(1/2090) Effect of transforming growth factor beta on experimental Salmonella typhimurium infection in mice.

We have investigated the effect of the in vivo administration of recombinant transforming growth factor beta (rTGF-beta) on the pathogenic mechanisms involved in Salmonella typhimurium experimental infection in mice. The protective response elicited by macrophages was induced by rTGF-beta1 by 2 days after experimental infection, as demonstrated by an increased NO production, while the humoral protective effect began with cytokine mRNA expression 2 days after the challenge and continued after 5 days with cytokine release and lymphocyte activation. We demonstrated that all mice who received rTGF-beta1 survived 7 days after infection. The number of bacteria recovered in the spleens and in the livers of rTGF-beta1-treated mice 2 and 5 days after infection was significantly smaller than that found in the same organs after phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) inoculation. Furthermore, 2 and 5 days after infection, splenic macrophages from rTGF-beta1-treated mice showed a greater NO production than did those from PBS-treated mice. The effect of rTGF-beta1 on S. typhimurium infection in mice was correlated with the expression of cell costimulatory CD28 molecules. Five days after S. typhimurium infection, the percentage of CD28(+)-expressing T cells in splenic lymphocytes from rTGF-beta1-treated mice increased with respect to that from control mice. Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) mRNA was present in a greater amount in spleen cells from rTGF-beta1-treated mice after 2 days, although the intensity of the band decreased 5 days after the challenge. A similar pattern was obtained with the mRNAs for interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), IL-6, TGF-beta, and inducible nitric oxide synthase, which showed greater expression in cells obtained from rTGF-beta1-treated and S. typhimurium-infected mice 2 days after challenge. The treatment with rTGF-beta1 induced an increase in IL-1alpha and IFN-gamma release in the supernatant of splenocyte cultures 5 days after the experimental infection with S. typhimurium. Moreover, we demonstrated that 5 days after infection, the IFN-gamma titer was significantly greater in the sera of rTGF-beta-treated mice than in those of PBS-treated mice. Also, hsp60 showed greater expression 2 days after the challenge in splenocytes from rTGF-beta1-treated mice. The role played by proinflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines and by CD28 is discussed.  (+info)

(2/2090) Expanded tumor-reactive CD4+ T-cell responses to human cancers induced by secondary anti-CD3/anti-CD28 activation.

Generation of tumor-reactive T cells in large numbers ex vivo is a requisite step in the adoptive immunotherapy of patients. We examined the immune responses of T cells derived from tumor vaccine-primed lymph nodes activated with anti-CD3 alone and with an anti-CD3/anti-CD28 combination. Nylon wool-purified CD3+ cells were isolated from vaccine-primed lymph nodes obtained from melanoma, renal cell, and head and neck cancer patients. In the absence of antigen-presenting cells, activation with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 greatly enhanced subsequent T-cell expansion in interleukin 2 (>100-fold), compared to anti-CD3 alone. CD4+ T cells were preferentially stimulated. In four of eight patients, we found evidence of CD4+ cellular responses to autologous tumors by cytokine release assays. Positively selected CD4+ cells activated with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 released greater amounts of cytokine (IFN-gamma and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor) in response to autologous tumors compared to cells activated by anti-CD3 alone. The CD4+ reactivity was MHC class II restricted and appeared to be associated with the expression of class II molecules on the vaccinating tumor cells. The CD4+ T-cell responses to class II-restricted tumor-associated antigens in patients with renal cell cancers represent unique findings.  (+info)

(3/2090) CD28 ligation induces tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2 but not Fak in Jurkat T cells.

Protein tyrosine kinases are critical for the function of CD28 in T cells. We examined whether the tyrosine kinases Pyk2 and Fak (members of the focal adhesion kinase family) are involved in CD28 signaling. We found that ligating CD28 in Jurkat T cells rapidly increases the tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2 but not of Fak. Paxillin, a substrate for Pyk2 and Fak, was not tyrosine-phosphorylated after CD28 ligation. CD28-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2 was markedly reduced in the absence of external Ca2+. Previous studies have shown that the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) induces tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2. In this report, the concurrent ligation of CD28 and TCR increased tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2; however, the extent of phosphorylation by both receptors was equivalent to the sum of that induced by each receptor alone. The Syk/Zap inhibitor piceatannol blocked CD28, and TCR induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2, suggesting that Syk/Zap is involved in Pyk2 phosphorylation. In contrast, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin blocked TCR- but not CD28-induced phosphorylation of Pyk2, suggesting that CD28 and TCR activate distinct pathways to induce tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2. Notably, depleting phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-sensitive protein kinase C did not block CD28- and CD3-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2. These data provide evidence for the involvement of Pyk2 in the CD28 signaling cascade and suggest that neither Fak nor paxillin is involved in the signaling pathways of CD28.  (+info)

(4/2090) Interaction of B cells with activated T cells reduces the threshold for CD40-mediated B cell activation.

