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(1/395) Combining SSH and cDNA microarrays for rapid identification of differentially expressed genes.

Comparing patterns of gene expression in cell lines and tissues has important applications in a variety of biological systems. In this study we have examined whether the emerging technology of cDNA microarrays will allow a high throughput analysis of expression of cDNA clones generated by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). A set of cDNA clones including 332 SSH inserts amplified by PCR was arrayed using robotic printing. The cDNA arrays were hybridized with fluorescent labeled probes prepared from RNA from ER-positive (MCF7 and T47D) and ER-negative (MDA-MB-231 and HBL-100) breast cancer cell lines. Ten clones were identified that were over-expressed by at least a factor of five in the ER-positive cell lines. Northern blot analysis confirmed over-expression of these 10 cDNAs. Sequence analysis identified four of these clones as cytokeratin 19, GATA-3, CD24 and glutathione-S-transferase mu-3. Of the remaining six cDNA clones, four clones matched EST sequences from two different genes and two clones were novel sequences. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence confirmed that CD24 protein was over-expressed in the ER-positive cell lines. We conclude that SSH and microarray technology can be successfully applied to identify differentially expressed genes. This approach allowed the identification of differentially expressed genes without the need to obtain previously cloned cDNAs.  (+info)

(2/395) Statistically significant differences in the number of CD24 positive muscle fibers and satellite cells between sarcoglycanopathy and age-matched Becker muscular dystrophy patients.

OBJECT: The aim of this study was to reveal variations in the patterns of expression of the cell surface proteins in regenerating fibers and those in the number of satellite cells to gain an understanding of the pathological processes involved in sarcoglycanopathy. METHODS: We have reported that there is a reduction of the beta-1 subunit of laminin, heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), and HCAM (CD44) in Japanese patients with sarcoglycanopathy. Here, we investigated immunohistochemically the expression of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), which is a marker for human regenerating muscle and satellite cell, and CD24, which appears to be expressed in the early stages of the regeneration process. PATIENTS: We investigated six Japanese patients with sarcoglycanopathy, and compared to age-matched Becker muscular dystrophy. RESULTS: We found that the incidences of muscle fibers with increased NCAM were not statistically different between the two groups. However, the incidences of muscle fibers with increased CD24 and those of NCAM positive satellite cells were very low in sarcoglycanopathy and were statistically different between sarcoglycanopathy and age-matched Becker muscular dystrophies. CONCLUSION: The poor expression of CD24 and the fewer satellite cells in sarcoglycanopathy without significant difference in the number of total regenerating fibers suggest that a different regeneration process is involved in sarcoglycanopathy compared to that in other types of muscular dystrophy.  (+info)

(3/395) Efficient and durable gene marking of hematopoietic progenitor cells in nonhuman primates after nonablative conditioning.

Optimization of mobilization, harvest, and transduction of hematopoietic stem cells is critical to successful stem cell gene therapy. We evaluated the utility of a novel protocol involving Flt3-ligand (Flt3-L) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilization of peripheral blood stem cells and retrovirus transduction using hematopoietic growth factors to introduce a reporter gene, murine CD24 (mCD24), into hematopoietic stem cells in nonhuman primates. Rhesus macaques were treated with Flt3-L (200 microgram/kg) and G-CSF (20 microgram/kg) for 7 days and autologous CD34(+) peripheral blood stem cells harvested by leukapheresis. CD34(+) cells were transduced with an MFGS-based retrovirus vector encoding mCD24 using 4 daily transductions with centrifugations in the presence of Flt3-L (100 ng/mL), human stem cell factor (50 ng/mL), and PIXY321 (50 ng/mL) in serum-free medium. An important and novel feature of this study is that enhanced in vivo engraftment of transduced stem cells was achieved by conditioning the animals with a low-morbidity regimen of sublethal irradiation (320 to 400 cGy) on the day of transplantation. Engraftment was monitored sequentially in the bone marrow and blood using both multiparameter flow cytometry and semi-quantitative DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Our data show successful and persistent engraftment of transduced primitive progenitors capable of giving rise to marked cells of multiple hematopoietic lineages, including granulocytes, monocytes, and B and T lymphocytes. At 4 to 6 weeks posttransplantation, 47% +/- 32% (n = 4) of granulocytes expressed mCD24 antigen at the cell surface. Peak in vivo levels of genetically modified peripheral blood lymphocytes approached 35% +/- 22% (n = 4) as assessed both by flow cytometry and PCR 6 to 10 weeks posttransplantation. In addition, naive (CD45RA(+) and CD62L(+)) CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells were the predominant phenotype of the marked CD3(+) T cells detected at early time points. A high level of marking persisted at between 10% and 15% of peripheral blood leukocytes for 4 months and at lower levels past 6 months in some animals. A cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response against mCD24 was detected in only 1 animal. This degree of persistent long-lived, high-level gene marking of multiple hematopoietic lineages, including naive T cells, using a nonablative marrow conditioning regimen represents an important step toward the ultimate goal of high-level permanent transduced gene expression in stem cells.  (+info)

(4/395) Age-associated rapid and Stat6-independent IL-4 production by NK1-CD4+8- thymus T lymphocytes.

