(1/607) T-cell stimulation through the T-cell receptor/CD3 complex regulates CD2 lateral mobility by a calcium/calmodulin-dependent mechanism.
T lymphocyte activation through the T cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 complex alters the avidity of the cell surface adhesion receptor CD2 for its ligand CD58. Based on the observations that activation-associated increases in intracellular [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) strengthen interactions between T cells and antigen-presenting cells, and that the lateral mobility of cell surface adhesion receptors is an important regulator of cellular adhesion strength, we postulated that [Ca2+]i controls CD2 lateral mobility at the T cell surface. Human Jurkat T leukemia cells were stimulated by antibody-mediated cross-linking of the TCR/CD3 complex. CD2 was labeled with a fluorescently conjugated monoclonal antibody. Quantitative fluorescence microscopy techniques were used to measure [Ca2+]i and CD2 lateral mobility. Cross-linking of the TCR/CD3 complex caused an immediate increase in [Ca2+]i and, 10-20 min later, a decrease in the fractional mobility of CD2 from the control value of 68 +/- 1% to 45 +/- 2% (mean +/- SEM). One to two hours after cell stimulation the fractional mobility spontaneously returned to the control level. Under these and other treatment conditions, the fraction of cells with significantly elevated [Ca2+]i was highly correlated with the fraction of cells manifesting significantly reduced CD2 mobility. Pretreatment of cells with a calmodulin inhibitor or a calmodulin-dependent kinase inhibitor prevented Ca2+-mediated CD2 immobilization, and pretreatment of cells with a calcineurin phosphatase inhibitor prevented the spontaneous reversal of CD2 immobilization. These data suggest that T cell activation through the TCR/CD3 complex controls CD2 lateral mobility by a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent mechanism, and that this mechanism may involve regulated phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of CD2 or a closely associated protein. (+info)
(2/607) The association between CD2+ peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets and the relapse of bladder cancer in prophylactically BCG-treated patients.
We investigated the potential existence of differences in the distribution of T-lymphocyte subsets and in the proliferative response of these CD2+ cells to polyclonal mitogens in patients with transitional cell bladder carcinoma (SBTCC) treated with prophylactic intracavitary instillations of bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) according to their clinical response to this treatment. Before BCG treatment, different subset distribution (CD8+ and CD3+ CD56+), activation antigen expression (CD3+ HLA- DR+) and proliferative response to mitogenic signals were found in CD2+ cells from SBTCC patients prophylactically treated with BCG who remained free of disease or those who had recurrence of tumour. Otherwise, the prophylactic intracavitary BCG instillations in SBTCC patients are associated with a transitory variation of T-lymphocyte subset distribution (CD4 and CD8) and activation antigens expression (CD25). (+info)
(3/607) Inhibitory effects of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) on certain functions of intraepithelial lymphocytes.
Human intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL), CD8+ lymphocytes located between epithelial cells, are likely to be influenced by the immunosuppressive cytokine, TGF-beta, secreted by epithelial cells. This study evaluates the effects of TGF-beta on IEL functions. IEL were derived from proximal jejunum of patients undergoing gastric bypass operations for morbid obesity. Proliferation was determined by 3H-thymidine incorporation; IL-2 production, by ELISA; expression of IL-2 receptor, CD2, HML1, CD16, and CD56, by immunofluorescence; binding, by adherence of radiolabelled cells; and cytotoxicity by 51Cr-release assay. TGF-beta (> or = 1 ng/ml) inhibited the mitosis of IEL to mitogens, IL-7, and stimuli of the CD2 and CD3 pathways. The blocking effect did not target the activation events of IL-2 production and receptor generation. Rather, it reduced cell division after activation when added 24 h after initiating the culture. Antibody neutralization of naturally occurring TGF-beta increased IEL proliferation to IL-2, but not to the other stimuli. Of the multiple surface markers tested, only CD2 and HML1 expression increased with TGF-beta and decreased with antibody to TGF-beta, although the cytokine and the neutralizing antibody had no effects on IEL binding to colon cancer. TGF-beta reduced the number of CD56+ IEL and the lymphokine-activated killing when co-cultured with IL-7 but not with IL-2 or IL-15. TGF-beta inhibits certain IEL functions: the reduction in cell division rather than activation and a decline in IL-7-mediated lysis of colon cancer due to a lowering of the number of natural killer cells. (+info)
(4/607) Crystal structure of the CD2-binding domain of CD58 (lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3) at 1.8-A resolution.
The binding of the cell surface molecule CD58 (formerly lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3) to its ligand, CD2, significantly increases the sensitivity of antigen recognition by T cells. This was the first heterophilic cell adhesion interaction to be discovered and is now an important paradigm for analyzing the structural basis of cell-cell recognition. The crystal structure of a CD2-binding chimeric form of CD58, solved to 1.8-A resolution, reveals that the ligand binding domain of CD58 has the expected Ig superfamily V-set topology and shares several of the hitherto unique structural features of CD2, consistent with previous speculation that the genes encoding these molecules arose via duplication of a common precursor. Nevertheless, evidence for considerable divergence of CD2 and CD58 is also implicit in the structures. Mutations that disrupt CD2 binding map to the highly acidic surface of the AGFCC'C" beta-sheet of CD58, which, unexpectedly, lacks marked shape complementarity to the equivalent, rather more basic CD58-binding face of human CD2. The specificity of the very weak interactions of proteins mediating cell-cell recognition may often derive largely from electrostatic complementarity, with shape matching at the protein-protein interface being less exact than for interactions that combine specificity with high affinity, such as those involving antibodies. (+info)
(5/607) Oligosaccharide analysis and molecular modeling of soluble forms of glycoproteins belonging to the Ly-6, scavenger receptor, and immunoglobulin superfamilies expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells.
