(1/282) Identification of CD137 as a potent monocyte survival factor.
CD137 (ILA/4-1BB), a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family, promotes adherence and prolongs survival of human peripheral monocytes. It induces a strong expression of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), an essential monocyte survival factor. Monocyte survival induced by CD137 is primarily mediated by M-CSF and to a lesser extent by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and IL-3. Survival and induction of M-CSF are mediated via reverse signaling through a CD137 ligand expressed constitutively by peripheral monocytes. (+info)
(2/282) CD137-induced apoptosis is independent of CD95.
CD95 (APO-1/Fas) and CD137 (ILA/4-1BB) are members of the tumour necrosis factor receptor family, and both are involved in induction of apoptosis in lymphocytes. Contrary to the case of CD95, apoptosis by CD137 is caused by cross-linking of the respective ligand rather than the receptor. Nothing is known so far about the mechanism of CD137-induced cell death. Here, we show that immobilized CD137 protein induces expression of CD95 in resting primary T and B lymphocytes. However, induction of apoptosis by CD137 is independent of CD95, because: (1) antagonistic anti-CD95 antibody fragments do not block CD137-induced apoptosis; and (2) CD137, but not anti-CD95, can induce apoptosis in resting lymphocytes. (+info)
(3/282) Role of the stress kinase pathway in signaling via the T cell costimulatory receptor 4-1BB.
4-1BB is a member of the TNFR superfamily expressed on activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. 4-1BB can costimulate IL-2 production by resting primary T cells independently of CD28 ligation. In this study, we report signaling events following 4-1BB receptor aggregation using an Ak-restricted costimulation-dependent T cell hybridoma, C8.A3. Aggregation of 4-1BB on the surface of C8.A3 cells induces TNFR-associated factor 2 recruitment, which in turn recruits and activates apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1, leading to downstream activation of c-Jun N-terminal/stress-activated protein kinases (JNK/SAPK). 4-1BB ligation also enhances anti-CD3-induced JNK/SAPK activation in primary T cells. Overexpression of a catalytically inactive form of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1 in C8.A3 T cells interferes with activation of the SAPK cascade and with IL-2 secretion, consistent with a critical role for JNK/SAPK activation in 4-1BB-dependent IL-2 production. Given the ability of both CD28 and 4-1BB to induce JNK/SAPK activation, we asked whether hyperosmotic shock, another inducer of this cascade, could function to provide a costimulatory signal to T cells. Osmotic shock of resting primary T cells in conjunction with anti-CD3 treatment was found to costimulate IL-2 production by the T cells, consistent with a pivotal role for JNK/SAPK in T cell costimulation. (+info)
(4/282) The structural basis for the recognition of diverse receptor sequences by TRAF2.
Many members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily initiate intracellular signaling by recruiting TNFR-associated factors (TRAFs) through their cytoplasmic tails. TRAFs apparently recognize highly diverse receptor sequences. Crystal structures of the TRAF domain of human TRAF2 in complex with peptides from the TNFR family members CD40, CD30, Ox40, 4-1BB, and the EBV oncoprotein LMP1 revealed a conserved binding mode. A major TRAF2-binding consensus sequence, (P/S/A/T)x(Q/E)E, and a minor consensus motif, PxQxxD, can be defined from the structural analysis, which encompass all known TRAF2-binding sequences. The structural information provides a template for the further dissection of receptor binding specificity of TRAF2 and for the understanding of the complexity of TRAF-mediated signal transduction. (+info)
(5/282) CD137 induces proliferation and endomitosis in monocytes.
Peripheral monocytes are short-lived and are replenished from hematopoietic stem cells whose proliferation is believed to be confined to the bone marrow. Human peripheral monocytes are assumed not to be able to proliferate. In this study we show that CD137 (ILA/4-1BB), a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family, induces a widespread and profound proliferation of human peripheral monocytes. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor are essential, but not sufficient for proliferation. Additional soluble autocrine factors induced by CD137 are required. Induction of proliferation is mediated via reverse signaling through a CD137 ligand, expressed constitutively by peripheral monocytes. The ability of CD137 to induce proliferation in human peripheral monocytes is not shared by any other known molecule. (+info)
(6/282) Anti-4-1BB monoclonal antibodies abrogate T cell-dependent humoral immune responses in vivo through the induction of helper T cell anergy.