The source of IL-4 required for priming naive T cells into IL-4-secreting effectors has not been clearly identified. Here we show that upon TCR stimulation, thymus NK1-CD4+8- T cells produced IL-4, the magnitude of which was inversely correlated with age. This IL-4 production response by Th2-prone BALB/c mice was approximately 9-fold that of Th1-prone C57BL/10 mice. More than 90% of activated NK1-CD4+8- thymocytes did not use the invariant V alpha 14-J alpha 281 chain characteristic of typical CD1-restricted NK1+CD4+ T cells. Stat6-null NK1-CD4+8- thymocytes produced bioactive IL-4, with induction of IL-4 mRNA expression within 1 h of stimulation. Our results support the possibility that TCR repertoire-diverse conventional NK1-CD4+ T cells are a potential IL-4 source for directing naive T cells toward Th2/type 2 CD8+ T cell (Tc2) effector development.  (+info)

(5/395) Integrin leukocyte function-associated antigen-1-mediated cell binding can be activated by clustering of membrane rafts.

The leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) integrin (CD11a/CD18) is an important adhesion molecule for lymphocyte migration and the initiation of an immune response. At the cell surface, LFA-1 activity can be regulated by divalent cations that enhance receptor affinity but also by membrane clustering induced by treatment of cells with substances such as phorbol esters. Membrane clustering leads to increased LFA-1 avidity. We report here that LFA-1-mediated binding of mouse thymocytes or activated T lymphocytes to intercellular adhesion molecule 1 can be rapidly induced by clustering of membrane rafts using antibodies to the glycosylphophatidylinositol-anchored molecule CD24 or cholera toxin (CTx). CD24 and CD18 were found to co-localize in rafts and cross-linking with CTx lead to enhanced LFA-1 clustering. We observed that disruption of raft integrity by lowering the membrane cholesterol content abolished the CTx and the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced LFA-1 binding but left the ability to activate LFA-1 with Mg(2+)/EGTA unimpaired. In contrast to activation with Mg(2+)/EGTA, activation via raft clustering was dependent on PI3-kinase, required cytoskeletal mobility, and was accompanied by Tyr phosphorylation of a 18-kDa protein. Our results support the notion that rafts as preformed adhesion platforms could be important for the rapid regulation of lymphocyte adhesion.  (+info)

(6/395) Transmission of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 tax to rabbits by tax-only-positive human cells.

The human T-cell lymphrotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is causally related to adult T-cell leukemia and lymphoma and the neurodegenerative diseases tropical spastic paraparesis and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy. In the United States the prevalence of infection has been estimated to range from 0.016 to 0.1% on the basis of serologic tests for antibodies to the viral structural proteins. Blood from donors positive for antibodies to HTLV-1 or HTLV-2 is not used for transfusion. However, patients with the cutaneous T-cell lymphoma mycosis fungoides (MF) are HTLV-1 and -2 seronegative yet harbor proviral sequences identical to those that encode the HTLV-1 transactivating and transforming gene product p40tax in their peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and they usually have antibodies to p40(tax). Moreover, a study of 250 randomly selected blood donors revealed that approximately 8% of these seronegative individuals also had HTLV-1 tax sequences and antibodies to p40(tax), while they lacked sequences and antibodies related to gag, pol, or env. Thus, it seemed important to determine whether the "tax-only" state can be transmitted by transfusion. To this end, PBMCs from HTLV-1 and -2 seronegative tax-only-positive MF patients or from healthy tax-only-positive blood donors were injected into adult rabbits, an established animal model for HTLV-1 infection. The PBMCs of all injected rabbits became tax sequence positive. These observations suggest that HTLV-1 tax can be transmitted by tax-only-positive mononuclear cells.  (+info)

(7/395) Functional assessment of precursors from murine bone marrow suggests a sequence of early B lineage differentiation events.

Most lineage marker-negative (Lin-)TdT+ cells from murine marrow lack CD34 but display c-kit at low density as well as IL-7Ralpha and Flk-2/Flt-3 receptors. Single cells with these characteristics generated CD45RA+CD19- as well as CD19+ lymphocytes in culture. CD45RA+CD19- marrow cells were resolved into three nonoverlapping subsets. One subset, lacking DX5 and Ly-6C antigens, yielded CD19+ cells in culture. Further analysis demonstrated CD24 on most Lin-TdT+ cells and all CD45R+CD19-DX5-Ly-6C- cells. Mac-1/CD11b was absent from these two subsets of B lineage precursors, while IL-7Ralpha was retained during subsequent differentiation to a CD19+ and stromal cell-independent stage. These findings contrast with previous descriptions of B lymphocyte precursors and suggest a sequence of early differentiation events.  (+info)

(8/395) The heat-stable antigen determines pathogenicity of self-reactive T cells in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

Induction of myelin-specific CD4 T cells is a pivotal event in the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Other checkpoints in EAE pathogenesis have not been clearly defined, although multiple genetic loci are known to influence EAE development. We report here that targeted mutation of the heat-stable antigen (HSA) abrogates development of EAE despite a complete lack of effect on induction of autoimmune T cells. To test whether T-cell expression of HSA is sufficient, we created transgenic mice in which HSA is expressed exclusively in the T-cell lineage. We found that these mice remain resistant to EAE induction. Adoptive transfer studies demonstrate that both T cells and non-T cells must express HSA in order for the pathogenic T cells to execute their effector function. Moreover, HSAIg, a fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domain of the HSA and the Fc portion of immunoglobulin, drastically ameliorates the clinical sign of EAE even when administrated after self-reactive T cells had been expanded. Thus, identification of HSA as a novel checkpoint, even after activation and expansion of self-reactive T cells, provides a novel approach for immunotherapy of autoimmune neurologic diseases, such as multiple sclerosis.  (+info)