(1/481) B7-H1 costimulation preferentially enhances CD28-independent T-helper cell function.
B7-H1 is a recently described B7-like molecule that costimulates T-cell growth and cytokine secretion without binding to CD28, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), and inducible costimulator (ICOS). In this report, a mouse homologue of human B7-H1 is identified, and its immunologic functions are studied in vitro and in vivo. Mouse B7-H1 shares 69% amino acid homology to the human counterpart. Similar to human B7-H1, mouse B7-H1 can be induced to express on macrophages, T cells, and B cells and to enhance T-cell proliferation and secretion of interleukin-10 (IL-10), interferon-gamma, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor but not IL-2 and IL-4. Furthermore, B7-H1 preferentially costimulates CD4+ T cells independently of CD28 and enhances mixed lymphocyte responses to allogeneic antigens. In contrast to B7-1, expression of B7-H1 on murine P815 tumor cells by transfection fails to increase allogeneic and syngeneic cytolytic T-cell responses in vitro and in vivo. Administration of B7-H1Ig fusion protein, however, enhances keyhole limpet hemocyanin- specific T-cell proliferation and 2,4,6-trinitrophenyl-specific immunoglobulin G2a antibody production. The study thus identifies a unique costimulatory pathway that preferentially affects T-helper cell functions. (+info)
(2/481) CD4+CD25high regulatory cells in human peripheral blood.
Thymectomy in mice on neonatal day 3 leads to the development of multiorgan autoimmune disease due to loss of a CD(+)CD25(+) T cell regulatory population in their peripheral lymphoid tissues. Here, we report the identification of a CD4(+) population of regulatory T cells in the circulation of humans expressing high levels of CD25 that exhibit in vitro characteristics identical with those of the CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory cells isolated in mice. With TCR cross-linking, CD4(+)CD25(high) cells did not proliferate but instead totally inhibited proliferation and cytokine secretion by activated CD4(+)CD25(-) responder T cells in a contact-dependent manner. The CD4(+)CD25(high) regulatory T cells expressed high levels of CD45RO but not CD45RA, akin to the expression of CD45RB(low) on murine CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory cells. Increasing the strength of signal by providing either costimulation with CD28 cross-linking or the addition of IL-2 to a maximal anti-CD3 stimulus resulted in a modest induction of proliferation and the loss of observable suppression in cocultures of CD4(+)CD25(high) regulatory cells and CD4(+)CD25(-) responder cells. Whereas higher ratios of CD4(+)CD25(high) T cells are required to suppress proliferation if the PD-L1 receptor is blocked, regulatory cell function is shown to persist in the absence of the PD-1/PD-L1 or CTLA-4/B7 pathway. Thus, regulatory CD4 T cells expressing high levels of the IL-2 receptor are present in humans, providing the opportunity to determine whether alterations of these populations of T cells are involved in the induction of human autoimmune disorders. (+info)
(3/481) Expression and regulation of the PD-L1 immunoinhibitory molecule on microvascular endothelial cells.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the expression and regulation of a novel B7-like protein, PD-L1, the ligand for the immunoinhibitory receptor PD-1 expressed on activated T-cells, on microvascular endothelial cells (ECs) METHODS: PD-L1 expression on ECs in vitro and in vivo was quantified by using a dual radiolabeled antibody technique after treatment with interferons (IFN) and IL-12, respectively. Changes in the level of PD-L1 mRNA were determined by using RT-PCR. RESULTS: PD-L1 was observed to be present on ECs under basal conditions. Treatment of ECs with IFN-alpha, -beta and -gamma, but not LPS, was observed to induce elevations in the mRNA and surface expression of PD-L1 on ECs. By using a dual radiolabeled monoclonal antibody (mAb) technique, PD-L1 expression in various tissues of control and IL-12 challenged wild-type and IFN-gamma-deficient mice was measured. A significant increase in PD-L1 expression was observed in tissues at 24 hours after IL-12-challenge, with peak levels of PD-L1 occurring 72 hours after IL-12 challenge. IL-12 was not effective at inducing PD-L1 expression in tissues of IFN-gamma-deficient mice. CONCLUSIONS: These data show the expression of a novel B7-like molecule on murine ECs that is mediated by IFN-alpha, -beta, and -gamma, and suggest a potential pathway by which ECs may modulate T-cell function. (+info)
(4/481) Involvement of PD-L1 on tumor cells in the escape from host immune system and tumor immunotherapy by PD-L1 blockade.
