(1/1308) Effect of a short-term in vitro exposure to the marine toxin domoic acid on viability, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and superoxide anion release by rat neonatal microglia.
BACKGROUND: The excitatory amino acid domoic acid, a glutamate and kainic acid analog, is the causative agent of amnesic shellfish poisoning in humans. No studies to our knowledge have investigated the potential contribution to short-term neurotoxicity of the brain microglia, a cell type that constitutes circa 10% of the total glial population in the brain. We tested the hypothesis that a short-term in vitro exposure to domoic acid, might lead to the activation of rat neonatal microglia and the concomitant release of the putative neurotoxic mediators tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), matrix metalloproteinases-2 and-9 (MMP-2 and -9) and superoxide anion (O2-). RESULTS: In vitro, domoic acid [10 microM-1 mM] was significantly neurotoxic to primary cerebellar granule neurons. Although neonatal rat microglia expressed ionotropic glutamate GluR4 receptors, exposure during 6 hours to domoic acid [10 microM-1 mM] had no significant effect on viability. By four hours, LPS (10 ng/mL) stimulated an increase in TNF-alpha mRNA and a 2,233 % increase in TNF-alpha protein In contrast, domoic acid (1 mM) induced a slight rise in TNF-alpha expression and a 53 % increase (p < 0.01) of immunoreactive TNF-alpha protein. Furthermore, though less potent than LPS, a 4-hour treatment with domoic acid (1 mM) yielded a 757% (p < 0.01) increase in MMP-9 release, but had no effect on MMP-2. Finally, while PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) stimulated O2- generation was elevated in 6 hour LPS-primed microglia, a similar pretreatment with domoic acid (1 mM) did not prime O2- release. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge this is the first experimental evidence that domoic acid, at in vitro concentrations that are toxic to neuronal cells, can trigger a release of statistically significant amounts of TNF-alpha and MMP-9 by brain microglia. These observations are of considerable pathophysiological significance because domoic acid activates rat microglia several days after in vivo administration. (+info)
(2/1308) Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of inhaled nitric oxide in dogs with septic acute respiratory distress syndrome.
AIM: To evaluate pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) in dogs with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: ARDS, induced after iv injection of endotoxin, was evidenced by reduction of paO2/FiO2 from (62.5 +/- 2.8) to (26 +/- 4) kPa and dynamic lung compliance (Cdyn) from (14.8 +/- 0.7) to (8.6 +/- 0.6) mL.kPa-1 . kg-1, increase of dead space (VD/VT) from (0.14 +/- 0.06) to (0.58 +/- 0.05), intrapulmonary shunting (Qs/Qt) from 4.7 % +/- 1.7 % to 39 % +/- 7 %, and pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) from (16 +/- 4) to (51 +/- 8) kPa.s.L-1 . m-2 (all P < 0.05), along with severe intrapulmonary neutrophil recruitment and peripheral neutropenia. The animals were then treated as either a control or an NO group (n = 6 each, iNO 0.4 - 3.2 micromol/L) for another 10 h. RESULTS: More survival was found in NO group (4/6 vs 0/6, P < 0.05). iNO at 0.8, 1.6, and 3.2 micromol/L (20, 40, and 80 ppm) resulted in > 40 % increase of paO2/FiO2 and Cdyn, a reduction of VD/VT to 0.32, Qs/Qt to < 25 %, and PVRI by > 50 % (30.8 kPa . s . L-1 . m-2) compared to the control. Optimal iNO dose was around 0.8 micromol/L as higher methemoglobin (MetHb, > 3 %) was found at higher NO. iNO had no adverse effects on surfactant phospholipids and lung fluid balance, but attenuated expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha,beta2 integrin CD11b, and interleukin-8 mRNA in the lungs by 22 %, 44 %, and 25 %, respectively (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Pharmacodynamics of iNO in this model was related to improvement in gas exchange, Cdyn, PVRI, and suppression of proinflammatory cytokine expression in the lungs, and its adverse effect was mainly confined to MetHb at higher NO dose. (+info)
(3/1308) Regulation of adhesion of AML14.3D10 cells by surface clustering of beta2-integrin caused by ERK-independent activation of cPLA2.