The 4-1BB receptor (CDw137), a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, has been shown to costimulate the activation of T cells. Here we show that anti-mouse 4-1BB monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) inhibit thymus-dependent antibody production by B cells. Injection of anti-4-1BB mAbs into mice being immunized with cellular or soluble protein antigens induced long-term anergy of antigen-specific T cells. The immune response to the type II T cell-independent antigen trinintrophenol-conjugated Ficoll, however, was not suppressed. Inhibition of humoral immunity occurred only when anti-4-1BB mAb was given within 1 wk after immunization. Anti-4-1BB inhibition was observed in mice lacking functional CD8(+) T cells, indicating that CD8(+) T cells were not required for the induction of anergy. Analysis of the requirements for the anti-4-1BB-mediated inhibition of humoral immunity revealed that suppression could not be adoptively transferred with T cells from anti-4-1BB-treated mice. Transfer of BALB/c splenic T cells from sheep red blood cell (SRBC)-immunized and anti-4-1BB-treated mice together with normal BALB/c B cells into C.B-17 severe combined immunodeficient mice failed to generate an anti-SRBC response. However, B cells from the SRBC-immunized, anti-4-1BB-treated BALB/c mice, together with normal naive T cells, exhibited a normal humoral immune response against SRBC after transfer, demonstrating that SRBC-specific B cells were left unaffected by anti-4-1BB mAbs. (+info)
(7/282) CD137 (ILA/4-1BB), expressed by primary human monocytes, induces monocyte activation and apoptosis of B lymphocytes.
Human CD137 is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family and the homologue of murine 4-1BB. Recent studies have demonstrated that CD137 promotes accessory T cell activation, and regulates proliferation and survival of T lymphocytes. This study reports on the expression and function of CD137 in peripheral blood monocytes. While monocytes showed constitutive expression in 10 out of 18 healthy donors, CD137 was not expressed on resting T or B lymphocytes. Immobilized antibodies to CD137 markedly induced the production of IL-8 and TNF-alpha protein and mRNA, and led to inhibition of IL-10 expression by primary monocytes. Furthermore, cross-linking of CD137 on monocytes resulted in an increase of B lymphocyte apoptosis mediated by direct cell-cell contact of both cell populations. In conclusion, this study identified CD137 as a new receptor involved in monocyte activation by inducing a characteristic cytokine release profile. In addition, CD137 may play a role in monocyte-dependent control of B lymphocyte survival. (+info)
(8/282) 4-1BB costimulation is required for protective anti-viral immunity after peptide vaccination.
Peptide vaccination induces T cell activation and cytotoxic T cell development. In an effort to understand what factors can improve immune responses to peptide vaccination, the role of 4-1BB (CD137) costimulation was examined, since 4-1BB has been shown to promote T cell responses in other systems. 4-1BBL-deficient (-/-) and wild-type (+/+) mice were immunized with a lipidated lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) peptide NP396-404. Analysis of peptide-specific responses early after immunization by CTL assay, intracellular IFN-gamma staining, and IFN-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT) indicated that CD8 T cell responses were reduced 3- to 10-fold in the absence of 4-1BB costimulation. Moreover, when agonistic anti-4-1BB Ab was given, CD8 T cell responses in 4-1BBL-/- mice were augmented to levels similar to those in 4-1BBL+/+ mice. Two months after immunization, 4-1BBL+/+ mice still had epitope-specific cells and were protected against viral challenge, demonstrating that peptide vaccination can induce long-term protection. In fact, 70% of CD8 T cells were specific for the immunizing peptide after viral challenge, demonstrating that strong, epitope-specific CD8 T cell responses are generated after peptide vaccination. In contrast, peptide-immunized 4-1BBL-/- mice had fewer epitope-specific cells and were impaired in their ability to resolve the infection. These results show that immunization with a single LCMV peptide provides long term protection against LCMV infection and point to costimulatory molecules such as 4-1BB as important components for generating protective immunity after vaccination. (+info)