PD-1 is a receptor of the Ig superfamily that negatively regulates T cell antigen receptor signaling by interacting with the specific ligands (PD-L) and is suggested to play a role in the maintenance of self-tolerance. In the present study, we examined possible roles of the PD-1/PD-L system in tumor immunity. Transgenic expression of PD-L1, one of the PD-L, in P815 tumor cells rendered them less susceptible to the specific T cell antigen receptor-mediated lysis by cytotoxic T cells in vitro, and markedly enhanced their tumorigenesis and invasiveness in vivo in the syngeneic hosts as compared with the parental tumor cells that lacked endogenous PD-L. Both effects could be reversed by anti-PD-L1 Ab. Survey of murine tumor lines revealed that all of the myeloma cell lines examined naturally expressed PD-L1. Growth of the myeloma cells in normal syngeneic mice was inhibited significantly albeit transiently by the administration of anti-PD-L1 Ab in vivo and was suppressed completely in the syngeneic PD-1-deficient mice. These results suggest that the expression of PD-L1 can serve as a potent mechanism for potentially immunogenic tumors to escape from host immune responses and that blockade of interaction between PD-1 and PD-L may provide a promising strategy for specific tumor immunotherapy. (+info)
(5/481) B7-H1 is expressed by human endothelial cells and suppresses T cell cytokine synthesis.
Human endothelial cells (ECs) provide costimulatory signals sufficient to activate resting memory T cells to produce IL-2 and IFN-gamma, at least in part through CD58-CD2 interactions. Recently, the B7-like molecule, B7-H1 (PD-L1), was described and shown to regulate T cell activation; however, there are conflicting reports on whether it stimulates or inhibits T cell cytokine synthesis. B7-H1 is not expressed constitutively by ECs; however, it is rapidly induced by IFN-gamma, and synergistically by IFN-gamma and TNF. In inflamed skin, B7-H1 is expressed by a subset of microvessels, and by keratinocytes, but is barely detectable in normal skin. Blocking the interaction of EC-expressed B7-H1 with its T cell ligand, programmed death-1 (PD-1), using a PD-1-Fc fusion protein, or by blocking B7-H1 expression with morpholino antisense oligonucleotides, augments expression of IL-2 and IFN-gamma, implicating B7-H1 as a negative regulator of cytokine synthesis. However, signaling through PD-1 does not affect induction of the activation markers CD25 or CD69 on T cells, suggesting that its effects are specific to cytokine synthesis. The suppressive effects of B7-H1 on cytokine expression are proportional to the strength of the primary stimulus, allowing for B7-H1 to determine the level of T cell activation in response to ECs. Our results demonstrate that B7-H1 negatively regulates cytokine synthesis in T cells activated by ECs. (+info)
(6/481) Expression of programmed death 1 ligands by murine T cells and APC.