We examined the role of cell surface clustering of beta2-integrin caused by protein kinase C (PKC)-activated-cPLA2 in adhesion of eosinophilic AML14.3D10 (AML) cells. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) caused time- and concentration-dependent adhesion of AML cells to plated bovine serum albumin (BSA), which was blocked by anti-CD11b or anti-CD18 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) directed against beta2-integrin. Inhibition of PKC with Ro-31-8220 or rottlerin blocked PMA-induced cell adhesion in a concentration-dependent fashion. Inhibition of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) with trifluoromethyl ketone or methyl arachidonyl fluorophosphonate also blocked PMA-induced cell adhesion. PMA caused time-dependent p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) (ERK) phosphorylation in these cells. U0126, a MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor, at the concentrations that blocked PMA-induced ERK phosphorylation, had no effect on PMA stimulated AML cell adhesion. Neither p38 MAPK nor c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was phosphorylated by PMA. PMA also caused increased cPLA2 activity, which was inhibited by Ro-31-8220, but not U0126. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy showed that PMA caused clustering of CD11b on the cell surface, which was blocked by either PKC or cPLA2 inhibition. PMA stimulation also caused up-regulation of CD11b on the AML cell surface. However, this up-regulation was not affected by cPLA2- or PKC-inhibition. Using the mAb, CBRM1/5, we also demonstrated that PMA does not induce the active conformation of CD11b/CD18. Our data indicate that PMA causes AML cell adhesion through beta2-integrin by PKC activation of cPLA2. This pathway is independent of MEK/ERK and does not require change of CD11b/CD18 to its active conformation. We find that avidity caused by integrin surface clustering - rather than conformational change or up-regulation of CD11b/CD18 - causes PMA stimulated adhesion of AML cells. (+info)
(4/1308) Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand induces monocytic maturation of leukemic and normal myeloid precursors through a caspase-dependent pathway.
Treatment of the human HL-60 cell line with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) resulted in rapid (6-24 hours) cytotoxicity associated with progressive maturation of the surviving cells along the monocytic lineage. The occurrence of monocytic maturation was demonstrated by a significant increase of both CD14 and CD11b surface expression, the acquisition of morphologic features typical of mature monocytes, and phagocytic capacity in TRAIL-treated cultures. By using selective pharmacologic inhibitors, it was possible to demonstrate that activation of the caspase cascade played a crucial role in mediating TRAIL cytotoxicity and monocytic maturation of HL-60 cells. Moreover, experiments performed using agonistic polyclonal antibodies, which mimic the interactions between TRAIL and each TRAIL receptor, indicated that TRAIL-R1 was responsible for mediating the TRAIL-induced maturation. Importantly, the maturational effects of TRAIL were observed also in primary normal CD34(+) cells, seeded in serum-free liquid cultures for 4 to 8 days in the presence of SCF + GM-CSF. After treatment with TRAIL for 3 additional days, a significant increase in CD14 and CD11b expression, coupled with an increased number of mature monocytes and macrophages, was noticed in the absence of cytotoxicity. These data disclose a novel role for TRAIL as a positive regulator of myeloid differentiation. Moreover, the dichotomous effect of TRAIL on malignant cells (early induction of apoptosis and monocytic maturation of the surviving cells) might have important therapeutic implications for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia. (+info)
(5/1308) Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) as accessory molecule for Fc alpha R (CD89) binding of IgA.
IgA, the principal ligand for FcalphaRI, exists in serum as monomeric IgA and at mucosal sites as secretory IgA (SIgA). SIgA consists of dimeric IgA linked by joining chain and secretory components. Human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and mouse PMN transgenic for human FcalphaRI exhibited spreading and elicited respiratory burst activity upon interaction with either serum or SIgA. However, PMN devoid of the beta(2) integrin Mac-1 (Mac-1(-/-)) were unable to bind SIgA, despite expression of FcalphaRI. Consistent with this, serum IgA stimulated Mac-1(-/-) PMN oxygen radical production, in contrast to SIgA. Binding studies showed the secretory component, by itself, to interact with Mac-1-expressing PMN, but not with Mac-1(-/-) PMN. These data demonstrate an essential role for Mac-1 in establishing SIgA-FcalphaRI interactions. (+info)
(6/1308) Cellular activation, phagocytosis, and bactericidal activity against group B streptococcus involve parallel myeloid differentiation factor 88-dependent and independent signaling pathways.
