, a higher expression of CD49d and a greater adherence capacity on normal preformed stroma.  (+info)

(4/4274) The minimum CD34 threshold depends on prior chemotherapy in autologous peripheral blood stem cell recipients.

We analysed 57 patients with non-myeloid malignancies who received a non-purged autologous PBSCT. All had similar mobilisation and conditioning regimens. A high prior chemotherapy score and the number of chemotherapy lines used (P = 0.015 and P = 0.01, respectively) were adverse predictors of CD34 cell yields. Lower CD34 values (P = 0.002) were seen in patients treated with potent stem cell toxins (BCNU, melphalan, CCNU and mustine), designated toxicity factor 4 agents (TF4). All patients infused with grafts containing CD34 cell doses between 1.0 and 2.0 x 10(6)/kg (range 1.25-1.90) engrafted by day 51. The only variable associated with slow platelet recovery was exposure to TF4 (P = 0.007). The majority of patients with CD34 >1.0 x 10(6)/kg achieved rapid and sustained engraftment and the only predictive factor of delayed recovery is prior exposure to stem cell toxins. Potential PBSCT candidates should if possible avoid first line and salvage chemotherapy containing TF4 drugs. We therefore advocate a minimum CD34 threshold of >1.0 x 10(6)/kg in patients without extensive prior chemoradiotherapy, and > or = 2.0 x 10(6)/kg in all other patients.  (+info)

(5/4274) Multicenter phase III trial to evaluate CD34(+) selected versus unselected autologous peripheral blood progenitor cell transplantation in multiple myeloma.

High-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous transplantation has been shown to improve response rates and survival in multiple myeloma and other malignancies. However, autografts frequently contain detectable tumor cells. Enrichment for stem cells using anti-CD34 antibodies has been shown to reduce autograft tumor contamination in phase I/II studies. To more definitively assess the safety and efficacy of CD34 selection, a phase III study was completed in 131 multiple myeloma patients randomized to receive an autologous transplant with either CD34-selected or unselected peripheral blood progenitor cells after myeloablative therapy. Tumor contamination in the autografts was assessed by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction detection assay using patient-specific, complementarity-determining region (CDR) Ig gene primers before and after CD34 selection. A median 3.1 log reduction in contaminating tumor cells was achieved in the CD34 selected product using the CEPRATE SC System (CellPro, Inc, Bothell, WA). Successful neutrophil engraftment was achieved in all patients by day 15 and no significant between-arm difference for time to platelet engraftment occurred in patients who received an infused dose of at least 2.0 x 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg. In conclusion, this phase III trial demonstrates that CD34-selection of peripheral blood progenitor cells significantly reduces tumor cell contamination yet provides safe and rapid hematologic recovery for patients receiving myeloablative therapy.  (+info)

(6/4274) Transduction of primitive human marrow and cord blood-derived hematopoietic progenitor cells with adeno-associated virus vectors.

We evaluated the capacity of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors to transduce primitive human myeloid progenitor cells derived from marrow and cord blood in long-term cultures and long-term culture-initiating cell (LTC-IC) assays. Single-colony analyses showed that AAV vectors transduced CD34(+) and CD34(+)38(-) clonogenic cells in long-term culture. Gene transfer was readily observed in LTC-ICs derived from 5-, 8-, and 10-week cultures. Recombinant AAV (rAAV) transduction was observed in every donor analyzed, although a wide range of gene transfer frequencies (5% to 100%) was noted. AAV transduction of LTC-ICs was stable, with week-8 and -10 LTC-ICs showing comparable or better transduction relative to week-5 LTC-ICs. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses performed to determine the fate of AAV vectors in transduced cells showed that 9% to 28% of CD34(+) and CD34(+)38(-) cells showed stable vector integration as evidenced by chromosome-associated signals in metaphase spreads. Comparisons of interphase and metaphase FISH suggested that a fraction of cells also contained episomal vector at early time points after transduction. Despite the apparent loss of the episomal forms with continued culture, the number of metaphases containing integrated vector genomes remained stable long term. Transgene transcription and placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) expression was observed in CD34(+), CD34(+)38(-) LTC-ICs in the absence of selective pressure. These results suggest that primitive myeloid progenitors are amenable to genetic modification with AAV vectors.  (+info)

(7/4274) Cyclin A1 expression in leukemia and normal hematopoietic cells.

Human cyclin A1 is a newly cloned, tissue-specific cyclin that is prominently expressed in normal testis. In this study, we showed that cyclin A1 was highly expressed in a subset of leukemia samples from patients. The highest frequency of cyclin A1 overexpression was observed in acute myelocytic leukemias, especially those that were at the promyelocyte (M3) and myeloblast (M2) stages of development. Cyclin A1 expression was also detected in normal CD34(+) progenitor cells. The expression of cyclin A1 increased when these cells were stimulated to undergo myeloid differentiation in vitro. Taken together, our observations suggest that cyclin A1 may have a role in hematopoiesis. High levels of cyclin A1 expression are especially associated with certain leukemias blocked at the myeloblast and promyelocyte stages of differentiation.  (+info)

(8/4274) Detection of small numbers of immature cells in the blood of healthy subjects.

AIMS: To determine the frequency of immature haemopoietic cells in the peripheral blood of healthy persons. METHODS: Cytocentrifuge preparations were made using mononuclear leucocytes separated by a Ficoll-Hypaque density gradient. The slides were stained by May-Grunwald-Giemsa. The combination with immunoperoxidase technique allowed immunotyping of uncommon blood cells. RESULTS: Blast cells expressing the progenitor cell marker CD34 represented 0.11 (0.06) per cent (mean (SD)) of the total mononuclear leucocyte count; these were the haemopoietic progenitor cells in the peripheral blood. Dark blue cells expressing CD38, CD45, HLA-DR, CD4, CD11a, CD29, CD49d, CD50, and CD54 represented 0.30 (0.21) per cent of the mononuclear leucocytes; most of these cells did not express T, B, NK, myelomonocytic, progenitor cell, proliferation, activation, blood dendritic cell, or follicular dendritic cell markers. These were dendritic cell precursors in the peripheral blood. Very small numbers of cells expressing CD83 were found. Blast-like cells expressing CD45, HLA-DR, CD11a, and CD50 represented 0.15 (0.10) per cent of the mononuclear leucocytes; morphology and immunotyping supported the conclusion that these cells were poorly differentiated monocytes. CONCLUSIONS: Morphological investigation of mononuclear leucocytes in peripheral blood of healthy persons can be used to detect small numbers of blasts, dark blue cells, and blast-like cells. The immunoperoxidase technique can then be used for immunotyping of these cells. This simple method may be helpful in diagnosing haematological disorders.  (+info)