CD154-CD40 interactions are of central importance for the induction of antibody responses to T-dependent antigens. Since most anti-CD40 mAb are only weak B cell mitogens, it is believed that under physiological conditions, signals through CD40 synergize with those from other receptors on B cells to induce B cell activation. We show here that the interaction of either normal B cells, or those from CBA/N (xid) mice, with CD3-activated primary T cells in whole spleen cell cultures markedly reduces the threshold for B cell activation via CD40. Hence, these pre-activated cells undergo vigorous proliferation when stimulated with either optimal or suboptimal concentrations of weakly mitogenic anti-CD40 mAb, or with soluble CD40 ligand. Blocking experiments indicate that the establishment of this priming effect requires stimulation via CD40 itself, plus T cell-derived IL-2. In support of this concept, only CD3/CD28-pre-activated, but not CD3-pre-activated T cells induce this effect, unless the co-cultures of B cells with the latter T cells are supplemented with IL-2. Although B cells activated in this fashion do express higher levels of CD40 than naive cells, we believe that this is insufficient to explain the observed dramatic effects on their proliferative capacity. Rather we propose that T cell-dependent B cell activation induces fundamental changes in the signalling machinery invoked by ligation of CD40. It is likely that this amplification loop could play an important role during the initiation of antibody responses to T-dependent antigens, when activated CD4 T cells only express low levels of CD154.  (+info)

(5/2090) Autophosphorylation of p110delta phosphoinositide 3-kinase: a new paradigm for the regulation of lipid kinases in vitro and in vivo.

Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are lipid kinases which also possess an in vitro protein kinase activity towards themselves or their adaptor proteins. The physiological relevance of these phosphorylations is unclear at present. Here, the protein kinase activity of the tyrosine kinase-linked PI3K, p110delta, is characterized and its functional impact assessed. In vitro autophosphorylation of p110delta completely down-regulates its lipid kinase activity. The single site of autophosphorylation was mapped to Ser1039 at the C-terminus of p110delta. Antisera specific for phospho-Ser1039 revealed a very low level of phosphorylation of this residue in cell lines. However, p110delta that is recruited to activated receptors (such as CD28 in T cells) shows a time-dependent increase in Ser1039 phosphorylation and a concomitant decrease in associated lipid kinase activity. Treatment of cells with okadaic acid, an inhibitor of Ser/Thr phosphatases, also dramatically increases the level of Ser1039-phosphorylated p110delta. LY294002 and wortmannin blocked these in vivo increases in Ser1039 phosphorylation, consistent with the notion that PI3Ks, and possibly p110delta itself, are involved in the in vivo phosphorylation of p110delta. In summary, we show that PI3Ks are subject to regulatory phosphorylations in vivo similar to those identified under in vitro conditions, identifying a new level of control of these signalling molecules.  (+info)

(6/2090) Differentiation of human CD8 T cells: implications for in vivo persistence of CD8+ CD28- cytotoxic effector clones.

CD8 T cells contain a distinct subset of CD8+ CD28- cells. These cells are not present at birth and their frequency increases with age. They frequently contain expanded clones using various TCRalphabeta receptors and these clones can represent >50% of all CD8 cells, specially in old subjects or patients with chronic viral infections such as HIV-1. Herein, it is shown that a large fraction of CD8+ CD28- cells expresses intracellular perforin by three-color flow cytometry, in particular when this subset is expanded. Together with their known ability to exert potent re-directed cytotoxicity, this indicates that CD8+ CD28- T cells comprise cytotoxic effector cells. With BrdU labeling, we show that CD8+ CD28- cells derive from CD8+ CD28+ precursors in vitro. In addition, sorted CD8+ CD28+ cells gave rise to a population of CD8+ CD28- cells after allo-stimulation. Moreover, ex vivo CD8+ CD28+ cells contain the majority of CD8 blasts, supporting the notion that they contain the proliferative precursors of CD8+ CD28- cells. CD95 (Fas) expression was lower in CD8+ CD28- cells, and this subset was less prone to spontaneous apoptosis in ex vivo samples and more resistant to activation-induced cell death induced by a superantigen in vitro. Thus, the persistence of expanded clones in vivo in the CD8+ CD28- subset may be explained by antigen-driven differentiation from CD8+ CD28+ memory precursors, with relative resistance to apoptosis as the clones become perforin(+) effector cells.  (+info)

(7/2090) The proto-oncogene Cot kinase participates in CD3/CD28 induction of NF-kappaB acting through the NF-kappaB-inducing kinase and IkappaB kinases.

The proto-oncogene Cot/Tpl-2 encodes a MAP3K-related serine-threonine kinase. Expression of wild type Cot activates the IkappaB kinases (IKK) leading to induction of NF-kappaB. Conversely, expression of kinase-deficient Cot inhibits CD3/CD28 but not TNF alpha induction of NF-kappaB. These findings suggest the selective involvement of Cot/Tpl-2 or a closely related kinase in the CD3/CD28 costimulatory pathway leading to induced nuclear expression of NF-kappaB. In contrast, a kinase-deficient mutant of the NF-kappaB-inducing kinase (NIK) inhibits both CD3/CD28 and TNF alpha signaling, indicating that these pathways converge at or prior to the action of NIK. Consistent with such a sequential function of these two kinases, Cot physically assembles with and phosphorylates NIK in vivo.  (+info)

(8/2090) Cutting edge: alloimmune responses against major and minor histocompatibility antigens: distinct division kinetics and requirement for CD28 costimulation.

Comparative study of alloimmune responses against major and minor histocompatibility Ags has been limited by the lack of suitable assays. Here, we use a bioassay that permits tracking of alloreactive CD4+ T cell populations as they proliferate in response to major or minor histocompatibility Ags in vivo. Division of alloreactive CD4+ T cells proceeded more rapidly in response to major histocompatibility Ags than minor Ags, although CD4+ T cells alloreactive to minor Ags had a similar capacity to divide successively up to eight times after stimulation. Allorecognition of minor histocompatibility Ags was highly dependent on CD28 costimulation, with the frequency of CD4+ T cells proliferating in response to minor Ags in the absence of CD28 costimulation reduced up to 20-fold. These findings highlight differences in signaling processes that lead to allorecognition of major and minor histocompatibility Ags and have implications on the design of interventions aimed at abrogating these responses.  (+info)