Group B streptococci (GBS) vigorously activate inflammatory responses. We reported previously that a secreted GBS "factor" activates phagocytes via Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR6, but that GBS cell walls activate cells independently of these receptors. We hypothesized that the phagocytic immune functions in response to GBS, such as inflammation, uptake, and elimination of bacteria, occur through a coordinated engagement of TLRs, along with the coreceptors CD14 and CD11b/CD18. Using various knockout mice we show that GBS-induced activation of p38 and NF-kappaB depends upon the expression of the cytoplasmic TLR adapter protein, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), but not TLR2 and/or TLR4. Macrophages with deletions of CD14 and complement receptor 3 had a normal cytokine response to whole bacteria, although the response to GBS factor was abrogated in CD14-null cells. The intracellular formation of bactericidal oxygen species proved to be MyD88 dependent; however, uptake of GBS, a prerequisite for intracellular killing by O(2) radicals, occurred independently of MyD88. While deletion of complement receptor 3 greatly diminished the uptake of opsonized GBS, it did not affect the formation of bactericidal O(2) radicals or inflammatory signaling intermediates. We conclude that the inflammatory, bactericidal, and phagocytic responses to GBS occur via parallel but independent processes. (+info)
(7/1308) Immunosuppression during acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection: involvement of Ly6G (Gr1(+))CD11b(+ )immature myeloid suppressor cells.
Trypanosoma cruzi infection is associated with a severe unresponsiveness of spleen cells (SC) to antigens and mitogens. A high production of NO by concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated SC from infected but not from control mice was observed. Neutralization of endogenous IFN-gamma production or treatment with NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, L-N-monomethyl-arginine, blocked Con A-induced NO production and greatly restored proliferation by SC from infected mice. This was confirmed by using IFN-gammaR(-/-) and inducible NOS (iNOS)(-/- )knockout mice, since unresponsiveness to mitogens of SC from those infected mice was much less pronounced than in control littermates. Interestingly, SC unresponsiveness was associated with a huge increase in CD11b(+) cells that express Ly-6G (Gr1)(+) and other immature myeloid markers These cells were absent in infected IFN-gammaR(-/-) spleens. Purified immature Gr1(+)CD11b(+) cells produced NO and expressed iNOS upon IFN-gamma treatment, and were able to inhibit T cell proliferation. In addition, depletion of myeloid CD11b(+ )cells abrogated NO production and restored mitogen-induced proliferation, but not IL-2 synthesis, in SC from infected mice. IL-2 production and CD25 cell surface expression by mitogen-activated T cells were greatly depressed in SC from IFN-gammaR(-/-) and iNOS(-/- )mice, confirming that Gr1(+)CD11b(+) cells were not involved in their down-regulation. In contrast, IL-5, tumor necrosis factor and IFN-gamma production, and CD69 expression by T cells were not depressed in infected SC. The results indicate the existence of an immunosuppressive mechanism during T. cruzi infection, mediated through IFN-gamma-dependent NO secretion by immature Ly-6G (Gr1)(+)CD11b(+ )myeloid cells. (+info)
(8/1308) A critical role of platelet adhesion in the initiation of atherosclerotic lesion formation.
The contribution of platelets to the process of atherosclerosis remains unclear. Here, we show in vivo that platelets adhere to the vascular endothelium of the carotid artery in ApoE(-)(/)(-) mice before the development of manifest atherosclerotic lesions. Platelet-endothelial cell interaction involved both platelet glycoprotein (GP)Ibalpha and GPIIb-IIIa. Platelet adhesion to the endothelium coincides with inflammatory gene expression and preceded atherosclerotic plaque invasion by leukocytes. Prolonged blockade of platelet adhesion in ApoE(-)(/)(-) mice profoundly reduced leukocyte accumulation in the arterial intima and attenuated atherosclerotic lesion formation in the carotid artery bifurcation, the aortic sinus, and the coronary arteries. These findings establish the platelet as a major player in initiation of the atherogenetic process. (+info)