Programmed death 1 (PD-1) is a new member of the CD28/CTLA-4 family, which has been implicated in the maintenance of peripheral tolerance. Two ligands for PD-1, namely, B7-H1 (PD-L1) and B7-DC (PD-L2), have recently been identified as new members of the B7 family but their expression at the protein level remains largely unknown. To characterize the expression of B7-H1 and B7-DC, we newly generated an anti-mouse B7-H1 mAb (MIH6) and an anti-mouse B7-DC mAb (TY25). MIH6 and TY25 immunoprecipitated a single molecule of 43 and 42 kDa from the lysate of B7-H1 and B7-DC transfectants, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that B7-H1 was broadly expressed on the surface of mouse tumor cell lines while the expression of B7-DC was rather restricted. PD-1 was expressed on anti-CD3-stimulated T cells and anti-IgM plus anti-CD40-stimulated B cells at high levels but was undetectable on activated macrophages or DCs. B7-H1 was constitutively expressed on freshly isolated splenic T cells, B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs), and up-regulated on T cells by anti-CD3 stimulation on macrophages by LPS, IFN-gamma, GM-CSF, or IL-4, and on DCs by IFN-gamma, GM-CSF, or IL-4. In contrast, B7-DC expression was only inducible on macrophages and DCs upon stimulation with IFN-gamma, GM-CSF, or IL-4. The inducible expression of PD-1 ligands on both T cells and APCs may suggest new paradigms of PD-1-mediated immune regulation. (+info)
(7/481) Programmed death-1 targeting can promote allograft survival.
The recently identified CD28 homolog and costimulatory molecule programmed death-1 (PD-1) and its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, which are homologs of B7, constitute an inhibitory regulatory pathway of potential therapeutic use in immune-mediated diseases. We examined the expression and functions of PD-1 and its ligands in experimental cardiac allograft rejection. In initial studies, we found that most normal tissues and cardiac isografts had minimal expression of PD-1, PD-L1, or PD-L2, but intragraft induction of all three molecules occurred during development of cardiac allograft rejection. Intragraft expression of all three genes was maintained despite therapy with cyclosporin A or rapamycin, but was prevented in the early posttransplant period by costimulation blockade using CD154 or anti-inducible costimulator mAb. We prepared PD-L1.Ig and PD-L2.Ig fusion proteins and showed that each bound to activated PD-1(+) T cells and inhibited T cell functions in vitro, thereby allowing us to test the effects of PD-1 targeting on allograft survival in vivo. Neither agent alone modulated allograft rejection in wild-type recipients. However, use of PD-L1.Ig administration in CD28(-/-) recipients, or in conjunction with immunosuppression in fully MHC-disparate combinations, markedly prolonged cardiac allograft survival, in some cases causing permanent engraftment, and was accompanied by reduced intragraft expression of IFN-gamma and IFN-gamma-induced chemokines. PD-L1.Ig use also prevented development of transplant arteriosclerosis post-CD154 mAb therapy. These data show that when combined with limited immunosuppression, or in the context of submaximal TCR or costimulatory signals, targeting of PD-1 can block allograft rejection and modulate T and B cell-dependent pathologic immune responses in vivo. (+info)
(8/481) B7-H1 is up-regulated in HIV infection and is a novel surrogate marker of disease progression.
The ligation of programmed death-ligand 1 (B7-H1) to T cells results in the preferential production of interleukin 10 (IL-10). We investigated if B7-H1 would be up-regulated in HIV infection, a disease characterized by increased IL-10 production, by measuring B7-H1, B7-1 (CD80), and B7-2 (CD86) expression and mRNA in 36 HIV-infected patients and in 22 healthy controls (HCs). Results showed that (1) B7-H1 expression and mRNA are augmented in cells of HIV patients; (2) increased IL-10 production in these patients is largely induced by B7-H1-expressing CD14(+) cells; (3) an inverse correlation is detected between B7-H1 expression and CD4 counts, whereas the up-regulation of B7-H1 is directly associated with HIV plasma viremia; (4) antiviral therapy results in the parallel down modulation of IL-10 production and B7-H1 expression/synthesis; and (5) B7-H1/CD80 and B7-H1/CD86 mRNA ratios are increased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of HIV patients compared with HCs. B7-H1 synthesis and expression are up-regulated in HIV infection, and the degree of dysregulation correlates with the severity of disease. Aberrant antigen presentation by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that exhibit increased B7-H1 expression and IL-10 production in HIV infection could be responsible for T-lymphocyte unresponsiveness and loss of protective immunity. B7-H1 is a surrogate marker potentially involved in AIDS disease progression. (+info)