Most cell surface molecules are glycoproteins consisting of linear arrays of globular domains containing stretches of amino acid sequence with similarities to regions in other proteins. These conserved regions form the basis for the classification of proteins into superfamilies. Recombinant soluble forms of six leukocyte antigens belonging to the Ly-6 (CD59), scavenger receptor (CD5), and immunoglobulin (CD2, CD48, CD4, and Thy-1) superfamilies were expressed in the same Chinese hamster ovary cell line, thus providing an opportunity to examine the extent to which N-linked oligosaccharide processing might vary in a superfamily-, domain-, or protein-dependent manner in a given cell. While we found no evidence for superfamily-specific modifications of the glycans, marked differences were seen in the types of oligosaccharides attached to individual proteins within a given superfamily. The relative importance of local protein surface properties versus the overall tertiary structure of the molecules in directing this protein-specific variation was examined in the context of molecular models. These were constructed using the 3D structures of the proteins, glycan data from this study, and an oligosaccharide structural database. The results indicated that both the overall organization of the domains and the local protein structure can have a large bearing on site-specific glycan modification of cells in stasis. This level of control ensures that the surface of a single cell will display a diverse repertoire of glycans and precludes the presentation of multiple copies of a single oligosaccharide on the cell surface. The glycans invariably shield large regions of the protein surfaces although, for the glycoproteins examined here, these did not hinder the known active sites of the molecules. The models also indicated that sugars are likely to play a role in the packing of the native cell surface glycoproteins and to limit nonspecific protein-protein interactions. In addition, glycans located close to the cell membrane are likely to affect crucially the orientation of the glycoproteins to which they are attached. (+info)
(6/607) A model for the origin of TCR-alphabeta+ CD4-CD8- B220+ cells based on high affinity TCR signals.
The origin of TCR-alphabeta+ CD4-CD8- cells is unclear, yet accumulating evidence suggests that they do not represent merely a default pathway of unselected thymocytes. Rather, they arise by active selection as evidenced by their absence in mice lacking expression of class I MHC. TCR-alphabeta+ CD4-CD8- cells also preferentially accumulate in mice lacking expression of Fas/APO-1/CD95 (lpr) or Fas-ligand (gld), suggesting that this subset might represent a subpopulation destined for apoptosis in normal mice. Findings from mice bearing a self-reactive TCR transgene support this view. In the current study we observe that in normal mice, TCR-alphabeta+ CD4-CD8- thymocytes contain a high proportion of cells undergoing apoptosis. The apoptotic subpopulation is further identified by its expression of B220 and IL2Rbeta and the absence of surface CD2. The CD4-CD8- B220+ phenotype is also enriched in T cells that recognize endogenous retroviral superantigens, and can be induced in TCR transgenic mice using peptide/MHC complexes that bear high affinity, but not low affinity, for TCR. A model is presented whereby the TCR-alphabeta+ CD2- CD4-CD8- B220+ phenotype arises from high intensity TCR signals. This model is broadly applicable to developing thymocytes as well as mature peripheral T cells and may represent the phenotype of self-reactive T cells that are increased in certain autoimmune conditions. (+info)
(7/607) Diminished IL-2 responses and alteration of CD2 expression on CD8+ T cells are associated with a lack of cytotoxic T cell responses during Theileria annulata infection.
Theileria annulata is a tick-borne protozoan parasite which causes the disease bovine tropical theileriosis. In immunized or drug-treated animals, the pathogenic macroschizont stage of the parasite is destroyed by MHC class I-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Here we show that although CD8+ T cells increase greatly in number and display activation markers during an acute infection, they exhibit no killing of infected cells. During the ineffectual response, efferent lymph cells' ability to proliferate to IL-2 drops, coinciding with loss of MoAb binding to CD2 by CD8+ cells. When animals were treated with the anti-parasite drug 'Butalex', IL-2 responses, anti-CD2 antibody binding by CD8+ cells and strong CTL activity were restored within 24 h. The initial activation of CD4+ T cells by parasite-infected cells altering the IL-2 production in the draining lymph node is the likely cause of the failure of CTL responses. (+info)
(8/607) CD28 costimulation augments IL-2 secretion of activated lamina propria T cells by increasing mRNA stability without enhancing IL-2 gene transactivation.
The pathways leading to activation in lamina propria (LP) T cells are different from peripheral T cells. LP T cells exhibit enhanced IL-2 secretion when activated through the CD2 pathway. Coligation of CD28 leads to synergistic enhancement of IL-2 secretion. Previous studies have characterized the CD28 augmentation of TCR-mediated signaling in peripheral blood T cells through transcriptional activation of an IL-2 promoter CD28 response element (CD28RE), along with enhanced mRNA stability. This study characterized molecular events involved in CD28 costimulation of IL-2 production in LP mononuclear cells (LPMC). LPMC exhibited increased IL-2 production in response to CD28 costimulation, compared with cells activated through CD2 alone. IL-2 secretion was paralleled by increased expression of IL-2 mRNA, resulting from enhanced IL-2 mRNA stability. In contrast to transcriptional activation in PBMC, EMSA revealed that CD28 coligation of CD2-activated LPMC does not result in increased binding of trans-factors to the CD28RE, nor did Western blots detect changes in I-kappaBalpha or I-kappaBbeta levels following CD28 coligation. Furthermore, CD28 coligation fails to enhance IL-2 promoter-reporter or RE/AP construct expression in CD2-activated LPMC. The results reported herein indicate that the molecular mechanisms involved in CD28 cosignaling and regulation of IL-2 secretion in LP T cells are unique to that compartment and differ from those seen in peripheral blood T cells. These observations suggest a biological significance for different mechanisms of IL-2 activation in initiation and maintenance of the cytokine repertoire found in the mucosa. (+info)